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1.
Frontiers in Immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2215270

ABSTRACT

IntroductionSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its variants brought waves of pandemics with breakthrough infections in vaccinated individuals. We analyzed the antibody responses after primary and booster vaccination in healthy controls (HC) and patients with early breast cancer (BC). MethodsIn this prospective longitudinal cohort study, the binding activity of serum antibody level against spike proteins and antigens of SARS-CoV-2 variants was measured within 21 days after each vaccination in the BC group and HC group. ResultsAll participants, 40 in the BC and 20 in the HC group, had increased antibody response after vaccination. BC group, however, had weaker humoral responses than the HC group (IgG: 1.5, 2.3, 2.5-folds in BC vs. 1.9, 3.6, 4.0-folds in HC after each dose;IgA: 2.1, 3.0, 3.6-folds in BC vs. 4.2, 10.4, 5.2-folds in HC after each dose, respectively). Those under concurrent cytotoxic chemotherapy had weaker antibody response than the non-cytotoxic treatment group and HC. Adjunct use of steroids and age were not significant risk factors. The levels of binding antibody against the Delta and the Omicron (BA1) variants were lower than the wild-type, especially in BC. ConclusionIn the waves of new sub-variants, our study suggests that an additional dose of vaccinations should be recommended according to the anti-cancer treatment modality in patients with BC who had received booster vaccination.

2.
2022 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management, IEEM 2022 ; 2022-December:1416-1421, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2213312

ABSTRACT

Industry 4.0 brought a new revolution in industries by making them fully automated via innovative technologies, without considering human-power. Industry 4.0 aims to establish 'smart manufacturing industry' by emphasizing on Information Technology (IT), Internet of Things (IOT), Cyber Physical System (CPS), Industrial Internet of Things (IIOT), Artificial Intelligence (AI), Big Data, and Robotics. This highly automated industry neglected human's intellectual and cognitive skills, causing an increase in unemployment rate and devastation of ecosystem. In this paper, we proposed a framework of emerging technologies of Industry 5.0. Here, we examined how Industry 5.0 will further extend the development of Industry 4.0 and how humans can contribute to its manufacturing process. In addition, prestigious and significant skills for workforce in manufacturing industry are also explored. We also investigated how the Covid-19 epidemic was associated to Industry 5.0 and the idea of sustainable development goals (SDGs). Finally, we highlighted some of the challenges facing the industrial sector as research direction of Industry 5.0. © 2022 IEEE.

3.
2022 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management, IEEM 2022 ; 2022-December:1561-1567, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2213308

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic, masks have been widely used as a personal protective equipment (PPE) to prevent respiratory infection. A major type of masks used is non-woven fabric mask (NFM), which is currently classified as domestic waste and mostly disposed to general rubbish bins then eventually sent to the already saturating landfills. Moreover, the contaminated NFM is not disinfected properly during the disposal, which increases the risks of viral transmission and pollutes the environment. To alleviate the existing pressure to the environment, the amount of used NFM being disposed to landfills should be reduced. This paper studied the feasibility of recycling the used NFM and developed a prototype of disposal machine as the primary recycling process. By inserting the used NFM into the disposal machine, the masks can be shredded, disinfected and packed for further recycling processes. © 2022 IEEE.

