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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314960

ABSTRACT

We report evaluation of the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen (N-Ag) and respective antibodies as diagnostic markers in pneumonia patients. The study was conducted at the height of COVID-19 pandemic in Moscow, Russia. It included 425 emergency patients with clinical signs of COVID-19 pneumonia, of which 280 (66%) were positive for either serum N-Ag and/or its respective antibodies. We demonstrate the total prevalence of N-Ag seroconversion in SARS-CoV-2-associated pneumonia patients within 3-5 days after hospital admission. The results indicate high feasibility of SARS-CoV-2 serodiagnostics in emergency patients.

2.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325785

ABSTRACT

Lymphopenia is a frequent hematological manifestation, associated with a severe course of COVID-19, with an insufficiently understood pathogenesis. We present molecular genetic immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic data on SARS-CoV-2 dissemination and viral load (VL) in lungs, mediastinum lymph nodes, and the spleen of 36 patients who died from COVID-19. Lymphopenia <1 × 109/L was observed in 23 of 36 (63.8%) patients. In 12 of 36 cases (33%) SARS-CoV-2 was found in lung tissues only with a median VL of 239 copies (range 18-1952) SARS-CoV-2 cDNA per 100 copies of ABL1. Histomorphological changes corresponding to bronchopneumonia and the proliferative phase of DAD were observed in these cases. SARS-CoV-2 dissemination into the lungs, lymph nodes, and spleen was detected in 23 of 36 patients (58.4%) and was associated with the exudative phase of DAD in most of these cases. The median VL in the lungs was 12,116 copies (range 810-250281), lymph nodes-832 copies (range 96-11586), and spleen-71.5 copies (range 0-2899). SARS-CoV-2 in all cases belonged to the 19A strain. A immunohistochemical study revealed SARS-CoV-2 proteins in pneumocytes, alveolar macrophages, and bronchiolar epithelial cells in lung tissue, sinus histiocytes of lymph nodes, as well as cells of the Billroth pulp cords and spleen capsule. SARS-CoV-2 particles were detected by transmission electron microscopy in the cytoplasm of the endothelial cell, macrophages, and lymphocytes. The infection of lymphocytes with SARS-CoV-2 that we discovered for the first time may indicate a possible link between lymphopenia and SARS-CoV-2-mediated cytotoxic effect.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Lung/virology , Lymph Nodes/virology , Lymphopenia/virology , Mediastinum/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spleen/virology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Lung/pathology , Lymphopenia/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Load
3.
Pathogens ; 10(7)2021 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302436

ABSTRACT

Vaccination remains one of the most effective tools to prevent infectious diseases. To ensure that the best possible antigenic components are chosen to stimulate a cognitive immune response, boosting antigen presentation using adjuvants is common practice. Nanodiamond-based adjuvants are proposed here as a rapid and versatile platform for antigen conjugation, utilizing peptides common to different pathogenic strains and making this strategy a good candidate for a "ready-to-use" vaccine. Initiation of an inflammatory reaction with a resulting immune response is based on the ability of living organisms to entrap nanostructures such as nanodiamonds with neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation. In this work, coronavirus peptide homological for MERS-CoV, fusion inhibitor, was conjugated to nanodiamonds and used to induce neutrophilic-driven self-limiting inflammation. The resulting adjuvant was safe and did not induce any tissue damage at the site of injection. Mice immunization resulted in IgG titers of »,000 within 28 days. Immunization of rabbits resulted in the formation of a high level of antibodies persistently present for up to 120 days after the first immunization (animal lifespan ~3 years). The peptide used for immunization proved to be reactive with sera of convalescent COVID patients, demonstrating the possibility of developing pancoronaviral vaccine candidates.

4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 330-332, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253016

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) is considered the most sensitive method for the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, this method is relatively resource- and time-consuming. This study was performed to compare SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen (N-Ag) testing using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection. METHODS: Parallel SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR and quantitative N-Ag ELISA analysis was executed on nasopharyngeal specimens obtained during SARS-CoV-2 screening in a cohort of pre-hospitalization patients. RESULTS: In total, 277 specimens were examined, including 182 (65.7%) RT-PCR-positive specimens, which demonstrated a median cycle threshold (Ct) value of 27 (interquartile range (IQR) 23-35). The SARS-CoV-2 N-Ag was detected in 164 of the 182 RT-PCR-positive specimens (overall sensitivity 90.1%). Among the 95 RT-PCR-negative specimens, 72 were N-Ag-negative (specificity 75.8%). SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR and N-Ag ELISA results demonstrated a strong agreement (Cramer's V = 0.668; P < 0.001). N-Ag concentrations spanned from 5.4 to 296 000 pg/ml (median 901 pg/ml, IQR 43-1407 pg/ml) and were inversely correlated with Ct values (Spearman's r = -0.720; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 N-Ag ELISA results were in close agreement with RT-PCR results, and N-Ag concentrations were proportional to viral loads. Thus, SARS-CoV-2 quantitative antigen testing could be an additional diagnostic instrument for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Nasopharynx , Nucleocapsid , RNA, Viral , Sensitivity and Specificity
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