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PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333583


While SARS-CoV-2 infection has pleiotropic and systemic effects in some patients, many others experience milder symptoms. We sought a holistic understanding of the severe/mild distinction in COVID-19 pathology, and its origins. We performed a whole-blood preserving single-cell analysis protocol to integrate contributions from all major cell types including neutrophils, monocytes, platelets, lymphocytes and the contents of serum. Patients with mild COVID-19 disease display a coordinated pattern of interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression across every cell population and these cells are systemically absent in patients with severe disease. Severe COVID-19 patients also paradoxically produce very high anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers and have lower viral load as compared to mild disease. Examination of the serum from severe patients demonstrates that they uniquely produce antibodies with multiple patterns of specificity against interferon-stimulated cells and that those antibodies functionally block the production of the mild disease-associated ISG-expressing cells. Overzealous and auto-directed antibody responses pit the immune system against itself in many COVID-19 patients and this defines targets for immunotherapies to allow immune systems to provide viral defense. ONE SENTENCE SUMMARY: In severe COVID-19 patients, the immune system fails to generate cells that define mild disease;antibodies in their serum actively prevents the successful production of those cells.

Information Communication & Society ; : 18, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1585603


In efforts to curb the spread of COVID-19, many countries have implemented a variety of lockdown and quarantine measures. With substantially reduced face-to-face interactions, many people may have relied heavily on social media for connection, information, and entertainment. However, little is known about the psychological and physical health implications of social media use during strict lockdown. The current study investigates the associations of social media use with psychological well-being and physical health among Wuhan residents (N = 1214). Our findings showed that non-COVID related self-disclosure was positively associated with psychological well-being, while COVID related information consumption and sharing were negatively associated with psychological well-being. Further, more generic use of social media was associated with lower psychological well-being, which in turn related to more somatic symptoms. Quarantined people used social media more frequently than non-quarantined people. Importantly, the negative association between social media use and psychological well-being was significantly stronger for quarantined people than unquarantined people.

Environmental Research Letters ; 16(10), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1506231


Growth in aviation contributes more to global warming than is generally appreciated because of the mix of climate pollutants it generates. Here, we model the CO2 and non-CO2 effects like nitrogen oxide emissions and contrail formation to analyse aviation’s total warming footprint. Aviation contributed approximately 4% to observed human-induced global warming to date, despite being responsible for only 2.4% of global annual emissions of CO2. Aviation is projected to cause a total of about 0.1 °C of warming by 2050, half of it to date and the other half over the next three decades, should aviation’s pre-COVID growth resume. The industry would then contribute a 6%–17% share to the remaining 0.3 °C–0.8 °C to not exceed 1.5 °C–2 °C of global warming. Under this scenario, the reduction due to COVID-19 to date is small and is projected to only delay aviation’s warming contribution by about five years. But the leveraging impact of growth also represents an opportunity: aviation’s contribution to further warming would be immediately halted by either a sustained annual 2.5% decrease in air traffic under the existing fuel mix, or a transition to a 90% carbon-neutral fuel mix by 2050.