4.
Liu, Z.; Le, K.; Zhou, X.; Alexander, J. L.; Lin, S.; Bewshea, C.; Chanchlani, N.; Nice, R.; McDonald, T. J.; Lamb, C. A.; Sebastian, S.; Kok, K.; Lees, C. W.; Hart, A. L.; Pollok, R. C.; Boyton, R. J.; Altmann, D. M.; Pollock, K. M.; Goodhand, J. R.; Kennedy, N. A.; Ahmad, T.; Powell, N.; Islam, M.; Croft, N.; Cipriano, B.; Francia, C.; Khalid, N.; Kingston, A.; Lee, I.; Lehmann, A.; Naik, K.; Samuels, K.; Plaatjies, N.; Khatun, H.; Bokth, F.; Pabriaga, E.; Saich, R.; Cousins, H.; Fraser, W.; Thomas, R.; Brown, M.; White, B.; Kirkineziadis, N.; Tilley, B.; Porter, P.; Bryant, R.; Robaczewska, N.; Muhammed, R.; Bi, R.; Cotter, C.; Grove, J.; Hong, K.; Howman, R.; Clayton, S.; Rogers, L.; Sultan, S.; Rooney, M.; Cottrill, C.; Singh, S.; Dawe, C.; Hull, R.; Silva, N.; Chadwick, J.; Robertson, L.; Manning, J.; Finlayson, L.; Roebuck, A.; Dawson, J.; Sonwalkar, S.; Chambers, N.; Robinson, M.; Haigh, A.; Matapure, L.; Raine, T.; Kapizioni, C.; Strongili, K.; Thompson, T.; Ahmed, M.; Kontos, C.; Dawson, C.; Bourges, C.; Barbutti, I.; Gozzard, M. E.; Hendy, P.; Bull, R.; Costa, P.; Davey, L.; Hannington, H.; Nundlall, K.; Martins, C.; Avanzi, L.; Carungcong, J.; Barr, S.; Appleby, R.; Johnson, E.; Shakweh, E.; Phillis, K.; Gascoyne, R.; Crowder, A.; Whileman, A.; London, I.; Grounds, J.; Martin, E.; Pajak, S.; Price, J.; Cawley, K.; Powell, S.; Kearsley, N.; Dhar, A.; Brown, E.; Cowton, A.; Warner, B.; Stuart, C.; Lacey, L.; de Silva, S.; Allcock, C.; Harvey, P.; Jones, L.; Cooke, E.; Slater, J.; King, D.; Brooks, J.; Baker, P.; Beadle, H.; Cruz, C.; Potter, D.; Collum, J.; Masters, F.; Kumar, A.; Coetzee, S.; Peiu, M.; Icke, B.; Raj, M.; Gaynor, E.; Chadokufa, S.; Huggett, B.; Meghari, H.; El-Khouly, S.; Kiparissi, F.; Girshab, W.; Russell-Walker, L.; Jackson, C.; Sidler, S.; Claridge, A.; Fowler, E.; McCafferty, L.; Haxton, L.; Irving, P.; Christodoulides, K.; Clifford, A.; Dawson, P.; Honap, S.; Lim, S.; Luber, R.; Mahiouz, K.; Meade, S.; Raymode, P.; Reynolds, R.; Stanton, A.; Tripoli, S.; Hare, N.; Odukwe, S.; Balachandran, S.; North, E.; North, J.; Browne, B.; Cordle, J.; Jameson, E.; Siaw, Y. H.; Manzano, L.; Segal, J.; Al-Bakir, I.; Khakoo, I.; Portukhay, S.; Thoua, N.; Davidson, K.; Miah, J.; Canclini, L.; Hall, A.; Furreed, H.; Mitchell-Inwang, C.; Hayes, M.; Myers, S.; Talbot, A.; Turnbull, J.; Whitehead, E.; Stamp, K.; Pattinson, A.; Mathew, V.; Sherris, L.; Wilcox, J.; Ramachandran, S.; Robertson, H.; Harvey, A.; Hicks, L.; Byrne, T. M.; Cabreros, L.; Downing-Wood, H.; Hunter, S.; Saifuddin, M. A.; Prabhudev, H.; Balarajah, S.; Krucznski, J.; Driva, K.; D'Mello, A.; Shah, P.; Castro-Seoane, R.; Ibraheim, H.; Constable, L. E.; Lo, J. W.; Torkizadeh, M.; Hermangild, S. K.; Sutherland, H.; Wilhelmsen, E.; Mackintosh, K.; Verma, A. M.; Sebastian, J.; Peerally, M. F.; Guerdette, A. M.; Coburn, S.; Novem