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Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1247, 2023 Jan 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2212027


Severely-afflicted COVID-19 patients can exhibit disease manifestations representative of sepsis, including acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ failure. We hypothesized that diagnostic tools used in managing all-cause sepsis, such as clinical criteria, biomarkers, and gene expression signatures, should extend to COVID-19 patients. Here we analyzed the whole blood transcriptome of 124 early (1-5 days post-hospital admission) and late (6-20 days post-admission) sampled patients with confirmed COVID-19 infections from hospitals in Quebec, Canada. Mechanisms associated with COVID-19 severity were identified between severity groups (ranging from mild disease to the requirement for mechanical ventilation and mortality), and established sepsis signatures were assessed for dysregulation. Specifically, gene expression signatures representing pathophysiological events, namely cellular reprogramming, organ dysfunction, and mortality, were significantly enriched and predictive of severity and lethality in COVID-19 patients. Mechanistic endotypes reflective of distinct sepsis aetiologies and therapeutic opportunities were also identified in subsets of patients, enabling prediction of potentially-effective repurposed drugs. The expression of sepsis gene expression signatures in severely-afflicted COVID-19 patients indicates that these patients should be classified as having severe sepsis. Accordingly, in severe COVID-19 patients, these signatures should be strongly considered for the mechanistic characterization, diagnosis, and guidance of treatment using repurposed drugs.

COVID-19 , Sepsis , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Transcriptome , Biomarkers , Multiple Organ Failure
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11546, 2022 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1921709


The COVID-19 pandemic motivated research on antiviral filtration used in personal protective equipment and HVAC systems. In this research, three coating compositions of NaCl, Tween 20 surfactant, and NaCl-Tween 20 were examined on polypropylene spun-bond filters. The pressure drop, coverage, and crystal size of the coating methods and compositions were measured. Also, in vitro plaque assays of the Phi6 Bacteriophage on Pseudomonas syringae as a simulation of an enveloped respiratory virus was performed to investigate the antiviral properties of the coating. NaCl and NaCl-Tween 20 increased the pressure drop in the range of 40-50 Pa for a loading of 5 mg/cm2. Tween 20 has shown an impact on the pressure drop as low as 10 Pa and made the filter surface more hydrophilic which kept the virus droplets on the surface. The NaCl-Tween 20 coated samples could inactivate 108 plaque forming units (PFU) of virus in two hours of incubation. Tween 20 coated filters with loading as low as 0.2 mg/cm2 reduced the activity of 108 PFU of virus from 109 to 102 PFU/mL after 2 h of incubation. NaCl-coated samples with a salt loading of 15 mg/cm2 could not have antiviral properties higher than reducing the viral activity from 109 to 105 PFU/mL in 4 h of incubation.

Antiviral Agents , Polysorbates , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium Chloride , Surface-Active Agents , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Lipoproteins , Polysorbates/chemistry , Polysorbates/pharmacology , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology