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1.
JAMA ; 326(6): 499-518, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413703

ABSTRACT

Importance: Clinical trials assessing the efficacy of IL-6 antagonists in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 have variously reported benefit, no effect, and harm. Objective: To estimate the association between administration of IL-6 antagonists compared with usual care or placebo and 28-day all-cause mortality and other outcomes. Data Sources: Trials were identified through systematic searches of electronic databases between October 2020 and January 2021. Searches were not restricted by trial status or language. Additional trials were identified through contact with experts. Study Selection: Eligible trials randomly assigned patients hospitalized for COVID-19 to a group in whom IL-6 antagonists were administered and to a group in whom neither IL-6 antagonists nor any other immunomodulators except corticosteroids were administered. Among 72 potentially eligible trials, 27 (37.5%) met study selection criteria. Data Extraction and Synthesis: In this prospective meta-analysis, risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool. Inconsistency among trial results was assessed using the I2 statistic. The primary analysis was an inverse variance-weighted fixed-effects meta-analysis of odds ratios (ORs) for 28-day all-cause mortality. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality at 28 days after randomization. There were 9 secondary outcomes including progression to invasive mechanical ventilation or death and risk of secondary infection by 28 days. Results: A total of 10 930 patients (median age, 61 years [range of medians, 52-68 years]; 3560 [33%] were women) participating in 27 trials were included. By 28 days, there were 1407 deaths among 6449 patients randomized to IL-6 antagonists and 1158 deaths among 4481 patients randomized to usual care or placebo (summary OR, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.79-0.95]; P = .003 based on a fixed-effects meta-analysis). This corresponds to an absolute mortality risk of 22% for IL-6 antagonists compared with an assumed mortality risk of 25% for usual care or placebo. The corresponding summary ORs were 0.83 (95% CI, 0.74-0.92; P < .001) for tocilizumab and 1.08 (95% CI, 0.86-1.36; P = .52) for sarilumab. The summary ORs for the association with mortality compared with usual care or placebo in those receiving corticosteroids were 0.77 (95% CI, 0.68-0.87) for tocilizumab and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.61-1.38) for sarilumab. The ORs for the association with progression to invasive mechanical ventilation or death, compared with usual care or placebo, were 0.77 (95% CI, 0.70-0.85) for all IL-6 antagonists, 0.74 (95% CI, 0.66-0.82) for tocilizumab, and 1.00 (95% CI, 0.74-1.34) for sarilumab. Secondary infections by 28 days occurred in 21.9% of patients treated with IL-6 antagonists vs 17.6% of patients treated with usual care or placebo (OR accounting for trial sample sizes, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.85-1.16). Conclusions and Relevance: In this prospective meta-analysis of clinical trials of patients hospitalized for COVID-19, administration of IL-6 antagonists, compared with usual care or placebo, was associated with lower 28-day all-cause mortality. Trial Registration: PROSPERO Identifier: CRD42021230155.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cause of Death , Coinfection , Disease Progression , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial
2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(9)2021 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374553

ABSTRACT

Development of a vaccine against HIV remains a major target goal in the field. The recent success of mRNA vaccines against the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is pointing out a new era of vaccine designs against pathogens. Here, we have generated two types of mRNA vaccine candidates against HIV-1; one based on unmodified vectors and the other on 1-methyl-3'-pseudouridylyl modified vectors expressing a T cell multiepitopic construct including protective conserved epitopes from HIV-1 Gag, Pol and Nef proteins (referred to as RNA-TMEP and RNA-TMEPmod, respectively) and defined their biological and immunological properties in cultured cells and in mice. In cultured cells, both mRNA vectors expressed the corresponding protein, with higher levels observed in the unmodified mRNA, leading to activated macrophages with differential induction of innate immune molecules. In mice, intranodal administration of the mRNAs induced the activation of specific T cell (CD4 and CD8) responses, and the levels were markedly enhanced after a booster immunization with the poxvirus vector MVA-TMEP expressing the same antigen. This immune activation was maintained even three months later. These findings revealed a potent combined immunization regimen able to enhance the HIV-1-specific immune responses induced by an mRNA vaccine that might be applicable to human vaccination programs with mRNA and MVA vectors.