lam, C. Y.; Durrant, D.; Schaefer, B.; Serna, S.; Shahzad, M.; Kent, A.; Choong, L. M.; Pantaloni, B.; Ravdas, P.; Vadamalayan, B.; Foley, S.; Arnold, B.; Heeley, C.; Lovegrove, W.; Sowton, D.; Allsop, L.; Gregory, H.; Gill, M.; Holmes, M.; Balan, V.; Turner, S.; Smith, P. J.; Steel, A.; Bretland, G.; King, S.; Lofthouse, M.; Rigby, L.; Subramanian, S.; Tyrer, D.; Martin, K.; Probert, C.; Kamperidis, N.; Adedoyin, T.; Baden, M.; Chacko, F.; Young, L.; Cicchetti, M.; Saifuddin, M.; Yesupatham, P.; Gowda, R.; Williams, M.; Kemp, K.; Akhand, R.; Gray, G.; John, A.; John, M.; Mohammed, T.; Sathe, D.; Jones, N.; Soren, J.; Sprakes, M.; Burton, J.; Kane, P.; Lupton, S.; Bartholomew, J.; Denis, E.; Daniels, A.; MacFaul, G.; Scaletta, D.; Siamia, L.; Williams, F.; Green, C.; Ver, Z.; Lamb, C.; Doona, M.; Hogg, A.; Jeffrey, L.; King, A.; Speight, R. A.; Doyle, J.; Owen, R.; Haworth, J.; Patterson, L.; Varnaulasingam, V.; Mowat, C.; Rice, D.; MacFarlane, S.; MacLeod, A.; Mohammed, S.; Murray, S.; Elliott, A.; Anne Morris, M.; Coke, L.; Hindle, G.; Kolokouri, E.; Wright, C.; Lee, C.; Ward, N.; Dann, A.; Lockett, M.; Cranfield, C.; Jennings, L.; Srivastava, A.; Ward, L.; Jeynes, N.; Ranga, P.; Rajasekhar, P.; Gallagher, L.; Ward, J.; Basnett, R.; Murphy, J.; Parking, L.; Lawson, E.; Short, S.; Devadason, D.; Moran, G.; Khan, N.; Tarr, L.; Olivia, C.; Warbarton, S.; Kelly, S.; Limdi, J.; Goulden, K.; Javed, A.; McKenzie, L.; Melville, J.; Liu, E.; Sabine, J.; Jacob, P.; McSorland, D.; Schofield, N.; Cornwall, L.; Quirke, J.; Crook, E.; Turner, A.; Bhandari, P.; Baker-Moffatt, M.; Dash, J.; Le Poidevin, A.; Downe, H.; Bombeo, L.; Blackman, H.; Smith, R.; Wiles, A.; Bloxham, H.; Dias, J.; Nadar, E.; Curgenven, H.; Gilham, E.; Macdonald, J.; Finan, S.; McMeeken, F.; Mahmood, M.; Shields, S.; Seenan, J. P.; DeSilva, D.; Malkakorpi, S.; Carson, R.; Lawrence, H.; Boateng, O.; Kpodo, F.; Whiteoak, S.; Edger-Earley, K.; Vamplew, L.; Samways, J.; Roffe, S.; Ingram, S.; James, J.; Botfield, S.; Hammonds, F.; James, C.; Berry, Z.; Aspinall, G.; Hawkins, S.; Parkinson, M.; Gardner-Thorpe, H.; Marriott, S.; Redstone, C.; Windak, H.; Adam, A. M.; Mabb, H.; Stevenson, E.; Record, J.; Murray, C.; Diaba, C.; Joseph, F.; Pakou, G.; Gleeson, Y.; Nunag, A.; Berrill, J.; Stroud, N.; Pothecary, C.; Roche, L.; Turner, K.; Deering, L.; Israel, L.; Baker, E.; Nash, M.; Fagbemi, A.; Jennings, F.; Mayor, I.; Wilson, J.; Wheeler, A.; Phillips, N.; Gordon, J.; Levell, E.; Zagalo, S.; Hoad, I.; Anil, B.; Russell, R.; Henderson, P.; Millar, M.; Alexakis, C.; Michalak, N.; Marriott, C.; Stone, S.; Pristopan, V.; Saunders, J.; Burton, H.; Cambridge, V.; Clark, T.; Ekblad, C.; Hierons, S.; Katebe, J.; Saunsbury, E.; Perry, R.; Brookes, M.; Davies, K.; Green, M.; Plumbe, A.; Ormerod, C.; Christensen, H.; Howlett, H.; Keen, A.; Ogor, J.; Greenhaigh, M.; Knowles, K.; Yin, S.; Poulaka, M.; Anthony, A.; Newitt, E.; Trim, F.; Casey, R.; Seymour, K.; Reed, C.; Joy, L.; Fogden, E.; Russell, K.; Hussain, S.; Phillips, A.; Abdulla, M.; Butterworth, J.; Adams, C.; Carnahan, M.; Buckingham, E.; Childs, D.; Magness, A.; Stickley, J.; Motherwell, N.; Tonks, L.; Gibson, H.; Wistance, K.; Thomas, C.; Brinkworth, E.; Connor, L.; Cook, A.; Rees, T.; Harford, R.; Farley, S.; Jones, M.; Wesley, E.; Moss, A.; Lucas, J.; Lorimer, C.; Oleary, M.; Dixon, M.; Goodchild, F.; Twenlow, R.; Pawley, C.; Ramadas, A.; Tregonning, J.; Okeke, O.; Jackson, W.; Koumoutsos, I.; George, V.; Kunhunny, S.; Laverick, S.; Anderson, I.; Smith, S.; Joyce, J.; et al..
The Lancet Gastroenterology and Hepatology ; 8(2):145-156, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2211788

