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1.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886452

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: mRNA-1273 vaccine demonstrated 93.2% efficacy against Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the Coronavirus efficacy (COVE) trial. The humoral immunogenicity results are now reported. METHODS: Participants received two mRNA-1273 (100 µg) or placebo injections, 28 days apart. Immune responses were evaluated in a pre-specified, randomly-selected per-protocol immunogenicity population (n = 272 placebo; n = 1,185 mRNA-1273). Serum binding (bAb) and neutralizing (nAb) antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-spike protein were assessed at days 1, 29, and 57 by baseline SARS-CoV-2-negative (n = 1,197) and -positive (n = 260) status, age and sex. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2-negative vaccinees had bAb geometric mean (GM) AU/ml levels of 35,753 at day 29 that increased to 316,448 at day 57 and nAb ID50 titers of 55 at day 29 that rose to 1081 at day 57. In SARS-CoV-2-positive vacinees, the first mRNA-1273 injection elicited bAb and nAb levels that were 11-fold (410,049) and 27-fold (1,479) higher than in SARS-CoV-2-negative vaccinees, respectively, and were comparable to levels after two injections in uninfected participants. Findings were generally consistent by age and sex. CONCLUSION: mRNA-1273 elicited robust serologic immune responses across age, sex, and SARS-CoV-2-status, consistent with its high COVID-19 efficacy. Higher immune responses in those previously-infected support a booster-type effect.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04470427.

2.
Vaccine ; 2022 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882613

ABSTRACT

The Brighton Collaboration Benefit-Risk Assessment of VAccines by TechnolOgy (BRAVATO) Working Group has prepared standardized templates to describe the key considerations for the benefit-risk assessment of several vaccine platform technologies, including nucleic acid (RNA and DNA) vaccines. This paper uses the BRAVATO template to review the features of a vaccine employing a proprietary mRNA vaccine platform to develop Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine (mRNA-1273); a highly effective vaccine to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In response to the pandemic the first in human studies began in March 2020 and the pivotal, placebo-controlled phase 3 efficacy study in over 30,000 adults began in July 2020. Based on demonstration of efficacy and safety at the time of interim analysis in November 2020 and at the time of trial unblinding in March 2021, the mRNA-1273 received Emergency Use Authorization in December 2020 and full FDA approval in January 2022.

3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334439

ABSTRACT

Waning immunity after two SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccinations and the emergence of variants precipitated the need for a third dose of vaccine. We evaluated early safety and immunogenicity after a third mRNA vaccination in adults who received the mRNA-1273 primary series in the Phase 1 trial approximately 9 to 10 months earlier. The booster vaccine formulations included 100 mcg of mRNA-1273, 50 mcg of mRNA-1273.351 that encodes Beta variant spike protein, and bivalent vaccine of 25 mcg each of mRNA-1273 and mRNA-1273.351. A third dose of mRNA vaccine appeared safe with acceptable reactogenicity. Vaccination induced rapid increases in binding and neutralizing antibody titers to D614G, Beta, and Delta variants that were similar or greater than peak responses after the second dose. Spike-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells increased to similar levels as after the second dose. A third mRNA vaccination was well tolerated and generated robust humoral and T cell responses. ClinicalTrials.gov numbers NCT04283461 (mRNA-1273 Phase 1) and NCT04785144 (mRNA-1273.351 Phase 1)

4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334405

ABSTRACT

Waning immunity after two SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccinations and the emergence of variants precipitated the need for booster doses. We evaluated safety and serological and cellular immunogenicity through 6 months after a third mRNA vaccination in adults who received the mRNA-1273 primary series in the Phase 1 trial approximately 9 to 10 months earlier. The booster vaccine formulations included 100 mcg of mRNA-1273, 50 mcg of mRNA-1273.351 that encodes Beta variant spike protein, and bivalent vaccine of 25 mcg each of mRNA-1273 and mRNA-1273.351. A third dose of mRNA vaccine appeared safe with acceptable reactogenicity. Vaccination induced rapid increases in binding and neutralizing antibody titers to D614G, Beta, Delta and Omicron variants that persisted through 6 months post-boost, particularly after administration of Beta-containing vaccines. Spike-specific CD4 + and CD8 + T cells increased to levels similar to those following the second dose. Boost vaccination induced broad and durable humoral and T cell responses. ClinicalTrials.gov numbers NCT04283461 (mRNA-1273 Phase 1) and NCT04785144 (mRNA-1273.351 Phase 1)

