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1.
New Physics: Sae Mulli ; 72(7):525-536, 2022.
Article in Korean | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2090457

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to alleviate the difficulty of teaching online physics experiments. To this end, five methods for teaching online physics experiments based on a literature review are summarized: experiments using simulations, experimental videos, remote experiments, experiments focusing on data analysis, and hands-on experiments at home. In this study, the advantages and disadvantages of these five online experimental methods and the conditions for effectively using online physical experiments are summarized. Therefore, the results of this study should be useful for teaching actual online physical experiments. Although this study was initiated because of complete online education caused by COVID-19, online physics learning should continue to expand in ordinary learning situations. Therefore, the results of this study can be meaningfully used even after the COVID-19 pandemic. © 2022 The Korean Physical Society. All rights reserved.

2.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science ; 63(7):3764-F0185, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2058370

ABSTRACT

Purpose : Understanding of the ocular manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is continuing to develop. While ocular symptoms, chiefly conjunctivitis, have been reported, retinal pathologies have been suggested as a rarer complication and are hypothesized to derive from a combination of the inflammatory and vasculopathic effects of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Using a retrospective, observational case series design, we describe a series of four eyes in three patients with acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN) and paracentral acute middle maculopathy (PAMM) associated with COVID-19 illness. Methods : Our practice's electronic medical record (EMR) was retrospectively queried for patients from April 2020 to December 2021 who had been diagnosed with AMN or PAMM and COVID-19 illness. Three patients were identified by this method. Patient demographic information, physical exam, optical coherence tomography (OCT), infrared reflectance (IR), and fluorescein angiography (FA) studies were all used for analysis. Results : Imaging signs of AMN were revealed in four eyes in three female patients, aged 22, 32, and 64 years old, all with confirmed symptomatic COVID-19 corresponding to the start of visual symptoms. The average onset of visual symptoms from COVID-19 illness was 14 days (range 0-56). 4/4 eyes were symptomatic for scotomata. Average logMAR visual acuity was 0.024 (Snellen 20/21, range 0-0.097). 4/4 eyes demonstrated typical findings of AMN: IR imaging with prominent dark petaloid or ovoid parafoveal lesions and corresponding disruption of the ellipsoid zone on OCT (Fig. 1). FA imaging did not show any abnormal fluorescence pattern. Autofluorescence in 1/4 eyes demonstrated hyperautofluorescence corresponding to the abnormal area on IR imaging (Fig. 2). Two month follow-up showed persistent symptoms of scotomata with unchanged findings on follow-up imaging in 100% of cases. Conclusions : This series demonstrates that, although rare, SARS-CoV-2 infection may result in microvasculopathic injuries to the retina, namely AMN and PAMM. (Figure Presented).

3.
J Hosp Infect ; 131: 12-22, 2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049482

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Disinfection is one of the most effective ways to block the rapid transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Due to the prolonged coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, disinfectants have become crucial to prevent person-to-person transmission and decontaminate hands, clothes, facilities and equipment. However, there is a lack of accurate information on the virucidal activity of commercial disinfectants. AIM: To evaluate the virucidal efficacy of 72 commercially available disinfectants constituting 16 types of ingredients against SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 was tested with various concentrations of disinfectants at indicated exposure time points as recommended by the manufacturers. The 50% tissue culture infectious dose assay was used to calculate virus titre, and trypan blue staining and CCK-8 were used to assess cell viability after 3-5 days of SARS-CoV-2 infection. FINDINGS: This study found that disinfectants based on 83% ethanol, 60% propanol/ethanol, 0.00108-0.0011% sodium dichloroisocyanurate and 0.497% potassium peroxymonosulfate inactivated SARS-CoV-2 effectively and safely. Although disinfectants based on 0.05-0.4% benzalkonium chloride (BAC), 0.02-0.07% quaternary ammonium compound (QAC; 1:1), 0.4% BAC/didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC), 0.28% benzethonium chloride concentrate/2-propanol, 0.0205-0.14% DDAC/polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride (PHMB) and 0.5% hydrogen peroxide inactivated SARS-CoV-2 effectively, they exhibited cytotoxicity. Conversely, disinfectants based on 0.04-4% QAC (2:3), 0.00625% BAC/DDAC/PHMB, and 0.0205-0.14% and 0.0173% peracetic acid showed approximately 50% virucidal efficacy with no cytotoxicity. Citric acid (0.4%) did not inactivate SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that most commercially available disinfectants exert a disinfectant effect against SARS-CoV-2. However, re-evaluation of the effective concentration and exposure time of certain disinfectants is needed, especially citric acid and peracetic acid.

4.
23rd IEEE International Conference on Mobile Data Management, MDM 2022 ; 2022-June:169-178, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2037826

ABSTRACT

Epidemics such as COVID-19, SARS, H1N1 have highly transmissible viruses and spread wildly through the population with negative consequences. Multiple studies have shown the correlation between the contact networks between individuals and the transmission of infections due to contact between colocated individuals. To mitigate the transmission of the virus, intervention measures have been applied without decisive success. Therefore, reducing transmissions through suitable epidemicaware POI recommendations to users is necessary to cope with user mobility. Current POI recommendation approaches do not take into consideration the transmission of infections between co-located users. In this paper, we formulate a new query named Epidemic-aware POI Recommendation Query (EPQ), to timely recommend a set of POIs to users at different time steps, while considering the spread of infection between co-located users, their social friendships, and their preference. We prove that EPQ is NP-hard and propose an effective and efficient algorithm, Epidemic-aware POI Recommendation (EpRec) to tackle EPQ. We evaluate EpRec on existing location-based social networks and pandemic datasets against state-of-the-art algorithms. The experimental results show that EpRec outperforms the baselines in effectiveness and efficiency. © 2022 IEEE.

5.
BMJ Supportive and Palliative Care ; 11:A82, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032528

ABSTRACT

Project ECHO is an innovative tele-mentoring programme designed to create virtual communities of learners by bringing together health care providers and subject matter experts using videoconference technology, brief lecture presentations, casebased learning, fostering an 'all teach, all learn' approach. In April 2020 a six-month pilot of Project ECHO was commenced to support end-of -life care education in primary care as a response to the COVID-19 pandemic. A scoping exercise was undertaken with the multidisciplinary primary care team across a defined geographical area. Following the scoping exercise a curriculum was devised. Speakers were arranged which included a palliative care medical consultant, a specialist pharmacist and speciality doctor who led the taught aspects of each of the six sessions drawing on their clinical expertise and previous teaching experience. The attendees had the opportunity to submit a case study for discussion during each ECHO session, the case studies were used to evoke discussion, promote shared learning and develop a community of practice. During the pandemic this format also created an opportunity for peer supervision and sharing of clinical knowledge and experience across a wider network of practitioners. Considering the project took place during a pandemic there was 83% attendance from those that had booked onto the sessions. At the end of each session an instant poll was available to be completed by the attendees to evaluate the session. Attendees fed-back how valuable they found the sessions especially the opportunity to discuss case studies, share best practice and debrief during what has been a particularly difficult time for the primary care sector. The online format allowed more people to attend than would normally be achieved in face-to-face training. Due to the project's success further funding was agreed to extend the project beyond the original sixmonth pilot.

6.
Innovation in Aging ; 5:1043-1043, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2012454
7.
Hong Kong Journal of Paediatrics ; 27(1):62, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2003513

ABSTRACT

Aim: To discuss and share experiences in implementing Family centered care (FCC) models in Hong Kong - Shenzhen Hospital (HKU-SZH). Met hods: At present, FCC has not been wel l implemented in China and most NICU adopt closed management. Since December 2013, our department has introduced the FCC concept and implemented 24-hour opening ward, providing family members with a series of services including ward rounds, progressive health education, palliative care, breast-feeding, cold chain support of breast milk, breast milk bank, family visit, followup after discharge, and mutual support group for family members. The above services were maintained during the COVID-19 period. Results: 10,615 newborns were treated from December 2013 to December 2020, the minimum gestational age of preterm infants treated successfully was 22+6 weeks and the minimum weight was 500g. The patient satisfaction rate in 2020 was 99.9%, and the average breastfeeding rate in 2020 was 84% while 83.4% of full-term infants and 90.2% of premature infants were breast-fed. (A multi-center survey of 974 cases of nutrition-related status of preterm infants in NICU in China reported that 13.6% of preterm infants were breast-fed during 2005-2006) The nosocomial infection rate from 2014 to 2020 was controlled between 0.41% and 2.02%. Literature showed that the incidence rate of nosocomial infection in neonatal care units of 17 grade A general hospitals in China from 2013 to 2014 was 3.35%. Conclusion: An open NICU based on the FCC concept is feasible and contributes to increased breastfeeding rates and patient satisfaction without increasing the incidence of nosocomial infections.

