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Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1699, 2022 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773974


The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants that partly evade neutralizing antibodies raises concerns of reduced vaccine effectiveness and increased infection. We previously demonstrated that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein vaccine adjuvanted with AS03 (CoV2 preS dTM-AS03) elicits robust neutralizing antibody responses in naïve subjects. Here we show that, in macaques primed with mRNA or protein-based subunit vaccine candidates, one booster dose of CoV2 preS dTM-AS03 (monovalent D614 or B.1.351, or bivalent D614 + B.1.351 formulations), significantly boosts the pre-existing neutralizing antibodies against the parental strain from 177- to 370-fold. Importantly, the booster dose elicits high and persistent cross-neutralizing antibodies covering five former or current SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Omicron) and, unexpectedly, SARS-CoV-1. Interestingly, we show that the booster specifically increases the functional antibody responses as compared to the receptor binding domain (RBD)-specific responses. Our findings show that these vaccine candidates, when used as a booster, have the potential to offer cross-protection against a broad spectrum of variants. This has important implications for vaccine control of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and informs on the benefit of a booster with the vaccine candidates currently under evaluation in clinical trials.

COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Primates , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
Sci Transl Med ; 13(607)2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1329034


Adjuvanted soluble protein vaccines have been used extensively in humans for protection against various viral infections based on their robust induction of antibody responses. Here, soluble prefusion-stabilized spike protein trimers (preS dTM) from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were formulated with the adjuvant AS03 and administered twice to nonhuman primates (NHPs). Binding and functional neutralization assays and systems serology revealed that the vaccinated NHP developed AS03-dependent multifunctional humoral responses that targeted distinct domains of the spike protein and bound to a variety of Fc receptors mediating immune cell effector functions in vitro. The neutralizing 50% inhibitory concentration titers for pseudovirus and live SARS-CoV-2 were higher than titers for a panel of human convalescent serum samples. NHPs were challenged intranasally and intratracheally with a high dose (3 × 106 plaque forming units) of SARS-CoV-2 (USA-WA1/2020 isolate). Two days after challenge, vaccinated NHPs showed rapid control of viral replication in both the upper and lower airways. Vaccinated NHPs also had increased spike protein-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody responses in the lung as early as 2 days after challenge. Moreover, passive transfer of vaccine-induced IgG to hamsters mediated protection from subsequent SARS-CoV-2 challenge. These data show that antibodies induced by the AS03-adjuvanted preS dTM vaccine were sufficient to mediate protection against SARS-CoV-2 in NHPs and that rapid anamnestic antibody responses in the lung may be a key mechanism for protection.

COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , Cricetinae , Immunization, Passive , Lung , Primates , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination