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Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Feb 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713627


BACKGROUND: Open-label platform trials and a prospective meta-analysis suggest efficacy of anti-IL-6R therapies in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 receiving corticosteroids. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of sarilumab, an anti-IL-6R monoclonal antibody, in the treatment of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. METHODS: In this adaptive, phase 2/3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, adults hospitalized with COVID-19 ( NCT04315298) received intravenous sarilumab or placebo. The phase 3 primary analysis population included patients with critical COVID-19 receiving mechanical ventilation randomized to sarilumab 400 mg or placebo. The primary outcome was proportion of patients with ≥1-point improvement in clinical status from baseline to day 22. RESULTS: There were 457 and 1365 patients randomized and treated in phases 2 and 3, respectively. In phase 3, patients with critical COVID-19 receiving mechanical ventilation (n = 298; 28.2% on corticosteroids), the proportion with ≥1-point improvement in clinical status (alive, not receiving mechanical ventilation) at day 22 was 43.2% in sarilumab and 35.5% in placebo (risk difference +7.5%; 95% CI, -7.4 to 21.3; P = .3261), a relative risk improvement of 21.7%. In post-hoc analyses pooling phase 2 and 3 critical patients receiving mechanical ventilation, the hazard ratio for death in sarilumab versus placebo was 0.76 (95% CI, .51-1.13) overall and 0.49 (95% CI, .25-.94) in patients receiving corticosteroids at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: This study did not establish the efficacy of sarilumab in hospitalized patients with severe/critical COVID-19. Post-hoc analyses were consistent with other studies that found a benefit of sarilumab in patients receiving corticosteroids.

J Infect Dis ; 224(11): 1830-1838, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545972


BACKGROUND: Elucidating the relationship between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral load and clinical outcomes is critical for understanding coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: The SARS-CoV-2 levels were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) of nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal swab specimens collected at baseline, and clinical outcomes were recorded over 60 days from 1362 COVID-19 hospitalized patients enrolled in a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled phase 2/3 trial of sarilumab for COVID-19 ( NCT04315298). RESULTS: In post hoc analyses, higher baseline viral load, measured by both RT-qPCR cycle threshold and log10 copies/mL, was associated with greater supplemental oxygenation requirements and disease severity at study entry. Higher baseline viral load was associated with higher mortality, lower likelihood of improvement in clinical status and supplemental oxygenation requirements, and lower rates of hospital discharge. Viral load was not impacted by sarilumab treatment over time versus placebo. CONCLUSIONS: These data support viral load as an important determinant of clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 requiring supplemental oxygen or assisted ventilation.

COVID-19 , Viral Load , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Nasopharynx/virology , Oropharynx/virology , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
JAMA ; 326(6): 499-518, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413703


Importance: Clinical trials assessing the efficacy of IL-6 antagonists in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 have variously reported benefit, no effect, and harm. Objective: To estimate the association between administration of IL-6 antagonists compared with usual care or placebo and 28-day all-cause mortality and other outcomes. Data Sources: Trials were identified through systematic searches of electronic databases between October 2020 and January 2021. Searches were not restricted by trial status or language. Additional trials were identified through contact with experts. Study Selection: Eligible trials randomly assigned patients hospitalized for COVID-19 to a group in whom IL-6 antagonists were administered and to a group in whom neither IL-6 antagonists nor any other immunomodulators except corticosteroids were administered. Among 72 potentially eligible trials, 27 (37.5%) met study selection criteria. Data Extraction and Synthesis: In this prospective meta-analysis, risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool. Inconsistency among trial results was assessed using the I2 statistic. The primary analysis was an inverse variance-weighted fixed-effects meta-analysis of odds ratios (ORs) for 28-day all-cause mortality. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality at 28 days after randomization. There were 9 secondary outcomes including progression to invasive mechanical ventilation or death and risk of secondary infection by 28 days. Results: A total of 10 930 patients (median age, 61 years [range of medians, 52-68 years]; 3560 [33%] were women) participating in 27 trials were included. By 28 days, there were 1407 deaths among 6449 patients randomized to IL-6 antagonists and 1158 deaths among 4481 patients randomized to usual care or placebo (summary OR, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.79-0.95]; P = .003 based on a fixed-effects meta-analysis). This corresponds to an absolute mortality risk of 22% for IL-6 antagonists compared with an assumed mortality risk of 25% for usual care or placebo. The corresponding summary ORs were 0.83 (95% CI, 0.74-0.92; P < .001) for tocilizumab and 1.08 (95% CI, 0.86-1.36; P = .52) for sarilumab. The summary ORs for the association with mortality compared with usual care or placebo in those receiving corticosteroids were 0.77 (95% CI, 0.68-0.87) for tocilizumab and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.61-1.38) for sarilumab. The ORs for the association with progression to invasive mechanical ventilation or death, compared with usual care or placebo, were 0.77 (95% CI, 0.70-0.85) for all IL-6 antagonists, 0.74 (95% CI, 0.66-0.82) for tocilizumab, and 1.00 (95% CI, 0.74-1.34) for sarilumab. Secondary infections by 28 days occurred in 21.9% of patients treated with IL-6 antagonists vs 17.6% of patients treated with usual care or placebo (OR accounting for trial sample sizes, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.85-1.16). Conclusions and Relevance: In this prospective meta-analysis of clinical trials of patients hospitalized for COVID-19, administration of IL-6 antagonists, compared with usual care or placebo, was associated with lower 28-day all-cause mortality. Trial Registration: PROSPERO Identifier: CRD42021230155.

Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cause of Death , Coinfection , Disease Progression , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial