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1.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 3286, 2023 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231892

ABSTRACT

Some people remain healthier throughout life than others but the underlying reasons are poorly understood. Here we hypothesize this advantage is attributable in part to optimal immune resilience (IR), defined as the capacity to preserve and/or rapidly restore immune functions that promote disease resistance (immunocompetence) and control inflammation in infectious diseases as well as other causes of inflammatory stress. We gauge IR levels with two distinct peripheral blood metrics that quantify the balance between (i) CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell levels and (ii) gene expression signatures tracking longevity-associated immunocompetence and mortality-associated inflammation. Profiles of IR metrics in ~48,500 individuals collectively indicate that some persons resist degradation of IR both during aging and when challenged with varied inflammatory stressors. With this resistance, preservation of optimal IR tracked (i) a lower risk of HIV acquisition, AIDS development, symptomatic influenza infection, and recurrent skin cancer; (ii) survival during COVID-19 and sepsis; and (iii) longevity. IR degradation is potentially reversible by decreasing inflammatory stress. Overall, we show that optimal IR is a trait observed across the age spectrum, more common in females, and aligned with a specific immunocompetence-inflammation balance linked to favorable immunity-dependent health outcomes. IR metrics and mechanisms have utility both as biomarkers for measuring immune health and for improving health outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Longevity , Female , Humans , Aging , Inflammation , Outcome Assessment, Health Care
2.
J Cancer Educ ; 2022 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303257

ABSTRACT

For cancer patients undergoing treatment who may be at higher risk of COVID-19, access to high-quality online health information (OHI) may be of particular importance amidst a plethora of harmful medical misinformation online. Therefore, we assessed the readability and quality of OHI available for various cancer types and treatment modalities. Search phrases included "cancer radiation COVID," "cancer surgery COVID," "cancer chemotherapy COVID," and "cancer type COVID," for the fourteen most common cancer types (e.g., "prostate cancer COVID" and "breast cancer COVID"), yielding a total of 17 search phrases. The first 20 sources were recorded and analyzed for each keyword, yielding a total of 340 unique sources. For each of these sources, the approximate grade level required to comprehend the text was calculated as a mean of five validated readability scores; subsequently, for the first ten results of each search, the DISCERN tool was manually used to assess quality. Search terms were translated into Spanish and French, and a quality assessment using the Health on the Net Code (HONcode) accreditation was conducted. The median grade level readability for all sources was 13 (IQR 11-14). Median DISCERN scores for the 170 sources assessed were 55 out of 75, suggesting good quality. OHI with quality scores below the median DISCERN score had a median readability of 12.5 (IQR 11-14) grade reading level vs 14 (IQR 12-17) for those above the median DISCERN score (T-test P < 0.0001). Percentages of HONcode-accredited websites were 34.9%, 39.9%, and 38.6% for English, Spanish, and French OHI, respectively. We conclude that efforts are needed to make high-quality OHI available at the appropriate reading level for patients with cancer; such efforts may contribute to the alleviation of disparities in access to healthcare information.

4.
J Pediatr ; 257: 113358, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2271796

ABSTRACT

Using an electronic health record-based algorithm, we identified children with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) based exclusively on serologic testing between March 2020 and April 2022. Compared with the 131 537 polymerase chain reaction-positive children, the 2714 serology-positive children were more likely to be inpatients (24% vs 2%), to have a chronic condition (37% vs 24%), and to have a diagnosis of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (23% vs <1%). Identification of children who could have been asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic and not tested is critical to define the burden of post-acute sequelae of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Child , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2 , Cohort Studies , Electronic Health Records , Antibodies, Viral , Disease Progression , COVID-19 Testing
5.
JAMIA Open ; 6(1): ooad016, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269703

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Post-acute sequalae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) is not well defined in pediatrics given its heterogeneity of presentation and severity in this population. The aim of this study is to use novel methods that rely on data mining approaches rather than clinical experience to detect conditions and symptoms associated with pediatric PASC. Materials and Methods: We used a propensity-matched cohort design comparing children identified using the new PASC ICD10CM diagnosis code (U09.9) (N = 1309) to children with (N = 6545) and without (N = 6545) SARS-CoV-2 infection. We used a tree-based scan statistic to identify potential condition clusters co-occurring more frequently in cases than controls. Results: We found significant enrichment among children with PASC in cardiac, respiratory, neurologic, psychological, endocrine, gastrointestinal, and musculoskeletal systems, the most significant related to circulatory and respiratory such as dyspnea, difficulty breathing, and fatigue and malaise. Discussion: Our study addresses methodological limitations of prior studies that rely on prespecified clusters of potential PASC-associated diagnoses driven by clinician experience. Future studies are needed to identify patterns of diagnoses and their associations to derive clinical phenotypes. Conclusion: We identified multiple conditions and body systems associated with pediatric PASC. Because we rely on a data-driven approach, several new or under-reported conditions and symptoms were detected that warrant further investigation.

