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1.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 8(7)2022 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917570

ABSTRACT

The risk of developing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) depends on factors related to the host, virus, and treatment. However, many hospitals have modified their existing rooms and adjusted airflow to protect healthcare workers from aerosolization, which may increase the risk of Aspergillus exposure. This study aimed to quantitatively investigate airborne fungal levels in negative and slightly negative pressure rooms for COVID-19 patients. The air in neutral pressure rooms in ordinary wards and a liver intensive care unit with high-efficiency particulate air filter was also assessed for comparison. We found the highest airborne fungal burden in recently renovated slightly negative air pressure rooms, and a higher airborne fungal concentration in both areas used to treat COVID-19 patients. The result provided evidence of the potential environmental risk of CAPA by quantitative microbiologic air sampling, which was scarcely addressed in the literature. Enhancing environmental infection control measures to minimize exposure to fungal spores should be considered. However, the clinical implications of a periodic basis to determine indoor airborne fungal levels and further air sterilization in these areas remain to be defined.

2.
J Clin Invest ; 132(10)2022 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846632

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe Delta and Omicron variants of SARS-CoV-2 are currently responsible for breakthrough infections due to waning immunity. We report phase I/II trial results of UB-612, a multitope subunit vaccine containing S1-RBD-sFc protein and rationally designed promiscuous peptides representing sarbecovirus conserved helper T cell and cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes on the nucleocapsid (N), membrane (M), and spike (S2) proteins.MethodWe conducted a phase I primary 2-dose (28 days apart) trial of 10, 30, or 100 µg UB-612 in 60 healthy young adults 20 to 55 years old, and 50 of them were boosted with 100 µg of UB-612 approximately 7 to 9 months after the second dose. A separate placebo-controlled and randomized phase II study was conducted with 2 doses of 100 µg of UB-612 (n = 3,875, 18-85 years old). We evaluated interim safety and immunogenicity of phase I until 14 days after the third (booster) dose and of phase II until 28 days after the second dose.ResultsNo vaccine-related serious adverse events were recorded. The most common solicited adverse events were injection site pain and fatigue, mostly mild and transient. In both trials, UB-612 elicited respective neutralizing antibody titers similar to a panel of human convalescent sera. The most striking findings were long-lasting virus-neutralizing antibodies and broad T cell immunity against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VoCs), including Delta and Omicron, and a strong booster-recalled memory immunity with high cross-reactive neutralizing titers against the Delta and Omicron VoCs.ConclusionUB-612 has presented a favorable safety profile, potent booster effect against VoCs, and long-lasting B and broad T cell immunity that warrants further development for both primary immunization and heterologous boosting of other COVID-19 vaccines.Trial RegistrationClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04545749, NCT04773067, and NCT04967742.FundingUBI Asia, Vaxxinity Inc., and Taiwan Centers for Disease Control, Ministry of Health and Welfare.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes , Young Adult
3.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(11)2021 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488530

ABSTRACT

Concerns over the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and control measures have affected the routine outpatient visits of individuals with comorbidities and their mental well-being. From October 2019 to August 2020, this cross-sectional study enrolled 135 patients who sought medical attention at a medical center in Taiwan. This period covered the early (October to December 2019), peak (January to April 2020), and late (May to August 2020) periods of the COVID-19 outbreak in Taiwan. The demographic data, social support data, activities of daily living (ADL), resilience scale scores, and mental well-being scale scores of the participants were compared. There were no statistically significant differences in the participation rate, demographic data, and social support data between the three periods. The correlation analysis confirmed significant negative relationships between the number of COVID-19 cases and outpatient department visits per month (r = -0.764, p < 0.001), emergency department visits per month (r = -0.023, p < 0.001), ADL (r = -0.257, p = 0.03), resilience scale (r = -0.390, p < 0.001), and mental well-being scale (r = -0.475, p < 0.001). In conclusion, the severity of the COVID-19 outbreak in Taiwan was associated with declines in the ADL, mental well-being, and resilience of patients who sought medical attention.

5.
Crit Care Med ; 48(5): e391-e399, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-661181

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the safety, feasibility, and possible adverse events of single-dose human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells in patients with moderate-to-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. DESIGN: Prospective phase I clinical trial. SETTING: Medical center in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. PATIENTS: Moderate-to-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome with a PaO2/FIO2 ratio less than 200. INTERVENTIONS: Scaling for doses was required by Taiwan Food and Drug Administration as follows: the first three patients received low-dose human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (1.0 × 10 cells/kg), the next three patients with intermediate dose (5.0 × 10 cells/kg), and the final three patients with high dose (1.0 × 10 cells/kg) between December 2017 and August 2019. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Nine consecutive patients were enrolled into the study. In-hospital mortality was 33.3% (3/9), including two with recurrent septic shock and one with ventilator-induced severe pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema. No serious prespecified cell infusion-associated or treatment-related adverse events was identified in any patient. Serial flow-cytometric analyses of circulating inflammatory biomarkers (CD14CD33/CD11b+CD16+/CD16+MPO+/CD11b+MPO+/CD14CD33+) and mesenchymal stem cell markers (CD26+CD45-/CD29+CD45-/CD34+CD45-/CD44+CD45-/CD73+CD45-/CD90+CD45-/CD105+CD45-/CD26+CD45-) were notably progressively reduced (p for trend < 0.001), whereas the immune cell markers (Helper-T-cell/Cytotoxity-T-cell/Regulatory-T-cell) were notably increased (p for trend < 0.001) after cell infusion. CONCLUSIONS: The result of this phase I clinical trial showed that a single-dose IV infusion of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells was safe with favorable outcome in nine acute respiratory distress syndrome patients.


Subject(s)
Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/physiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Umbilical Cord/physiology , Adult , Aged , Drug Dosage Calculations , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Male , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/mortality , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/classification , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Severity of Illness Index
6.
Biomed J ; 43(4): 314-317, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-436885

ABSTRACT

By the request of the Minister of Health and Welfare, NHRI Biobank was assigned to establish a COVID-19 biobank in early Feb, 2020 to collect COVID-19 patients' blood samples for Taiwan researchers and industries in an emergent way. It was set up in less than 3 weeks and quickly opened for application. By August 5, 2020, this COVID-19 biobank has collected 165 blood samples of 110 patients from more than 10 hospitals across north, middle and south part of Taiwan, including both COVID-19 (+) and (-) pneumonia patients. This biobank can provide applicants with biosamples, such as serum, DNA and RNA, and also the clinical and genomic data, so as to accelerate the COVID-19 treatment and prevention research in Taiwan. This COID-19 biobank already received 15 applications. It has become the most important research resource for the COVID-19 pandemic in Taiwan, including new screening reagents, disease mechanism, the variable human responses and epidemic preventions. Since it is publicly available for both academic and industrial applicants.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biological Specimen Banks , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Taiwan/epidemiology
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