10.
Obstetrics and Gynecology ; 139(SUPPL 1):78S-79S, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925146

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG) recommends screening for depression and anxiety at least once during the perinatal period and again during postpartum checks. The delivery of validated screening tools varies amongst institutions and individual obstetricians. The objectives of this study were to assess our institution's baseline screening rates and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on maternal mental health. METHODS: Our patient population was pregnant and postpartum patients at Carilion Clinic from January 2019 to July 2020. Data collected from medical records included scores of the Edinburgh Perinatal Depression Screening (EPDS), Personal Health Questionnaire (PHQ) 2 and 9, demographics, and psychiatric history. Screening rates and incidence of mood disorders were compared between pre- and intra-COVID-19 cohorts. RESULTS: Of the 850 women included, 43.5% (n=370) were screened during perinatal visits and 49.8% (n=424) postpartum. Screenings were completed more frequently during postpartum checks pre-COVID-19 compared to during the pandemic with PHQ-2 (27.4% vs. 16.1%, P=.0001) and PHQ-9 (10.3% vs. 5.4%, P=.011). More women screened positive for depression at perinatal checks during the pandemic compared to pre-pandemic (13.2% vs. 4.7%, P=.0377). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected rates of maternal depression screening and has significant mental health impacts on this population. This study reveals baseline rates of screening in perinatal and postpartum visits at our institution, which is critical to delivery of quality care. This information will help inform strategies to increase rates of screening and ensure that mental health needs are being addressed, especially in times of emergency.

11.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):141, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880901

ABSTRACT

Background: The kinetics and functional profiles (granzyme-B production) of HIV-specific T-cell responses support that those targeting the early viral gene product Nef disproportionately recognize residual antigen expression during long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART). Here, we leveraged this insight to test whether SARS-CoV2 mRNA vaccines-which activate TLR and inflammatory signaling pathways-would reactivate latent HIV, stimulating T-cell responses with these characteristics. Methods: T-cell responses to individual HIV gene products were measured by IFN-g or granzyme B ELISPOT, and by activation induced marker (AIM) assays at baseline and ∼2 weeks after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine prime and boost, in 13 long-term ART treated adults. Total and unspliced HIV mRNA, as well as intact and defective (IPDA) HIV DNA were measured in parallel by digital droplet PCR (ddPCR). Results: We observed transient increases Nef-specific T-cell responses following vaccine prime by granzyme B ELISPOT (3.1-fold increase, p=0.002) and a trend by AIM assay (1.5-fold increase, p=0.06). Such increases were not observed in granzyme B responses to late gene products nor in any IFN-g responses. Both unspliced and total HIV mRNA decreased significantly across the study, unspliced-1.6-fold decrease p = 0.03;total-1.5-fold decrease p = 0.05. Changes in total HIV mRNA correlated inversely with Nef-specific granzyme B-producing (spearman's ρ =-0.73, p = 0.006) and Nef-specific CD8+ AIM T-cell responses (ρ =-0.76, p = 0.006) following vaccine prime. These reductions in HIV RNA were not accompanied by significant changes in total or intact HIV DNA. Conclusion: Consistent with our hypothesis, a restricted profile of HIV-specific T-cell responses showed significant increases following SARS-CoV-2 vaccine prime, each of which were then correlated with reductions in HIV RNA. This supports that vaccination promoted productive interactions between Nef-specific CTL and HIV-infected cells in vivo. We propose three scenarios for why this was not reflected in reductions in intact or total HIV DNA: i) meaningful depletions in inducible proviruses occurred but were lost against the background of non-inducible proviruses ii) interactions with CTL involved only a fraction of inducible proviruses, or iii) substantive proviral depletions occurred, but were counterbalanced by clonal expansion of HIV-infected cells.

12.
Journal of Nursing Regulation ; 13(1):27-34, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1848890

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has placed nursing at the forefront of public attention across the globe and has highlighted the criti-cal role of nursing in healthcare service provision. Advanced practice nursing has been recognized for more than 50 years, but the rate of its growth and development varies significantly across the world. One of the key aims of the Better Health Programme Mexico, which commenced in 2019, was to develop advanced practice nursing in Mexico. The Programme was based on the United Kingdom model, where advanced practice nursing has been in place-though not subject to statutory regulation-for more than 40 years. The aim of this article is to compare the frameworks that underpin advanced practice nursing in the United Kingdom and in Mexico. In the present article, current practice in both countries was researched, and the structure, systems, and processes relating to nursing regulation and the frameworks to support advanced practice nursing were examined. A gap analysis report undertaken as part of the Better Health Programme identified challenges in developing advanced practice nursing in Mexico and the United Kingdom and highlighted the need for stakeholders to agree on an approach toward a rigorous regulatory framework in both settings. In summary, this article highlights the issues facing nurses and regulators in both countries in terms of advanced practice nursing and identifies strategies that can be used to strengthen the advanced practice nurse role.

