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1.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-1280, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967446

ABSTRACT

Background & Aims: Prior studies have indicated the presence of hepatic inflammation (as signified by elevated liver function test (LFT) values), as conferring an escalated risk toward adverse outcomes in patients admitted with COVID-19. In line with this hypothesis, we study the various thresholds of LFTs and its associated prognostic risks toward COVID- 19 related hospital deaths Method: This was a single-center retrospective study involving patients admitted with COVID-19. Univariate Cox regression analysis identified the LFT variables significantly associated with our primary endpoint, in-hospital death. Subsequently, 500 iterations of thresholds were generated for each biomarker to estimate the prognostic relationship between biomarker and endpoint. Multivariate Cox regression and event-analyses were performed for each threshold to identify the minimal cutoffs at which the prognostic relationship was significant. Event curves were drawn for each significant relationship. Results: A total of 858 patients with COVID-19 were included with a median follow-up time of 5 days from admission. From the total, 90 patients passed away during admission (10.5%). The deceased cases were more likely to be older (66.2 vs 55.3y p<0.001);however, there was no difference in gender (male: 66 vs 56.2% p=0.11). Between the cases and controls (no-death), deceased cases had higher incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (7.78 vs 2.99% p=0.042), COPD (18.9 vs 7.80% p=0.001), lung cancer (4.44 vs 0.65% p= 0.009), ICU admissions (81.1 vs 26% p<0.001), and intubation events (84.4 vs 19.5% p<0.001), however there was no difference in alcohol use (21.1 vs 30.6% p=0.083) and alcoholic liver disease (5.56 vs 2.08% p=0.097). Upon univariate Cox analysis, the following LFT parameters were associated with in-hospital death: Bilirubin (p<0.001), AST (p<0.001), ALT (p<0.001). However, alkaline phosphatase (p=0.449) was not associated with the primary endpoint. The iterations of event regression analyses using 500 sequences of LFT thresholds showed the following cutoffs to be significantly associated with in-hospital death (minimally significant values): ALT (281.71 IU/L), AST (120.94 IU/L), bilirubin (2.615 mg/ dL). On the multivariate analysis, while controlling for demographics and cardiopulmonary/ medical comorbidities, the following adjusted hazard ratios were derived for each cutoff: ALT (aHR: 6.43 95%CI 1.85-22.40), AST (aHR: 3.35 95%CI 1.84-6.11), and bilirubin (aHR: 2.77 95%CI 1.15-6.65). Conclusion: The delineated cutoffs for AST, ALT, and bilirubin levels can serve as clinical benchmarks to help determine when a COVID-19 infection poses significant risk. Given this finding, the cutoffs can be used as part of a risk assessment for patients to support early preventative therapies and medical management. (Table Presented)

2.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-1279-S-1280, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967445

ABSTRACT

Background and Aims: While the relationship between elevated liver enzymes and COVID- 19 related adverse events is well-established, a liver-dependent prognostic model that predicts the risk of death is helpful to accurately stratify admitted patients. In this study, we use a bootstrapping-enhanced method of regression modeling to predict COVID-19 related deaths in admitted patients. Method: This was a single-center, retrospective study. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed using 30-day mortality as the primary endpoint to establish associated hepatic risk factors. Regression-based prediction models were constructed using a series of modeling iterations with an escalating number of categorical terms. Model performance was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Model accuracy was internally validated using bootstrapping-enhanced iterations. Results: 858 patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 were included. 78 were deceased by 30 days (9.09%). Cox regression (greater than 20 variables) showed the following core variables to be significant: INR (aHR 1.26 95%CI 1.06-1.49), AST (aHR 1.00 95%CI 1.00- 1.00), age (aHR 1.05 95%CI 1.02-1.08), WBC (aHR 1.07 95%CI 1.03-1.11), lung cancer (aHR 3.38 95%CI 1.15-9.90), COPD (aHR 2.26 95%CI 1.21-4.22). Using these core variables and additional categorical terms, the following model iterations were constructed with their respective AUC;model 1 (core only): 0.82 95%CI 0.776-0.82, model 2 (core + demographics): 0.828 95%CI 0.785-0.828, model 3 (prior terms + additional biomarkers): 0.842 95%CI 0.799-0.842, model 4 (prior terms + comorbidities): 0.851 95%CI 0.809-0.851, model 5 (prior terms + life-sustaining therapies): 0.933 95%CI 0.91-0.933, model 6 (prior terms + COVID-19 medications): 0.934 95%CI 0.91-0.934. Model 1 demonstrated the following parameters at 0.91 TPR: 0.54 specificity, 0.17 PPV, 0.98 NPV. Bootstrapped iterations showed the following AUC for the respective models: model 1: 0.82 95%CI 0.765-0.882, model 2 0.828 95%CI 0.764-0.885, model 3 0.842 95%CI 0.779-0.883, model 4: 0.851 95%CI 0.808-0.914, model 5: 0.933 95%CI 0.901-0.957, model 6: 0.934 95%CI 0.901- 0.961. Conclusion: Model 1 displays high prediction performance (AUC >0.8) in both regression-based and bootstrapping-enhanced modeling iterations. Therefore, this model can be adopted for clinical use as a calculator to evaluate the risk of 30-day mortality in patients admitted with COVID-19. (Table Presented)

3.
Global Business and Finance Review ; 27(3):56-74, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1964842

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of characteristics of the service quality of e-commerce platforms on customer satisfaction and purchase intention. Design/methodology/approach: The proposed research model and a set of hypotheses were developed and tested using structural equation modeling based on data collected from 172 e-commerce users in Uzbekistan. Findings: The findings of this study revealed that while the responsiveness of e-commerce platforms is non-essential, website design, reliability, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use are essential elements for customer satisfaction in e-commerce. The results indicated that website design, perceived usefulness, and customer satisfaction positively affect purchase intention for e-commerce platforms in Uzbekistan. Research limitations/implications: The study provided that COVID-19 significantly impacted the development and acceptance of e-commerce platforms in Uzbekistan. The results of this study suggested practical insights for improving customer satisfaction and service quality on e-commerce platforms in Uzbekistan. Originality/value: Uzbekistan is a developing country with great potential;however, until recently, little research has been conducted on the Uzbek e-commerce market. From this perspective, this study fills this gap by analyzing the relationship among service quality, technology acceptance factors, customer satisfaction, and purchase intention by applying the initial TAM model. Therefore, it is essential to determine the key factors for improving e-commerce service quality. © The Author(s).

4.
Journal of World Popular Music ; 9(1-2):246-268, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1963115

ABSTRACT

Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, the music industry was already experiencing uncertainty as musicians experimented with new modes of dissemination and monetization following developments in telecommunications. The arrival of the internet instigated varying, sometimes contradictory, cultural concerns including dispersion, dissipation, preservation, development, homogenization and heterogeneity. Guitar players have traditionally formed local networks and communities in geo-located domains. However, in the twenty-first century, community domains also include virtual spaces. An immersive netnographic study investigated activities in online guitar communities from the perspective of UNESCO’s Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage. Data were analysed using the protocols of Inductive Thematic Analysis generating seven codes, regarding the impact of COVID-19 on virtual guitar communities. Without doubt, the pandemic has had serious negative effects on individual musicians’ and live venues’ income streams. However, it does seem to have acted as a catalyst for fresh vigour within online communities seeking new ways to connect. With more artists sharing and interacting, the result could be a richer environment in the future. However, without a strong recognition of cultural responsibility this richness may result in a homogenous melting pot. Alternatively, it may also bring to light cultural expressions previously suppressed © Equinox Publishing Ltd 2022, Office 415, The Workstation, 15 Paternoster Row, Sheffield S1 2BX

5.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927874

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Some biomarkers of host response to viral infection are associated with COVID-19 outcomes, but these biomarkers do not directly measure viral burden. The association between plasma viral antigen levels and clinical outcomes has not been previously studied. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between plasma SARS-CoV-2 viral antigen concentration and proximal clinical deterioration in hospitalized patients. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen concentrations were measured using a validated microbead immunoassay (Quanterix, NIH/NIAID laboratory) in plasma collected at enrollment from 256 subjects in a prospective observational cohort of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 from 3 hospitals, admitted between March 2020 and August 2021. Relationships between viral antigen concentration and clinical status at 1 week as measured by the World Health Organization (WHO) ordinal scale as well as ICU admission were assessed. Models were adjusted for age and sex, baseline comorbidities including immunosuppression, endogenous neutralizing antibodies, baseline COVID-19 severity, smoking status, remdesivir therapy, steroid therapy, and vaccine status. Missing covariate data were imputed using multiple imputation by chained equations. RESULTS: The median viral antigen concentration for the 35 subjects who deteriorated by 1 week was 4507 (IQR 1225-9665) pg/mL compared to 494 (IQR 18-3882) pg/mL in the 212 subjects who did not (p = 0.0004 Figure a). Using ordinal regression, each doubling in viral antigen concentration was significantly associated with a worse WHO ordinal scale at 1 week (unadjusted OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.02-1.13;adjusted OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.02-1.18). Among 168 patients not in the ICU at baseline, the median viral antigen concentration for the 40 patients who progressed to the ICU was 4697 (IQR 482- 10410) pg/mL vs. 459 (IQR 15-3062) pg/mL in the 128 patients who did not progress to require ICU care (p = 0.0001 Figure b). Using logistic regression, each doubling in viral antigen concentration was significantly associated with ICU admission (unadjusted OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.06-1.32, adjusted OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.11-1.76). CONCLUSIONS: Higher plasma viral antigen concentration at hospital admission is independently associated with a significantly worse clinical status at 1 week and a higher odds of ICU admission among hospitalized patients with COVID-19. This novel finding indicates that plasma viral antigen concentration may identify hospitalized COVID-19 patients at highest risk of short-term clinical deterioration in both clinical practice and research. Results of plasma antigen tests are available within 2-3 hours and could be integrated for identifying hospitalized COVID-19 patients who might benefit from early intervention.

6.
Sleep ; 45(SUPPL 1):A163, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927405

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Telehealth has been widely integrated into healthcare systems during the COVID-19 pandemic and is likely to remain a part of routine clinical care. At the VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System (VAGLAHS), positive airway pressure (PAP) set-up visits transitioned from in person to telehealth for newly diagnosed sleep apnea patients during the pandemic. The telehealth pathway included mailing of PAP machines to patients with follow-up video/phone education by respiratory therapists (RTs). As part of a larger study examining the clinical outcomes resulting from telehealth versus in-person PAP initiation, we performed a cost analysis of these two treatment pathways within VAGLAHS. Methods: We examined the total variable direct cost of telehealth versus in-person PAP initiation for patients newly diagnosed with sleep apnea at VAGLAHS between March and October 2021 (n = 2,662 PAP set-ups) using a bottom-up analysis. There was an average of 16 PAP set-ups per day with 11 set-ups (68.7%) via telehealth and 5 set-ups (31.3%) in person. Results: The total variable direct cost of telehealth PAP initiation was $98.87 per patient. The total variable direct cost of in-person PAP initiation was $50.58 per patient. For telehealth, there was an additional cost of mailing the PAP machine and 31.2% more RT time spent on educating patients compared to the in-person pathway. After the initial PAP set-up visit, a larger subset of patients required additional troubleshooting help from RTs about proper PAP use after telehealth compared to in-person set-ups (5% versus 1%). Conclusion: The telehealth PAP initiation pathway was nearly two times the cost of in-person PAP initiation. This resulted from the additional cost of mailing the PAP machine, more RT time spent on education, and a greater need for troubleshooting after the visit. Telehealth visits may need to be supplemented by written educational materials or web-based resources to reduce the need for additional support after the initial visit.