ABSTRACT

Background: Anti-TNF drugs, such as infliximab, are associated with attenuated antibody responses after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. We aimed to determine how the anti-TNF drug infliximab and the anti-integrin drug vedolizumab affect vaccine-induced neutralising antibodies against highly transmissible omicron (B.1.1.529) BA.1, and BA.4 and BA.5 (hereafter BA.4/5) SARS-CoV-2 variants, which possess the ability to evade host immunity and, together with emerging sublineages, are now the dominating variants causing current waves of infection. Method(s): CLARITY IBD is a prospective, multicentre, observational cohort study investigating the effect of infliximab and vedolizumab on SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Patients aged 5 years and older with a diagnosis of IBD and being treated with infliximab or vedolizumab for 6 weeks or longer were recruited from infusion units at 92 hospitals in the UK. In this analysis, we included participants who had received uninterrupted biological therapy since recruitment and without a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. The primary outcome was neutralising antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 wild-type and omicron subvariants BA.1 and BA.4/5 after three doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. We constructed Cox proportional hazards models to investigate the risk of breakthrough infection in relation to neutralising antibody titres. The study is registered with the ISRCTN registry, ISRCTN45176516, and is closed to accrual. Finding(s): Between Sept 22 and Dec 23, 2020, 7224 patients with IBD were recruited to the CLARITY IBD study, of whom 1288 had no previous SARS-CoV-2 infection after three doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and were established on either infliximab (n=871) or vedolizumab (n=417) and included in this study (median age was 46.1 years [IQR 33.6-58.2], 610 [47.4%] were female, 671 [52.1%] were male, 1209 [93.9%] were White, and 46 [3.6%] were Asian). After three doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, 50% neutralising titres (NT50s) were significantly lower in patients treated with infliximab than in those treated with vedolizumab, against wild-type (geometric mean 2062 [95% CI 1720-2473] vs 3440 [2939-4026];p<0.0001), BA.1 (107.3 [86.40-133.2] vs 648.9 [523.5-804.5];p<0.0001), and BA.4/5 (40.63 [31.99-51.60] vs 223.0 [183.1-271.4];p<0.0001) variants. Breakthrough infection was significantly more frequent in patients treated with infliximab (119 [13.7%;95% CI 11.5-16.2] of 871) than in those treated with vedolizumab (29 [7.0% [4.8-10.0] of 417;p=0.00040). Cox proportional hazards models of time to breakthrough infection after the third dose of vaccine showed infliximab treatment to be associated with a higher hazard risk than treatment with vedolizumab (hazard ratio [HR] 1.71 [95% CI 1.08-2.71];p=0.022). Among participants who had a breakthrough infection, we found that higher neutralising antibody titres against BA.4/5 were associated with a lower hazard risk and, hence, a longer time to breakthrough infection (HR 0.87 [0.79-0.95];p=0.0028). Interpretation(s): Our findings underline the importance of continued SARS-CoV-2 vaccination programmes, including second-generation bivalent vaccines, especially in patient subgroups where vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy might be reduced, such as those on anti-TNF therapies. Funding(s): Royal Devon University Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust;Hull University Teaching Hospital NHS Trust;NIHR Imperial Biomedical Research Centre;Crohn's and Colitis UK;Guts UK;National Core Studies Immunity Programme, UK Research and Innovation;and unrestricted educational grants from F Hoffmann-La Roche, Biogen, Celltrion Healthcare, Takeda, and Galapagos. Copyright © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license