3.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e040775, 2021 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361993

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Identifying undetected clinical signs is imperative in the prevention of SARS-CoV-2. OBJECTIVE: To establish the prevalence of clinical gustatory and olfactory dysfunctions in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Clinical outcomes and recovery rates associated with gustatory and olfactory dysfunctions were also assessed. DESIGN: A prospective study was performed in 80 patients admitted to Hospital Clínic of Barcelona (Spain) for COVID-19 pneumonia. Patients were re-evaluated in the ward daily until discharge. Gustatory and olfactory dysfunction symptoms were retrospectively collected from emergency room (ER) charts after first assessments. Follow-up was performed in telemedicine consultation. SETTING: The single-centre study was performed in a hospitalisation ward at a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Consecutive patients meeting hospitalisation criteria for COVID-19 pneumonia were eligible. Study exclusion criteria were patients who could not speak, had previous gustatory and olfactory dysfunctions or whose PCR tests for SARS-CoV-19 were negative. INTERVENTIONS: Systematic assessment of gustatory and olfactory symptoms with standardised questions. OUTCOMES: Prevalence of gustatory and olfactory dysfunctions in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. RESULTS: Of the 80 study subjects, 62.5% were male and the median age was 57 years. Half of the cohort (n=40) presented with comorbidities. The prevalence of chemosensitive disorder was 73.8% (n=59) (95% CI: 63.8 to 83.8), although self-reported symptoms were recorded in only 26.3% (n=21) of patients in the ER. Gustatory and olfactory dysfunctions were observed in 58.8% (n=47) and 55% (n=44) of cases, respectively. They were also the first symptoms in 25% (n=20) of patients. Anosmia was associated with ageusia, OR: 7, 95% CI: 2.3 to 21.8, p=0.001). No differences in clinical outcomes were observed when patients with and without gustatory and olfactory dysfunctions were compared. Recovery rates were 20% (n=10) and 85% (n=42) at days 7 and 45, respectively. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of gustatory and olfactory dysfunctions in COVID-19 pneumonia was much higher than in self-report. Presence of gustatory and olfactory dysfunctions was not a predictor of clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders
4.
AIDS ; 34(12): 1775-1780, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-772521

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is unclear how characteristics, risk factors, and incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in people living with HIV (PLWH) differ from the general population. METHODS: Prospective observational single-center cohort study of adult PLWH reporting symptoms of COVID-19. We assessed clinical characteristics, risk factors for COVID-19 diagnosis and severity, and standardized incidence rate ratio for COVID-19 cases in PLWH cohort and in Barcelona. RESULTS: From 1 March 2020 to 10 May 2020, 53 out of 5683 (0.9% confidence interval 0.7-1.2%) PLWH were diagnosed with COVID-19. Median age was 44 years, CD4 T cells were 618/µl and CD4/CD8 was 0.90. All but two individuals were virologically suppressed. Cough (87%) and fever (82%) were the most common symptoms. Twenty-six (49%) were admitted, six (14%) had severe disease, four (8%) required ICU admission, and two (4%) died. Several laboratory markers (lower O2 saturation and platelets, and higher leukocytes, creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase, C reactive protein, procalcitonin, and ferritin) were associated with COVID-19 severity. No HIV or antiretroviral-related factors were associated with COVID-19 diagnosis or severity. Standardized incidence rate ratios of confirmed or confirmed/probable COVID-19 in PLWH were 38% (95% confidence interval 27-52%, P < 0.0001) and 33% (95% confidence interval 21-50%, P < 0.0001), respectively relative to the general population. CONCLUSION: PLWH with COVID-19 did not differ from the rest of the HIV cohort. Clinical presentation, severity rate, and mortality were not dependent on any HIV-related or antiretroviral-related factor. COVID-19 standardized incidence rate was lower in PLWH than in the general population. These findings should be confirmed in larger multicenter cohort studies.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , HIV Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adult , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19 , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
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