13.
Journal of Librarianship and Information Science ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1846690

ABSTRACT

As the COVID-19 pandemic prevails, research related to COVID-19 has spread beyond medicine, health science, and biology to almost all academic fields. Library and information science is one of the most active fields that publish COVID-19-related research papers. This study examined 696 research papers related to COVID-19 whose journal being categorized as “information science & library science” by Web of Science. The result of bibliometric analysis showed that the publications were active and on the rise. Most papers were published in English and produced in the United States. According to the keyword clustering map produced by semantic network analysis, two fields, bibliometrics and health communication, were publishing research papers related to COVID-19 most actively. Moreover, the most productive journal was a library and information science journal focusing on health informatics. Additionally, a tendency was found that researchers preferred to publish on journals with high impact factors. Compared with non-COVID-19-related research papers, there was a significant decrease of “time for acceptance” of COVID-19-related papers, and the proportion of open access was relatively high. Confronting the global crisis of COVID-19, the library and information science field also made efforts and challenges to resolve the slow peer-review, delayed publishing, and high paywalls, which have been recognized as a “chronic diseases” of the academic publishing ecosystem. It is expected that these endeavors can serve as a turning point to reconsider and innovate the traditional research-publishing lifecycle. © The Author(s) 2022.

14.
Measurement Science and Technology ; 33(6):21, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1769098

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has spread to nearly every corner of the globe, significantly impacting economies and societies. Despite advances in detection technologies that target viral pathogens, all countries are facing an unprecedented need to perform biosensing in a rapid, sensitive, selective, and reliable way to deal with global and urgent problems. To date, the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction has been the gold-standard method for COVID-19 diagnosis. However, it requires complex facilities and elaborate training and is hampered by limited testing capacity and delayed results. Herein, we review state-of-the-art research into point-of-care biosensors for early severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection. We include a general description of the nanotechnological techniques used to develop biosensors, along with the latest research into various biosensors for SARS-CoV-2 detection and a summary of their limitations for practical use. Finally, we discuss future perspectives and directions. This critical review offers the biosensor community insight into how to progress the present research, which may streamline the removal of the problems facing rapid and large-scale SARS-CoV-2 screening.

16.
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography ; 39(6):419-427, 2021.
Article in Korean | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1753944

ABSTRACT

Due to the effects of climate change and the reduction of the labor force due to COVID-19, the crop yield, harvest time, and cultivated area are rapidly changing every year. In order to respond flexibly to this situation, attempts to apply smart farm technology based on ICT (Information and Communication Technology) to individual farms are increasing. On the other hand, various stakeholders are trying to predict the yield of crops using artificial intelligence and IoT technology, but accurate prediction is difficult due to the lack of learning data. In this study, in order to overcome the data collection problem limited to a specific institution, a smart farmer service technology based on community mapping was developed in which farmers directly participate, input and share accurate data to predict production. In the process, analysis was performed on napa cabbage, which is a vegetable with a large price change compared to production. © 2021 Korean Society of Surveying. All rights reserved.

17.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S97-S98, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746770

