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2.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 355, 2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463260

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was frequently used to treat patients with severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19)-associated acute respiratory distress (ARDS) during the initial outbreak. Care of COVID-19 patients evolved markedly during the second part of 2020. Our objective was to compare the characteristics and outcomes of patients who received ECMO for severe COVID-19 ARDS before or after July 1, 2020. METHODS: We included consecutive adults diagnosed with COVID-19 in Paris-Sorbonne University Hospital Network ICUs, who received ECMO for severe ARDS until January 28, 2021. Characteristics and survival probabilities over time were estimated during the first and second waves. Pre-ECMO risk factors predicting 90-day mortality were assessed using multivariate Cox regression. RESULTS: Characteristics of the 88 and 71 patients admitted, respectively, before and after July 1, 2020, were comparable except for older age, more frequent use of dexamethasone (18% vs. 82%), high-flow nasal oxygenation (19% vs. 82%) and/or non-invasive ventilation (7% vs. 37%) after July 1. Respective estimated probabilities (95% confidence intervals) of 90-day mortality were 36% (27-47%) and 48% (37-60%) during the first and the second periods. After adjusting for confounders, probability of 90-day mortality was significantly higher for patients treated after July 1 (HR 2.27, 95% CI 1.02-5.07). ECMO-related complications did not differ between study periods. CONCLUSIONS: 90-day mortality of ECMO-supported COVID-19-ARDS patients increased significantly after July 1, 2020, and was no longer comparable to that of non-COVID ECMO-treated patients. Failure of prolonged non-invasive oxygenation strategies before intubation and increased lung damage may partly explain this outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/mortality , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/trends , Hospitalization/trends , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intensive Care Units/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Paris/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Treatment Outcome
3.
Artif Organs ; 45(10): 1240-1249, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354462

ABSTRACT

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is frequently used in many centers around the globe for various indications. However, prognosis is often poor even with all supportive therapies, and in many cases, clinical deterioration is associated with inflammation. Hemoadsorption with CytoSorb is a novel approach to limit the inflammatory response, and the device can be safely and easily installed into ECMO circuits. CytoSorb has been used more than 130.000 times to date, but because randomized controlled trials are largely lacking, there is substantial debate on its use. Here, experts from critical care medicine, cardiology, cardiac surgery, and perfusion technology discuss the pros and cons of this novel therapy and outline the future aspects for its clinical application and research.

4.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(8): 851-862, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340912

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the Île-de-France region (henceforth termed Greater Paris), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was considered early in the COVID-19 pandemic. We report ECMO network organisation and outcomes during the first wave of the pandemic. METHODS: In this multicentre cohort study, we present an analysis of all adult patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe ARDS requiring ECMO who were admitted to 17 Greater Paris intensive care units between March 8 and June 3, 2020. Central regulation for ECMO indications and pooling of resources were organised for the Greater Paris intensive care units, with six mobile ECMO teams available for the region. Details of complications (including ECMO-related complications, renal replacement therapy, and pulmonary embolism), clinical outcomes, survival status at 90 days after ECMO initiation, and causes of death are reported. Multivariable analysis was used to identify pre-ECMO variables independently associated with 90-day survival after ECMO. FINDINGS: The 302 patients included who underwent ECMO had a median age of 52 years (IQR 45-58) and Simplified Acute Physiology Score-II of 40 (31-56), and 235 (78%) of whom were men. 165 (55%) were transferred after cannulation by a mobile ECMO team. Before ECMO, 285 (94%) patients were prone positioned, median driving pressure was 18 cm H2O (14-21), and median ratio of the partial pressure of arterial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen was 61 mm Hg (IQR 54-70). During ECMO, 115 (43%) of 270 patients had a major bleeding event, 27 of whom had intracranial haemorrhage; 130 (43%) of 301 patients received renal replacement therapy; and 53 (18%) of 294 had a pulmonary embolism. 138 (46%) patients were alive 90 days after ECMO. The most common causes of death were multiorgan failure (53 [18%] patients) and septic shock (47 [16%] patients). Shorter time between intubation and ECMO (odds ratio 0·91 [95% CI 0·84-0·99] per day decrease), younger age (2·89 [1·41-5·93] for ≤48 years and 2·01 [1·01-3·99] for 49-56 years vs ≥57 years), lower pre-ECMO renal component of the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (0·67, 0·55-0·83 per point increase), and treatment in centres managing at least 30 venovenous ECMO cases annually (2·98 [1·46-6·04]) were independently associated with improved 90-day survival. There was no significant difference in survival between patients who had mobile and on-site ECMO initiation. INTERPRETATION: Beyond associations with similar factors to those reported on ECMO for non-COVID-19 ARDS, 90-day survival among ECMO-assisted patients with COVID-19 was strongly associated with a centre's experience in venovenous ECMO during the previous year. Early ECMO management in centres with a high venovenous ECMO case volume should be advocated, by applying centralisation and regulation of ECMO indications, which should also help to prevent a shortage of resources. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Intensive Care Units , Pulmonary Embolism , Renal Insufficiency , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency/etiology , Renal Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis
5.
Thromb Haemost ; 121(8): 1031-1042, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1324458

