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1.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(11): 14552-14556, 2021 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267005

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 more readily affects the elderly, especially as they present co-morbidities. In the COVID-19 pathogeny, ACE2 appears to be the key cell receptor for SARS-CoV-2 to infect humans. The level of ACE2 gene expression influences the susceptibility of contracting SARS-CoV-2. In circumstances in which the ACE2 level is low, the incidence of Covid-19 seems to be fewer. Two clinical patterns illustrate this observation, i. e., in infants and in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Very young children and AD patients get little COVID-19, in part probably due to decreased expression of ACE2. The determination of the nasal level of ACE2 gene expression could provide a useful scale to predict the susceptibility to contract the SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Alzheimer Disease/complications , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Cerebrum/metabolism , Disease Susceptibility , Gene Expression , Humans , Infant , Nasal Mucosa/metabolism
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 666693, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209418

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), has quickly reached pandemic proportions. Cytokine profiles observed in COVID-19 patients have revealed increased levels of IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α and increased NF-κB pathway activity. Recent evidence has shown that the upregulation of the WNT/ß-catenin pathway is associated with inflammation, resulting in a cytokine storm in ARDS (acute respire distress syndrome) and especially in COVID-19 patients. Several studies have shown that the WNT/ß-catenin pathway interacts with PPARγ in an opposing interplay in numerous diseases. Furthermore, recent studies have highlighted the interesting role of PPARγ agonists as modulators of inflammatory and immunomodulatory drugs through the targeting of the cytokine storm in COVID-19 patients. SARS-CoV2 infection presents a decrease in the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) associated with the upregulation of the WNT/ß-catenin pathway. SARS-Cov2 may invade human organs besides the lungs through the expression of ACE2. Evidence has highlighted the fact that PPARγ agonists can increase ACE2 expression, suggesting a possible role for PPARγ agonists in the treatment of COVID-19. This review therefore focuses on the opposing interplay between the canonical WNT/ß-catenin pathway and PPARγ in SARS-CoV2 infection and the potential beneficial role of PPARγ agonists in this context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Wnt Signaling Pathway/physiology , beta Catenin/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Cytokines/blood , Humans , PPAR gamma/agonists , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
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