7.
Obstetrics and Gynecology ; 139(SUPPL 1):7S, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925363

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Online-based applications have provided patients with an additional method of obtaining short-acting hormonal contraception and reduced barriers to contraceptive care. This study aims to assess patient perspectives on online methods of obtaining birth control and to explore barriers to obtaining contraception through traditional means. METHODS: We conducted a single-site cross-sectional survey study to assess the perspectives of reproductive-age females on web-based sources for contraception. Univariate analysis of raw data was performed and frequency distributions for survey items were determined. This study was approved by the institutional review board. RESULTS: We had 96 English-speaking, reproductive-age women recruited from the waiting room of an urban obstetrics and gynecology clinic. Of survey respondents, 34.4% knew that prescriptions for birth control are available online, while only 4.4% have ever obtained birth control online and 3.3% currently get their birth control through online methods. Top barriers to obtaining contraception via doctors' offices included time off from work/school (49.4%), flexible appointment scheduling (33.8%), and finding childcare (27.3%). One-fourth of participants reported that they delayed getting birth control from a doctor's office due to concerns related to COVID-19. Many (85.1%) would return for other obstetrics and gynecology care if they had access to contraception online. After learning about online methods of obtaining short acting contraceptives, 49.26% of respondents agreed or strongly agreed that they would use them instead of getting birth control from an office visit. CONCLUSION: Although patient knowledge and use of online contraceptive methods remain limited, patients are receptive to trying web-based contraceptive options, which may reduce barriers associated with traditional contraceptive care.

8.
Polymer Composites ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1919440

ABSTRACT

With respect to the explosion of single-use plastic packaging consumption during the COVID-19 pandemic, environmentally friendly substitutes are critically needful for sustainable development. Therefore, the present work focuses on the functional properties of bioplastic blends prepared through hot compressing molding of thermoplastic starch (TPS) and spent coffee grounds (SCG) in different ratios (0%–20% SCG) as the potential features of SCG were extensively employed in biocomposites for the first time. The insertion of dark brown SCG into TPS hindered UV transmission by 100% at 320 nm and 99.2% at 400 nm. Moreover, the samples with 15% and 20% SCG induced a surge in radical scavenging activity from 7.95% to over 92% at a concentration of 0.1 g/ml owing to the rich source of antioxidants in SCG. The lignin component and high carbon content also improved the thermal performance of TPS/SCG blends, enhancing thermal stability, delaying onset and maximum degradation temperatures, and achieving the HB rating in the UL-94 test. Compared to a pure TPS matrix, TPS blends incorporating up to 10% SCG exhibited improvement in elastic modulus without deterioration of tensile strength. © 2022 Society of Plastics Engineers.

10.
Korean Chemical Engineering Research ; 60(2):282-288, 2022.
Article in Korean | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1870102

ABSTRACT

Facial masks have become indispensable in daily life to prevent infection and spread through respiratory droplets in the era of the corona pandemic. To understand how effective two different types of masks (i.e., KF-94 mask and dental mask) are in blocking respiratory droplets, i) we preferentially analyze wettability characteristics (e.g., contact angle and contact angle hysteresis) of filters consisting of each mask, and ii) subsequently observe the dynamic behaviors of microdroplets impacting at high velocities on the filter surfaces. Different wetting properties (i.e., hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity) are found to exhibit depending on the constituent materials and pore sizes of each filter. In addition, the pneumatic conditions for stably and uniformly dispensing microdroplets with a certain volume and impacting behaviors associated with the impacting velocity and filter type change are systematically explored. Three distinctive dynamics constituting the masks and droplet impact velocity. The present experimental results not only provide very useful

12.
12th International Conference on ICT Convergence (ICTC) - Beyond the Pandemic Era with ICT Convergence Innovation ; : 486-489, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1853462