ABSTRACT

Hemostatic changes induced by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support have been yet poorly documented in coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) patients who have a baseline complex hypercoagulable state. In this prospective monocentric study of patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) rescued by ECMO, we performed longitudinal measurements of coagulation and fibrinolysis markers throughout the course of ECMO support in 20 COVID-19 and 10 non-COVID-19 patients. Blood was sampled before and then 24 hours, 7, and 14 days after ECMO implantation. Clinical outcomes were prospectively assessed until discharge from the intensive care unit or death. The median age of participants was 47 (35-56) years, with a median body mass index of 30 (27-35) kg/m2, and a Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment score of 12 (8-16). Baseline levels of von Willebrand factor, fibrinogen, factor VIII, prothrombin F1 + 2, thrombin-antithrombin, D-dimer, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were elevated in both COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 ARDS patients, indicating that endothelial activation, endogenous thrombin generation, and fibrinolysis shutdown occur in all ARDS patients before ECMO implantation. From baseline to day 7, thrombin generation (prothrombin F1 + 2, p < 0.01) and fibrin formation markers (fibrin monomers, p < 0.001) significantly increased, further resulting in significant decreases in platelet count (p < 0.0001) and fibrinogen level (p < 0.001). PAI-1 levels significantly decreased from baseline to day 7 (p < 0.0001) in all ARDS patients. These changes were more marked in COVID-19 patients, resulting in 14 nonfatal and 3 fatal bleeding. Additional studies are warranted to determine whether monitoring of thrombin generation and fibrinolysis markers might help to early predict bleeding complications in COVID-19 patients supported by ECMO.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Fibrinolysis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Female , Hemorrhage/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , von Willebrand Factor/analysis
8.
Transpl Int ; 34(4): 721-731, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119269

ABSTRACT

Available data on clinical presentation and mortality of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) in heart transplant (HT) recipients remain limited. We report a case series of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in 39 HT recipients from 3 French heart transplant centres (mean age 54.4 ± 14.8 years; 66.7% males). Hospital admission was required for 35 (89.7%) cases including 14/39 (35.9%) cases being admitted in intensive care unit. Immunosuppressive medications were reduced or discontinued in 74.4% of the patients. After a median follow-up of 54 (19-80) days, death and death or need for mechanical ventilation occurred in 25.6% and 33.3% of patients, respectively. Elevated C-reactive protein and lung involvement ≥50% on chest computed tomography (CT) at admission were associated with an increased risk of death or need for mechanical ventilation. Mortality rate from March to June in the entire 3-centre HT recipient cohort was 56% higher in 2020 compared to the time-matched 2019 cohort (2% vs. 1.28%, P = 0.15). In a meta-analysis including 4 studies, pre-existing diabetes mellitus (OR 3.60, 95% CI 1.43-9.06, I2  = 0%, P = 0.006) and chronic kidney disease stage III or higher (OR 3.79, 95% CI 1.39-10.31, I2  = 0%, P = 0.009) were associated with increased mortality. These findings highlight the aggressive clinical course of COVID-19 in HT recipients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Heart Transplantation , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Follow-Up Studies , France , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Complications/mortality , Postoperative Complications/therapy , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
9.
Chest ; 159(2): 657-662, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-928873
10.
ASAIO J ; 66(10): 1069-1072, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-670484