5.
Pediatric Neurology ; 139:65-69, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2211239

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood (ANEC) is a rare parainfectious neurological disorder. ANEC is associated with a high mortality rate and poor neurological outcomes. ANEC is postulated to arise from immune-mediated or metabolic processes driven by viral infections. Although there have been some case reports of acute necrotizing encephalopathy with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) coinfection in adults, paediatric cases are rare.

6.
Proc Assoc Inf Sci Technol ; 59(1):693-5, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2209199

ABSTRACT

We conducted an exploratory study of the links found in Twitter tweets. Our results showed that the largest category of tweet links was social media platforms followed by alternative news sites. Government agencies and educational institutions were under‐represented. In terms of relevance, about 75% of the links were related to COVID‐19 but disappointingly, only 40% of the links were directly related to their respective tweets' topics.

7.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2023.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2179544

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study explored the outcomes and predictors of early viral clearance among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This study recruited consecutive patients from March 1, 2020 to July 31, 2021. Early viral clearance was defined as having a duration from symptom onset to successive detection of SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction cycle threshold (Ct) value of ≥30 within 10 days. RESULTS: Among the 239 enrolled patients, 54.4% (130 patients) had early viral clearance. A multivariate logistic regression analysis identified that dexamethasone use and Day-1 Ct values were independent factors associated with late viral clearance. Patients with mild-moderate severity and who received dexamethasone therapy had a longer time to viral clearance than those who did not receive dexamethasone (17.2±1.8 days vs. 12.3±1.1 days, P=0.018). Patients with severe-critical severity had a similar duration from symptom onset to Ct value ≥30 regardless of dexamethasone therapy (18.3±0.9 days vs. 16.7±4.7 days, P= 0.626). CONCLUSION: The study revealed that dexamethasone therapy and Ct values are independent predictors of late viral clearance. Patients with severe disease course due to older age, increased number of comorbidities, and worse clinical outcomes experienced delayed viral clearance.

8.
Endocrine ; 2023.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2175003

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We evaluated the evolution of thyroid function and autoimmunity among COVID-19 survivors over 6 months in relation to interferon beta-1b treatment and long COVID. METHODS: We included COVID-19 survivors managed in a major COVID-19 centre between July 2020 and May 2021 who were reassessed three and/or six months after acute COVID-19. Thyroid function tests (TFTs) and anti-thyroid antibody titres were measured at acute COVID-19, 3-month and 6-month. RESULTS: 250 COVID-19 survivors were included (mean age 52.7 years, 50.4% men). Persistent thyroid function abnormalities were more likely in those with abnormal TFTs in acute COVID-19 (P < 0.001). Among 51 patients with abnormal TFTs in acute COVID-19, 82.4% resolved upon follow-up. Of 199 patients with normal TFTs in acute COVID-19, only 4.5% had incident abnormal TFTs, more likely in interferon-treated patients (P = 0.044) and none clinically overt. Among 129 patients with complete 6-month follow-up for anti-thyroid antibody titres, there was no significant change overall, except for modest increase in anti-thyroid antibody titres among the 84 interferon-treated patients (P < 0.05 at both 3 months and 6 months). Long COVID occurred in 19.5% and 10.4% at 3 and 6 months respectively, where TFTs and anti-thyroid antibody titres were not predictive of its occurrence. CONCLUSION: Over 6 months, most abnormal TFTs in acute COVID-19 resolved, with no significant incident thyroid dysfunction. SARS-CoV-2 infection did not lead to change in thyroid autoimmunity, while interferon treatment was associated with modest increase in anti-thyroid antibody titres. Thyroid function and anti-thyroid antibodies did not play a significant role in long COVID.

