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Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 123, 2021 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448276

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are limited data on acute kidney injury (AKI) progression and long-term outcomes in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). We aimed to describe the prevalence and risk factors for development of AKI, its subsequent clinical course and AKI progression, as well as renal recovery or dialysis dependence and survival in this group of patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study in an expanded tertiary care intensive care unit in London, United Kingdom. Critically ill patients admitted to ICU between 1st March 2020 and 31st July 2020 with confirmed SARS-COV2 infection were included. Analysis of baseline characteristics, organ support, COVID-19 associated therapies and their association with mortality and outcomes at 90 days was performed. RESULTS: Of 313 patients (70% male, mean age 54.5 ± 13.9 years), 240 (76.7%) developed AKI within 14 days after ICU admission: 63 (20.1%) stage 1, 41 (13.1%) stage 2, 136 (43.5%) stage 3. 113 (36.1%) patients presented with AKI on ICU admission. Progression to AKI stage 2/3 occurred in 36%. Risk factors for AKI progression were mechanical ventilation [HR (hazard ratio) 4.11; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.61-10.49] and positive fluid balance [HR 1.21 (95% CI 1.11-1.31)], while steroid therapy was associated with a reduction in AKI progression (HR 0.73 [95% CI 0.55-0.97]). Kidney replacement therapy (KRT) was initiated in 31.9%. AKI patients had a higher 90-day mortality than non-AKI patients (34% vs. 14%; p < 0.001). Dialysis dependence was 5% at hospital discharge and 4% at 90 days. Renal recovery was identified in 81.6% of survivors at discharge and in 90.9% at 90 days. At 3 months, 16% of all AKI survivors had chronic kidney disease (CKD); among those without renal recovery, the CKD incidence was 44%. CONCLUSIONS: During the first COVID-19 wave, AKI was highly prevalent among severely ill COVID-19 patients with a third progressing to severe AKI requiring KRT. The risk of developing CKD was high. This study identifies factors modifying AKI progression, including a potentially protective effect of steroid therapy. Recognition of risk factors and monitoring of renal function post-discharge might help guide future practice and follow-up management strategies. Trial registration NCT04445259.

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