ABSTRACT

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is recognized as organ support for potentially reversible acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, limited resource during the outbreak and the coagulopathy associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) make the utilization of venovenous (VV) ECMO highly challenging. We herein report specific considerations for cannulation configurations and ECMO management during the pandemic. High blood flow and anticoagulation at higher levels than usual practice for VV ECMO may be required because of thrombotic hematologic profile of COVID-19. Among our first 24 cases (48.8 ± 8.9 years), 17 patients were weaned from ECMO after a mean duration of 19.0 ± 10.1 days and 16 of them have been discharged from ICU.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Female , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/prevention & control
12.
J Artif Organs ; 24(2): 277-281, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-712998

ABSTRACT

Veno-venous (VV) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly used in Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) patients with the most severe forms of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Its use is associated with a significant hemostatic challenge, especially in COVID- 19 patients who have been demonstrated to otherwise present a COVID-19-associated coagulopathy. The systematic use of unfractionated heparin therapy to prevent circuit thrombosis is warranted during ECMO support. The clinical presentation and management of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, which is a rare but life-threatening complication of heparin therapy, has not been described in those patients yet. We report herein two cases of laboratory-confirmed HIT in COVID-19 patients with severe ARDS admitted to our intensive care unit for VV-ECMO support and the successful use of argatroban as an alternative therapy. We also provide a brief literature review of best evidence for managing such patients. The diagnosis and management of HIT is particularly challenging in COVID-19 patients receiving ECMO support. An increased awareness is warranted in those patients who already present a procoagulant state leading to higher rates of thrombotic events which can confuse the issues. Argatroban seems to be an appropriate and safe therapeutic option in COVID-19 patients with HIT while on VV-ECMO.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Heparin/adverse effects , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/therapy , Adult , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged
13.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(11): 1121-1131, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-712037

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with COVID-19 who develop severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can have symptoms that rapidly evolve to profound hypoxaemia and death. The efficacy of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for patients with severe ARDS in the context of COVID-19 is unclear. We aimed to establish the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with respiratory failure and COVID-19 treated with ECMO. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was done in the Paris-Sorbonne University Hospital Network, comprising five intensive care units (ICUs) and included patients who received ECMO for COVID-19 associated ARDS. Patient demographics and daily pre-ECMO and on-ECMO data and outcomes were collected. Possible outcomes over time were categorised into four different states (states 1-4): on ECMO, in the ICU and weaned off ECMO, alive and out of ICU, or death. Daily probabilities of occupation in each state and of transitions between these states until day 90 post-ECMO onset were estimated with use of a multi-state Cox model stratified for each possible transition. Follow-up was right-censored on July 10, 2020. FINDINGS: From March 8 to May 2, 2020, 492 patients with COVID-19 were treated in our ICUs. Complete day-60 follow-up was available for 83 patients (median age 49 [IQR 41-56] years and 61 [73%] men) who received ECMO. Pre-ECMO, 78 (94%) patients had been prone-positioned; their median driving pressure was 18 (IQR 16-21) cm H2O and PaO2/FiO2 was 60 (54-68) mm Hg. At 60 days post-ECMO initiation, the estimated probabilities of occupation in each state were 6% (95% CI 3-14) for state 1, 18% (11-28) for state 2, 45% (35-56) for state 3, and 31% (22-42) for state 4. 35 (42%) patients had major bleeding and four (5%) had a haemorrhagic stroke. 30 patients died. INTERPRETATION: The estimated 60-day survival of ECMO-rescued patients with COVID-19 was similar to that of studies published in the past 2 years on ECMO for severe ARDS. If another COVID-19 outbreak occurs, ECMO should be considered for patients developing refractory respiratory failure despite optimised care. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , France , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate
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