5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329741

ABSTRACT

Importance: Due to the emergence of highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants, evaluation of boosters is needed. Objectives: Evaluate safety and immunogenicity of 100-μg of mRNA-1273 booster dose in adults. Design: Open-label, Phase 2/3 study. Setting: Multicenter study at 8 sites in the U.S. Participants: The mRNA-1273 100-μg booster was administered to adults who previously received a two dose primary series of 100-μg mRNA-1273 in the phase 3 Coronavirus Efficacy (COVE) trial, at least 6 months earlier. Intervention: Lipid nanoparticle containing 100-μg of mRNA encoding the spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 (Wuhan-HU-1). Main Outcomes and Measures: Solicited local and systemic adverse reactions, and unsolicited adverse events were collected after vaccination. Primary immunogenicity objectives were to demonstrate non-inferiority of the neutralizing antibody (nAb) response against SARS-CoV-2 based on the geometric mean titer (GMTs) and the seroresponse rates (SRRs) (booster dose vs. primary series in a historical control group). nAbs against SARS-CoV-2 variants were also evaluated. Results: The 100-μg booster dose had a greater incidence of local and systemic adverse reactions compared to the second dose of mRNA-1273 as well as the 50-μg mRNA-1273 booster in separate studies. The geometric mean titers (GMTs;95% CI) of SARS-CoV-2 nAbs against the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 at 28 days after the 100-μg booster dose were 4039.5 (3592.7,4541.8) and 1132.0 (1046.7,1224.2) at 28 days after the second dose in the historical control group [GMT ratio=3.6 (3.1,4.2)]. SRRs (95% CI) were 100% (98.6,100) at 28 days after the booster and 98.1% (96.7,99.1) 28 days after the second dose in the historical control group [percentage difference=1.9% (0.4,3.3)]. The GMT ratio (GMR) and SRR difference for the booster as compared to the primary series met the pre-specified non-inferiority criteria. Delta-specific nAbs also increased (GMT fold-rise=233.3) after the 100-μg booster of mRNA-1273. Conclusions and Relevance: The 100-μg mRNA-1273 booster induced a robust neutralizing antibody response against SARS-CoV-2 and reactogenicity was higher with the 100-μg booster dose compared to authorized booster dose level in adults (50-μg). mRNA-1273 100-μg booster dose can be considered when eliciting an antibody response might be challenging such as in moderately or severely immunocompromised hosts. Trial Registration: NCT04927065

6.
Nat Med ; 28(5): 1042-1049, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730305

ABSTRACT

Rising breakthrough infections of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in previously immunized individuals have raised concerns for the need for a booster vaccine dose to combat waning antibody levels and new variants. Here we report the results of the open-label, non-randomized part B of a phase 2 trial in which we evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a booster injection of 50 µg of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine mRNA-1273 in 344 adult participants immunized 6-8 months earlier with a primary series of two doses of 50 µg or 100 µg of mRNA-1273 ( NCT04405076 ). Neutralizing antibody (nAb) titers against wild-type SARS-CoV-2 at 1 month after the booster were 1.7-fold (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5, 1.9) higher than those at 28 days after the second injection of the primary series, which met the pre-specified non-inferiority criterion (primary immunogenicity objective) and might indicate a memory B cell response. The nAb titers against the Delta variant (B.1.617.2) (exploratory objective) at 1 month after the booster were 2.1-fold (95% CI: 1.8, 2.4) higher than those at 28 days after the second injection of the primary series. The seroresponse rate (95% CI (four-fold rise from baseline)) was 100% (98.7, 100.0) at 28 days after the booster compared to 98.3% (96.0, 99.4) after the primary series. The higher antibody titers at 28 days after the booster dose compared to 28 days after the second dose in the phase 3 COVE study were also observed in two assays for anti-spike IgG antibody measured by ELISA and by Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) Multiplex. The frequency of solicited local and systemic adverse reactions after the booster dose was similar to that after the second dose in the primary two-dose series of mRNA-1273 (50 µg or 100 µg); no new signals were observed in the unsolicited adverse events; and no serious adverse events were reported in the 1-month follow-up period. These results show that a booster injection of mRNA-1273 more than 6 months after completing the primary two-dose series is safe and elicited nAb titers that were statistically significantly higher than the peak titers detected after the primary vaccination series, suggesting that a booster dose of mRNA-1273 might result in increased vaccine effectiveness against infection and disease caused by SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Immunity , Immunogenicity, Vaccine
7.
Nat Med ; 28(4): 823-830, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684093

ABSTRACT

The mRNA-1273 vaccine for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) demonstrated 93.2% efficacy in reduction of symptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in the blinded portion of the Phase 3 Coronavirus Efficacy (COVE) trial. While mRNA-1273 demonstrated high efficacy in prevention of COVID-19, including severe disease, its effect on the viral dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 infections is not understood. Here, in exploratory analyses, we assessed the impact of mRNA-1273 vaccination in the ongoing COVE trial (number NCT04470427) on SARS-CoV-2 copy number and shedding, burden of disease and infection, and viral variants. Viral variants were sequenced in all COVID-19 and adjudicated COVID-19 cases (n = 832), from July 2020 in the blinded part A of the study to May 2021 of the open-label part B of the study, in which participants in the placebo arm started to receive the mRNA-1273 vaccine after US Food and Drug Administration emergency use authorization of mRNA-1273 in December 2020. mRNA-1273 vaccination significantly reduced SARS-CoV-2 viral copy number (95% confidence interval) by 100-fold on the day of diagnosis compared with placebo (4.1 (3.4-4.8) versus 6.2 (6.0-6.4) log10 copies per ml). Median times to undetectable viral copies were 4 days for mRNA-1273 and 7 days for placebo. Vaccination also substantially reduced the burden of disease and infection scores. Vaccine efficacies (95% confidence interval) against SARS-CoV-2 variants circulating in the United States during the trial assessed in this post hoc analysis were 82.4% (40.4-94.8%) for variants Epsilon and Gamma and 81.2% (36.1-94.5%) for Epsilon. The detection of other, non-SARS-CoV-2, respiratory viruses during the trial was similar between groups. While additional study is needed, these data show that in SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals, vaccination reduced both the viral copy number and duration of detectable viral RNA, which may be markers for the risk of virus transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United States
9.
N Engl J Med ; 385(19): 1774-1785, 2021 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At interim analysis in a phase 3, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial, the mRNA-1273 vaccine showed 94.1% efficacy in preventing coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). After emergency use of the vaccine was authorized, the protocol was amended to include an open-label phase. Final analyses of efficacy and safety data from the blinded phase of the trial are reported. METHODS: We enrolled volunteers who were at high risk for Covid-19 or its complications; participants were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive two intramuscular injections of mRNA-1273 (100 µg) or placebo, 28 days apart, at 99 centers across the United States. The primary end point was prevention of Covid-19 illness with onset at least 14 days after the second injection in participants who had not previously been infected with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The data cutoff date was March 26, 2021. RESULTS: The trial enrolled 30,415 participants; 15,209 were assigned to receive the mRNA-1273 vaccine, and 15,206 to receive placebo. More than 96% of participants received both injections, 2.3% had evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection at baseline, and the median follow-up was 5.3 months in the blinded phase. Vaccine efficacy in preventing Covid-19 illness was 93.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91.0 to 94.8), with 55 confirmed cases in the mRNA-1273 group (9.6 per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 7.2 to 12.5) and 744 in the placebo group (136.6 per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 127.0 to 146.8). The efficacy in preventing severe disease was 98.2% (95% CI, 92.8 to 99.6), with 2 cases in the mRNA-1273 group and 106 in the placebo group, and the efficacy in preventing asymptomatic infection starting 14 days after the second injection was 63.0% (95% CI, 56.6 to 68.5), with 214 cases in the mRNA-1273 group and 498 in the placebo group. Vaccine efficacy was consistent across ethnic and racial groups, age groups, and participants with coexisting conditions. No safety concerns were identified. CONCLUSIONS: The mRNA-1273 vaccine continued to be efficacious in preventing Covid-19 illness and severe disease at more than 5 months, with an acceptable safety profile, and protection against asymptomatic infection was observed. (Funded by the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; COVE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04470427.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Incidence , Intention to Treat Analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Single-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
10.
Science ; 373(6561):1372-1377, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1426840

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mutations may diminish vaccine-induced protective immune responses, particularly as antibody titers wane over time. Here, we assess the effect of SARS-CoV-2 variants B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.351 (Beta), P.1 (Gamma), B.1.429 (Epsilon), B.1.526 (Iota), and B.1.617.2 (Delta) on binding, neutralizing, and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)Ð competing antibodies elicited by the messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine mRNA-1273 over 7 months. Cross-reactive neutralizing responses were rare after a single dose. At the peak of response to the second vaccine dose, all individuals had responses to all variants. Binding and functional antibodies against variants persisted in most subjects, albeit at low levels, for 6 months after the primary series of the mRNA-1273 vaccine. Across all assays, B.1.351 had the lowest antibody recognition. These data complement ongoing studies to inform the potential need for additional boost vaccinations. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Science is the property of American Association for the Advancement of Science and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

11.
Nat Med ; 27(11): 2025-2031, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412033

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) and variants of interest (VOIs) with decreased susceptibility to neutralization has generated interest in assessments of booster doses and variant-specific vaccines. Clinical trial participants who received a two-dose primary series of the COVID-19 vaccine mRNA-1273 approximately 6 months earlier entered an open-label phase 2a study ( NCT04405076 ) to evaluate the primary objectives of safety and immunogenicity of a single booster dose of mRNA-1273 or variant-modified mRNAs, including multivalent mRNA-1273.211. As the trial is currently ongoing, this exploratory interim analysis includes preliminary descriptive results only of four booster groups (n = 20 per group). Immediately before the booster dose, neutralizing antibodies against wild-type D614G virus had waned (P < 0.0001) relative to peak titers against wild-type D614G measured 1 month after the primary series, and neutralization titers against B.1.351 (Beta), P.1 (Gamma) and B.1.617.2 (Delta) VOCs were either low or undetectable. Both the mRNA-1273 booster and variant-modified boosters were safe and well-tolerated. All boosters, including mRNA-1273, numerically increased neutralization titers against the wild-type D614G virus compared to peak titers against wild-type D614G measured 1 month after the primary series; significant increases were observed for mRNA-1273 and mRNA-1273.211 (P < 0.0001). In addition, all boosters increased neutralization titers against key VOCs and VOIs, including B.1.351, P.1. and B.1.617.2, that were statistically equivalent to peak titers measured after the primary vaccine series against wild-type D614G virus, with superior titers against some VOIs. This trial is ongoing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization, Secondary , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Immunization, Secondary/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Preliminary Data , RNA, Messenger/adverse effects , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Treatment Outcome , United States , Vaccination/adverse effects
12.
Science ; 373(6561): 1372-1377, 2021 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356908

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mutations may diminish vaccine-induced protective immune responses, particularly as antibody titers wane over time. Here, we assess the effect of SARS-CoV-2 variants B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.351 (Beta), P.1 (Gamma), B.1.429 (Epsilon), B.1.526 (Iota), and B.1.617.2 (Delta) on binding, neutralizing, and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)­competing antibodies elicited by the messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine mRNA-1273 over 7 months. Cross-reactive neutralizing responses were rare after a single dose. At the peak of response to the second vaccine dose, all individuals had responses to all variants. Binding and functional antibodies against variants persisted in most subjects, albeit at low levels, for 6 months after the primary series of the mRNA-1273 vaccine. Across all assays, B.1.351 had the lowest antibody recognition. These data complement ongoing studies to inform the potential need for additional boost vaccinations.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cross Reactions , Humans , Immune Evasion , Immunization, Secondary , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Middle Aged , Time Factors , Young Adult
13.
N Engl J Med ; 385(24): 2241-2251, 2021 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352004

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) among adolescents between 12 and 17 years of age was approximately 900 per 100,000 population from April 1 through June 11, 2021. The safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the mRNA-1273 vaccine in adolescents are unknown. METHODS: In this ongoing phase 2-3, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned healthy adolescents (12 to 17 years of age) in a 2:1 ratio to receive two injections of the mRNA-1273 vaccine (100 µg in each) or placebo, administered 28 days apart. The primary objectives were evaluation of the safety of mRNA-1273 in adolescents and the noninferiority of the immune response in adolescents as compared with that in young adults (18 to 25 years of age) in a phase 3 trial. Secondary objectives included the efficacy of mRNA-1273 in preventing Covid-19 or asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. RESULTS: A total of 3732 participants were randomly assigned to receive mRNA-1273 (2489 participants) or placebo (1243 participants). In the mRNA-1273 group, the most common solicited adverse reactions after the first or second injections were injection-site pain (in 93.1% and 92.4%, respectively), headache (in 44.6% and 70.2%, respectively), and fatigue (in 47.9% and 67.8%, respectively); in the placebo group, the most common solicited adverse reactions after the first or second injections were injection-site pain (in 34.8% or 30.3%, respectively), headache (in 38.5% and 30.2%, respectively), and fatigue (in 36.6% and 28.9%, respectively). No serious adverse events related to mRNA-1273 or placebo were noted. The geometric mean titer ratio of pseudovirus neutralizing antibody titers in adolescents relative to young adults was 1.08 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94 to 1.24), and the absolute difference in serologic response was 0.2 percentage points (95% CI, -1.8 to 2.4), which met the noninferiority criterion. No cases of Covid-19 with an onset of 14 days after the second injection were reported in the mRNA-1273 group, and four cases occurred in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: The mRNA-1273 vaccine had an acceptable safety profile in adolescents. The immune response was similar to that in young adults, and the vaccine was efficacious in preventing Covid-19. (Funded by Moderna and the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority; Teen COVE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04649151.).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , /administration & dosage , /immunology , Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Single-Blind Method
15.
Vaccine ; 39(20): 2791-2799, 2021 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1071989

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccines are urgently needed to prevent the global spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of vaccine candidate mRNA-1273, encoding the prefusion-stabilized spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: This phase 2, randomized, observer-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted at 8 sites in the USA, in healthy adults aged ≥18 years with no known history or risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and had not previously received an investigational CoV vaccine or treatment. Participants were stratified into two age cohorts (≥18-<55 and ≥55) and were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to either 50 or 100 µg of mRNA-1273, or placebo administered as two intramuscular injections 28 days apart. The primary outcomes were safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity assessed by anti-SARS-CoV-2-spike binding antibody level (bAb). Secondary outcome was immunogenicity assessed by SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody (nAb) response. RESULTS: Between 29 May and 8 July 2020, 600 participants were randomized, 300 per age cohort. The most common solicited adverse reactions were pain at injection site, headache, and fatigue following each vaccination in both age cohorts. One serious adverse event deemed unrelated by the site investigator occurred 33 days post-vaccination one. mRNA-1273 induced bAb and nAb by 28 days post-vaccination one that were higher at the 100 µg dose relative to the 50 µg dose; this difference was less apparent post-vaccination two. Binding antibodies and nAb increased substantially by 14 days following the second vaccination (day 43) to levels exceeding those of convalescent sera and remained elevated through day 57. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination with mRNA-1273 resulted in significant immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 in participants 18 years and older, with an acceptable safety profile, confirming the safety and immunogenicity of 50 and 100 µg mRNA-1273 given as a 2 dose-regimen. ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT04405076.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2
16.
N Engl J Med ; 384(5): 403-416, 2021 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-998039