ABSTRACT

This paper proposes virtual reality content for non-face-to-face job education and job experience With the development of digital devices and communication technology, online communities are emerging, and people's lifestyles are also changing. Recently, due to COVID-19, telecommuting and online classes through video conferencing programs have been conducted, and they have also begun to be used for interviews. However, job training and hands-on activities other than classes after employment were mainly conducted offline, and virtual reality content was devised for non-face-to-face job education and job experience First, it was developed for the purpose of job experience, and content was produced under the theme of horticulture artists who are not well recognized as jobs but perform familiar tasks. It was configured similarly to the natural environment with the aim of rapid adaptation of users. In addition, heart rate data through heart rate sensors were used to induce intensive participation in the content of users and to elicit emotional stability.

13.
2022 International Conference on Electronics, Information, and Communication, ICEIC 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1831817

ABSTRACT

Since the first advent of SARS-CoV-2 in December 2019, Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is still affecting the world. In the pandemic situation of the novel infectious disease, early detection of COVID-19 infection and severity for febrile respiratory patients is critical for efficient management of the medical system delivery system with limited medical personnel and facilities. Thus, we propose early triage exploiting data-driven strategical methods and machine learning techniques using the data of 5,628 admitted patients provided by Korea Central Disease Control Headquarters and 50 confirmed cases in Korea University Ansan Hospital. We proved validity of our data-driven strategies with machine learning models accuracy by doing 200 experiments and find out the features that affect COVID-19 through various feature selection in each medical inspection step. As a result, Stage 5 shows the results of blood test could affect to classify critical and severe cases obtaining precision of 0.2, 0.03 higher than without blood test results. But Stage 3 without blood test results achieved the highest accuracy of 0.88 showing possibility of early triage system without blood test. In conclusion, our triage system, based on data-driven strategies and machine learning techniques, can help in early detection and triage of COVID-19 patients. © 2022 IEEE.

14.
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters ; 50(1):95-101, 2022.
Article in Korean | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1819165

ABSTRACT

Due to the pandemic caused by COVID-19, the demand for face masks is soaring and has often caused a shortage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ultraviolet (UV) and drying treatments on microbial contaminants in facial masks. To conduct this study, standard procedures were designed to develop samples contaminated by the control bacteria Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The contamination level of the standard samples was approximately 6.30 × 106 CFU/ml, and the UV light treatment was performed 1, 3, 5, and 7 times. To evaluate the effect of the UV and drying treatments, the masks were first treated with UV 1, 2, and 3 times, followed by the drying process. As a result, the mask contaminated with E. coli and P. aeruginosa showed a bacterial rate of approximately 99.9% after 1 UV irradiation, and in the case of the S. aureus-contaminated mask, it exhibited a bactericidal rate of approximately 99.9% after 7 UV irradiations. However, when the drying process was included after UV irradiation, all the samples contaminated with E. coli, S. aureus, and P. aeruginosa showed a bactericidal rate of 99.9% or more. The results of this study suggest that UV and drying treatments can effectively reduce the bacterial contaminants in facial masks. In addition, these results provide fundamental data and appropriate sterilization methods for reusing masks.

16.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333875

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Infection with SARS-CoV-2 is typically compared with influenza to contextualize its health risks. SARS-CoV-2 has been linked with coagulation disturbances including arterial thrombosis, leading to considerable interest in antithrombotic therapy for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the independent thromboembolic risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with influenza remains incompletely understood. We evaluated the adjusted risks of thromboembolic events after a diagnosis of COVID-19 compared with influenza in a large retrospective cohort. METHODS: We used a US-based electronic health record (EHR) dataset linked with insurance claims to identify adults diagnosed with COVID-19 between April 1, 2020 and October 31, 2020. We identified influenza patients diagnosed between October 1, 2018 and April 31, 2019. Primary outcomes [venous composite of pulmonary embolism (PE) and acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT);arterial composite of ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction (MI)] and secondary outcomes were assessed 90 days post-diagnosis. Propensity scores (PS) were calculated using demographic, clinical, and medication variables. PS-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: There were 417,975 COVID-19 patients (median age 57y, 61% women), and 345,934 influenza patients (median age 47y, 66% women). Compared with influenza, patients with COVID-19 had higher venous thromboembolic risk (HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.38-1.70), but not arterial thromboembolic risk (HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.95-1.10). Secondary analyses demonstrated similar risk for ischemic stroke (HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.98-1.25) and MI (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.85-1.03) and higher risk for DVT (HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.19-1.56) and PE (HR 1.82, 95% CI 1.57-2.10) in patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: In a large retrospective US cohort, COVID-19 was independently associated with higher 90-day risk for venous thrombosis, but not arterial thrombosis, as compared with influenza. These findings may inform crucial knowledge gaps regarding the specific thromboembolic risks of COVID-19.