9.
Asia in Transition ; 18:229-249, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2173903

ABSTRACT

On 18th March 2020, the Malaysian government enforced a movement control order (MCO) that required everyone to stay in their homes until 4th May 2020 to slow the spread of the COVID-19 virus. During this time, social media became not only a source of information for citizens but also the main space for their mediated social and public lives. Besides the hashtags #stayhome and #dudukrumah, the hashtag #KitaJagaKita started trending as netizens and civil society took the initiative to champion the proper enforcement of the MCO and safe distancing, as well as to find solutions for the shortage of medical safety equipment. This chapter presents findings from a discourse analysis on the discourses surrounding the hashtag #KitaJagaKita on Twitter and its use to (de)legitimise the Perikatan Nasional government and its leader, Prime Minister Muhyiddin Yassin. Pro-government netizens use the hashtag to represent the government as protecting citizens through its policies and guidelines, and fellow citizens, who adhere to the MCO, as partnering in this effort. Netizens who are less supportive of the government, however, argue that the government is not doing enough to protect citizens and healthcare workers. They use the hashtag to criticise government policies and a lack of decisiveness and speed in properly implementing the MCO. They also use the hashtag to rally citizens to take care of each other by fundraising and finding "better” solutions for healthcare workers. © 2023, The Author(s).

10.
Finance a Uver-Czech Journal of Economics and Finance ; 72(4):328-355, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2205904

ABSTRACT

This paper examined the interconnectedness of COVID-19 and stock markets in some of th e most affected countries-USA, Italy, Spain and Germany. To this end, a time-varying cointegration technique was first employed to examine for the presence of comovementsbetween daily infections and stock market changes. A time-varying wild bootstrap likelihood ratio test was then employed to determine whether COVID-19 is a significant predictor of stock market performance. Lastly, an event study analysis was conducted to investigate the short-term effect of the outbreak on stock market returns. Findings revealed the existence of comovements between COVID-19 infections and stock price indices in all the selected countries. The rejection of the null hypothesis of no predictability was also recorded in all of the countries sampled. The event study analysis revealed that significant negative cumulative abnormal returns were predominant in all the countries. The reactions of the stock markets of the three European Union member countries included in the study to the pandemic are quite similar, suggesting that countries that are regionally and economically integrated are likely to experience relatively similar effects. The USA stock market was the most resilient to the impact of the outbreak

11.
EMBO Reports ; : e55286, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2204063

ABSTRACT

An increasing amount of evidence emphasizes the role of metabolic reprogramming in immune cells to fight infections. However, little is known about the regulation of metabolite transporters that facilitate and support metabolic demands. In this study, we found that the expression of equilibrative nucleoside transporter 3 (ENT3, encoded by solute carrier family 29 member 3, Slc29a3) is part of the innate immune response, which is rapidly upregulated upon pathogen invasion. The transcription of Slc29a3 is directly regulated by type I interferon-induced signaling, demonstrating that this metabolite transporter is an interferon-stimulated gene (ISG). Suprisingly, we unveil that several viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, require ENT3 to facilitate their entry into the cytoplasm. The removal or suppression of Slc29a3 expression is sufficient to significantly decrease viral replication in vitro and in vivo. Our study reveals that ENT3 is a pro-viral ISG co-opted by some viruses to gain a survival advantage.

12.
Critical Education ; 13(1):17-35, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2203902

ABSTRACT

This qualitative study explores the experiences of students whose education was disrupted by school closures during the COVID-19 global pandemic. With a focus on mental health concerns, the article presents the reflections, thoughts and feelings of students whose public examinations were cancelled and who experienced both the abrupt termination of a phase of their formal education and the loss of traditional ways of marking that ending. Findings show that feelings of loss and illegitimacy augment the stress and anxiety surrounding high-stakes tests and their cancellation. There are several implications for policy and practice, if student mental health is to be foregrounded and taken seriously. Communication, dialogue, and possibilities for taking back agency and critical hope may all go some way towards mitigating these mental health concerns. The validity of using re-purposed components to allocate grades is called into question, as are the role and place of high-stakes testing per se. © 2022 The authors.

13.
Journal of Global Health ; 12:05058, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2203066

ABSTRACT

Background: Post-extubation and neurologic complications in COVID-19 patients have been shown to cause oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD). We performed the first meta-analysis to explore and estimate the pooled prevalence of OD, risk of mortality, and associated factors among hospitalized COVID-19 patients.

14.
Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; 17:17, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2201168

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims: The recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been associated with changes in the epidemiology of not only infectious diseases but also several non-infectious conditions. This study investigated changes in the recorded incidence of various rheumatic diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic.

15.
Frontiers in Immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2198919

ABSTRACT

BackgroundDrug repurposing is a fast and effective way to develop drugs for an emerging disease such as COVID-19. The main challenges of effective drug repurposing are the discoveries of the right therapeutic targets and the right drugs for combating the disease. MethodsHere, we present a systematic repurposing approach, combining Homopharma and hierarchal systems biology networks (HiSBiN), to predict 327 therapeutic targets and 21,233 drug-target interactions of 1,592 FDA drugs for COVID-19. Among these multi-target drugs, eight candidates (along with pimozide and valsartan) were tested and methotrexate was identified to affect 14 therapeutic targets suppressing SARS-CoV-2 entry, viral replication, and COVID-19 pathologies. Through the use of in vitro (EC50 = 0.4 mu M) and in vivo models, we show that methotrexate is able to inhibit COVID-19 via multiple mechanisms. ResultsOur in vitro studies illustrate that methotrexate can suppress SARS-CoV-2 entry and replication by targeting furin and DHFR of the host, respectively. Additionally, methotrexate inhibits all four SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. In a Syrian hamster model for COVID-19, methotrexate reduced virus replication, inflammation in the infected lungs. By analysis of transcriptomic analysis of collected samples from hamster lung, we uncovered that neutrophil infiltration and the pathways of innate immune response, adaptive immune response and thrombosis are modulated in the treated animals. ConclusionsWe demonstrate that this systematic repurposing approach is potentially useful to identify pharmaceutical targets, multi-target drugs and regulated pathways for a complex disease. Our findings indicate that methotrexate is established as a promising drug against SARS-CoV-2 variants and can be used to treat lung damage and inflammation in COVID-19, warranting future evaluation in clinical trials.

16.
JMIR Public Health and Surveillance ; 12:12, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198172

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, the association between acute signs and symptoms of COVID-19 and the exacerbation of depression and anxiety in clinically mild COVID-19 patients has not been evaluated.

17.
JMIR Formative Research ; 10:10, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198086

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The 2019 novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) has severely burdened the healthcare system through its rapid transmission. Mobile health (mHealth) is a viable solution to facilitate remote monitoring and continuity of care for COVID-19 patients in a home environment. However, the conceptualization and development of mHealth applications are often labour- and time-intensive, and laden with concerns relating to data security and privacy. Implementing mHealth applications is also a challenging feat as language-related barriers limit adoption, while its perceived lack of benefits affects sustained usage. The rapid development of a mHealth application that is cost-effective, secure and user-friendly will be a timely enabler.

18.
Int J Arrhythmia ; 24(1), 2023.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2196547
19.
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene ; 29:29, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2190336

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A increasing number of studies have revealed associations between country-level determinants and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes. This ecological study was conducted to analyze country-level parameters related to COVID-19 infections and deaths during the first year of the pandemic.

20.
Natl Sci Rev ; 9(11), 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2189437

ABSTRACT

(−)-Anisomelic acid, isolated from Anisomeles indica (L.) Kuntze (Labiatae) leaves, is a macrocyclic cembranolide with a trans-fused α-methylene-γ-lactone motif. Anisomelic acid effectively inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication and viral-induced cytopathic effects with an EC50 of 1.1 and 4.3 μM, respectively. Challenge studies of SARS-CoV-2-infected K18-hACE2 mice showed that oral administration of anisomelic acid and subcutaneous dosing of remdesivir can both reduce the viral titers in the lung tissue at the same level. To facilitate drug discovery, we used a semisynthetic approach to shorten the project timelines. The enantioselective semisynthesis of anisomelic acid from the naturally enriched and commercially available starting material (+)-costunolide was achieved in five steps with a 27% overall yield. The developed chemistry provides opportunities for developing anisomelic-acid-based novel ligands for selectively targeting proteins involved in viral infections.

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