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccines are needed to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) and to protect persons who are at high risk for complications. The mRNA-1273 vaccine is a lipid nanoparticle-encapsulated mRNA-based vaccine that encodes the prefusion stabilized full-length spike protein of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes Covid-19. METHODS: This phase 3 randomized, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was conducted at 99 centers across the United States. Persons at high risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection or its complications were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive two intramuscular injections of mRNA-1273 (100 µg) or placebo 28 days apart. The primary end point was prevention of Covid-19 illness with onset at least 14 days after the second injection in participants who had not previously been infected with SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: The trial enrolled 30,420 volunteers who were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either vaccine or placebo (15,210 participants in each group). More than 96% of participants received both injections, and 2.2% had evidence (serologic, virologic, or both) of SARS-CoV-2 infection at baseline. Symptomatic Covid-19 illness was confirmed in 185 participants in the placebo group (56.5 per 1000 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI], 48.7 to 65.3) and in 11 participants in the mRNA-1273 group (3.3 per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 1.7 to 6.0); vaccine efficacy was 94.1% (95% CI, 89.3 to 96.8%; P<0.001). Efficacy was similar across key secondary analyses, including assessment 14 days after the first dose, analyses that included participants who had evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection at baseline, and analyses in participants 65 years of age or older. Severe Covid-19 occurred in 30 participants, with one fatality; all 30 were in the placebo group. Moderate, transient reactogenicity after vaccination occurred more frequently in the mRNA-1273 group. Serious adverse events were rare, and the incidence was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: The mRNA-1273 vaccine showed 94.1% efficacy at preventing Covid-19 illness, including severe disease. Aside from transient local and systemic reactions, no safety concerns were identified. (Funded by the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; COVE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04470427.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Single-Blind Method , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
18.
N Engl J Med ; 383(25): 2427-2438, 2020 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-811499

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Testing of vaccine candidates to prevent infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in an older population is important, since increased incidences of illness and death from coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) have been associated with an older age. METHODS: We conducted a phase 1, dose-escalation, open-label trial of a messenger RNA vaccine, mRNA-1273, which encodes the stabilized prefusion SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S-2P) in healthy adults. The trial was expanded to include 40 older adults, who were stratified according to age (56 to 70 years or ≥71 years). All the participants were assigned sequentially to receive two doses of either 25 µg or 100 µg of vaccine administered 28 days apart. RESULTS: Solicited adverse events were predominantly mild or moderate in severity and most frequently included fatigue, chills, headache, myalgia, and pain at the injection site. Such adverse events were dose-dependent and were more common after the second immunization. Binding-antibody responses increased rapidly after the first immunization. By day 57, among the participants who received the 25-µg dose, the anti-S-2P geometric mean titer (GMT) was 323,945 among those between the ages of 56 and 70 years and 1,128,391 among those who were 71 years of age or older; among the participants who received the 100-µg dose, the GMT in the two age subgroups was 1,183,066 and 3,638,522, respectively. After the second immunization, serum neutralizing activity was detected in all the participants by multiple methods. Binding- and neutralizing-antibody responses appeared to be similar to those previously reported among vaccine recipients between the ages of 18 and 55 years and were above the median of a panel of controls who had donated convalescent serum. The vaccine elicited a strong CD4 cytokine response involving type 1 helper T cells. CONCLUSIONS: In this small study involving older adults, adverse events associated with the mRNA-1273 vaccine were mainly mild or moderate. The 100-µg dose induced higher binding- and neutralizing-antibody titers than the 25-µg dose, which supports the use of the 100-µg dose in a phase 3 vaccine trial. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others; mRNA-1273 Study ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04283461.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , T-Lymphocytes/physiology
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