17.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333583

ABSTRACT

While SARS-CoV-2 infection has pleiotropic and systemic effects in some patients, many others experience milder symptoms. We sought a holistic understanding of the severe/mild distinction in COVID-19 pathology, and its origins. We performed a whole-blood preserving single-cell analysis protocol to integrate contributions from all major cell types including neutrophils, monocytes, platelets, lymphocytes and the contents of serum. Patients with mild COVID-19 disease display a coordinated pattern of interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression across every cell population and these cells are systemically absent in patients with severe disease. Severe COVID-19 patients also paradoxically produce very high anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers and have lower viral load as compared to mild disease. Examination of the serum from severe patients demonstrates that they uniquely produce antibodies with multiple patterns of specificity against interferon-stimulated cells and that those antibodies functionally block the production of the mild disease-associated ISG-expressing cells. Overzealous and auto-directed antibody responses pit the immune system against itself in many COVID-19 patients and this defines targets for immunotherapies to allow immune systems to provide viral defense. ONE SENTENCE SUMMARY: In severe COVID-19 patients, the immune system fails to generate cells that define mild disease;antibodies in their serum actively prevents the successful production of those cells.

18.
Cytotherapy (Elsevier Inc.) ; 24(5):S109-S110, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1783861
19.
Community Ment Health J ; 2022 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1772946

ABSTRACT

Crisis Resolution and Home Treatment Teams (CRHTTs) provide 24-hour, seven day per week support for people in crisis. The COVID-19 pandemic has placed significant demand on urgent care and increased the need for brief interventions in CRHTT settings with flexible methods of delivery. This evaluation aimed to examine client satisfaction with the 'Crisis Toolbox' (CTB), a brief, skills-based intervention delivered in one CRHTT during COVID-19. All participants who received the CTB completed a satisfaction questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were calculated to quantify acceptability and qualitative themes were generated using thematic analysis. Fifty-eight people participated, all of whom reported high levels of satisfaction with the CTB. Four qualitative themes also emerged relating to 'Active ingredients of the CTB', 'The therapeutic relationship', 'Service-user preferences' and 'Expectations and continuity of care'. The CTB appears to be a valued intervention. Further research is now needed to assess its clinical impact and effect on operational indicators.

20.
Measurement Science and Technology ; 33(6):21, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1769098

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has spread to nearly every corner of the globe, significantly impacting economies and societies. Despite advances in detection technologies that target viral pathogens, all countries are facing an unprecedented need to perform biosensing in a rapid, sensitive, selective, and reliable way to deal with global and urgent problems. To date, the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction has been the gold-standard method for COVID-19 diagnosis. However, it requires complex facilities and elaborate training and is hampered by limited testing capacity and delayed results. Herein, we review state-of-the-art research into point-of-care biosensors for early severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection. We include a general description of the nanotechnological techniques used to develop biosensors, along with the latest research into various biosensors for SARS-CoV-2 detection and a summary of their limitations for practical use. Finally, we discuss future perspectives and directions. This critical review offers the biosensor community insight into how to progress the present research, which may streamline the removal of the problems facing rapid and large-scale SARS-CoV-2 screening.

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