ABSTRACT

Background. With the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, pediatric primary care delivery changed rapidly. Prior studies have demonstrated a reduction in ambulatory encounters and antibiotic prescriptions with the pandemic onset;however, the durability of these reductions in pediatric primary care in the United States has not been assessed. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated public health measures (e.g. social distancing, masking, school closures, and increased availability of telemedicine) on antibiotic prescribing and encounter volume in 27 pediatric primary care practices, and the duration of these changes. Patients under age 19 with an encounter from January 1, 2018 through December 31, 2020 were included. The primary outcome was monthly antibiotic prescriptions per 1000 patients, in the overall population and a subset of encounters with infectious diagnoses, including respiratory tract infections (RTIs). Interrupted time series (ITS) analysis was performed. Results. There were 60,562 total antibiotic prescriptions from April to December in 2019 and 14,605 antibiotic prescriptions during the same months in 2020, a 76% reduction. The reduction in RTI encounter prescriptions accounted for 91.5% of the overall reduction in prescriptions from 2019 to 2020. Using ITS analysis, there was an immediate decrease from 31.6 to 7.4 prescriptions/1000 patients (predicted means) in April 2020 (-24.2 prescriptions/1000 patients;95% CI: -31.9, -16.4) (Figures 1 and 2). This was followed by a stable rate of antibiotic prescriptions that remained flat through December 2020. For RTI encounters, a similar pattern was seen, with a decrease by 21.8 prescriptions/1000 patients;95% CI: -29.5, -14.2) (Figures 1 and 2). Encounter volume also decreased immediately, and while overall encounter volume began returning to a pre-pandemic baseline volume toward the end of the study period, RTI encounter volume remained persistently lower through December 2020 (Figure 3). RTI = respiratory tract infection;UTI = urinary tract infection;SSTI = skin and soft tissue infection. Months are numbered sequentially, starting with January (number 1). Dashed line indicates first full month of the pandemic, April 2020. Interrupted time series analysis for antibiotic prescriptions per 1000 patients by month from January 2018 to December 2020 for (A) all antibiotics as well as antibiotics prescribed at encounters with (B) respiratory tract infections (RTIs), (C) urinary tract infections (UTIs), and (D) skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) Intervention starts in April 2020 (dashed line). Months are numbered sequentially, starting with January (number 1). Dashed line indicates first full month of the pandemic, April 2020. Antibiotic prescriptions per 1000 billed encounters by month from January 2018 to December 2020 for (A) all encounters, as well as antibiotics prescribed at encounters with (B) respiratory tract infections (RTIs), (C) urinary tract infections (UTIs), and (D) skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) Months are numbered sequentially, starting with January (number 1). Conclusion. Dramatic reductions in antibiotic prescribing in pediatric primary care during the COVID-19 pandemic were sustained through 2020, primarily driven by reductions in RTI encounters.

18.
MEDLINE; 2021.
Preprint in English | MEDLINE | ID: ppcovidwho-329779

ABSTRACT

Background: Distribution of mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines to healthcare personnel (HCP) in the United States began in December 2020, with efficacy > 90%. However, breakthrough infections in fully vaccinated individuals have been reported. Meanwhile, multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern have emerged worldwide, including the B.1.427/B.1.429 variant first described in California. Little is known about the real-world effectiveness of the mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines against novel variants including B.1.427/B.1.429. Methods: In this quality improvement project, post-vaccine SARS-CoV-2 cases (PVSCs) were defined as individuals with positive SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) after receiving at least one dose of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Chart extraction of demographic and clinical information was performed, and available specimens meeting cycle threshold value criteria were tested for L452R, N501Y and E484K mutations by RT-PCR. Results: From December 2020 to March 2021, 189 PVSCs were identified out of 22,729 healthcare personnel who received at least one dose of an mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Of these, 114 (60.3%) occurred within 14 days of first vaccine dose (early post-vaccination), 49 (25.9%) within 14 days of the second vaccine dose (partially vaccinated), and 26 (13.8%) > 14 days after the second dose (fully vaccinated). Of 115 samples available for mutation testing, 42 were positive for L452R alone, presumptive of B.1.427/B.1.429;three had N501Y mutation alone and none were found with E484K mutation. Though on univariate analysis partially- and fully-vaccinated PVSCs were more likely than early post-vaccination PVSCs to be infected with presumptive B.1.427/B.1.429, when adjusted for community prevalence of B.1.427/B.1.429 at the time of infection, partially- and fully-vaccinated PVSC did not have statistically significantly elevated risk ratios for infection with this variant (RR 1.40, 95% CI 0.81-2.43 and RR 1.13, 95% CI 0.59-2.16, respectively). Conclusions: The great majority of PVSCs occurred prior to the expected onset of full, vaccine-derived immunity. Although the B.1.427/B.1.429 variant did not represent a significantly higher proportion of PVSCs than expected, numbers were small and there was a trend towards higher representation in the partially- and fully-vaccinated subset. Continued infection control measures in the workplace and in the community including social distancing and masking, particularly in the early days post-vaccination, as well as continued variant surveillance in PVSCs, is imperative in order to anticipate and control future surges of infection.

20.
Communications of the Acm ; 65(1):68-75, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1582902

ABSTRACT

THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC has arguably been our era's greatest threat to humanity and the global economy.16 South Korea's first confirmed case was in January 2020, followed by an outbreak in the city of Daegu in midFebruary. However, South Korea quickly and effectively contained the pandemic and became an exemplar for other countries.(3)

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