6.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 12(3): 159-162, 2023 Apr 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2241829

ABSTRACT

Using electronic health record data combined with primary chart review, we identified seven children across nine participant pediatric medical centers with a diagnosis of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) managed exclusively as outpatients. These findings should raise awareness of mild presentations of MIS-C and the option of outpatient management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Outpatients , Humans , Child , Cohort Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
7.
BMJ Lead ; 2023 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2213989

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in multiple logistical and communication challenges in the face of ever-changing guidance, disease prevalence and increasing evidence. METHODS: At Stanford Children's Health (SCH), we felt physician input was an important element of pandemic response infrastructure, given our lens into patient care across its continuum. We formed the COVID-19 Physician Liaison Team (CPLT) consisting of representative physicians across the care continuum. The CPLT met regularly and communicated to the SCH's COVID-19 task force responsible for the ongoing organisation pandemic response. The CPLT problem-solved around various issues including testing, patient care on our COVID-19 inpatient unit and communication gaps. RESULTS: The CPLT contributed to conservation of rapid COVID-19 tests for critical patient care needs, decreased incident reports on our COVID-19 inpatient unit and helped enhance communication across the organisation, with a focus on physicians. CONCLUSION: In retrospect, the approach taken was in line with a distributed leadership model with physicians as integral members contributing to active lines of communication, continual problem-solving and new pathways to provide care.

8.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 43(6): 687-713, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185241

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this document is to highlight practical recommendations to assist acute care hospitals to prioritize and implement strategies to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), ventilator-associated events (VAE), and non-ventilator hospital-acquired pneumonia (NV-HAP) in adults, children, and neonates. This document updates the Strategies to Prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Acute Care Hospitals published in 2014. This expert guidance document is sponsored by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology (SHEA), and is the product of a collaborative effort led by SHEA, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Hospital Association, the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, and The Joint Commission, with major contributions from representatives of a number of organizations and societies with content expertise.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Pneumonia , Adult , Child , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia/epidemiology , Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia/prevention & control , Hospitals , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infection Control , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/prevention & control , Ventilators, Mechanical/adverse effects
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(45): 1436-1441, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117675

ABSTRACT

Four COVID-19 vaccines are currently approved for primary series vaccination in the United States under a Biologics License Application or authorized under an emergency use authorization (EUA) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and recommended for primary series vaccination by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP): 1) the 2- or 3-dose monovalent mRNA BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech, Comirnaty) COVID-19 vaccine; 2) the 2- or 3-dose monovalent mRNA mRNA-1273 (Moderna, Spikevax) COVID-19 vaccine; 3) the single-dose adenovirus vector-based Ad26.COV.S (Janssen [Johnson & Johnson]) COVID-19 vaccine; and 4) the 2-dose adjuvanted, protein subunit-based NVX-CoV2373 (Novavax) COVID-19 vaccine. The number of doses recommended is based on recipient age and immunocompromise status (1). For additional protection, FDA has amended EUAs to allow for COVID-19 booster doses in eligible persons (1). Because COVID-19 vaccines have demonstrated decreased effectiveness during the period when the Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) of SARS-CoV-2 predominated, bivalent booster doses (i.e., vaccine with equal components from the ancestral and Omicron strains) were considered for the express purpose of improving protection conferred by COVID-19 vaccine booster doses (2). During September-October 2022, FDA authorized bivalent mRNA vaccines for use as a booster dose in persons aged ≥5 years who completed any FDA-approved or FDA-authorized primary series and removed EUAs for monovalent COVID-19 booster doses (1). Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna bivalent booster vaccines each contain equal amounts of spike mRNA from the ancestral and Omicron BA.4/BA.5 strains. After the EUA amendments, ACIP and CDC recommended that all persons aged ≥5 years receive 1 bivalent mRNA booster dose ≥2 months after completion of any FDA-approved or FDA-authorized monovalent primary series or monovalent booster doses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Advisory Committees , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination
10.
JAMA Pediatr ; 176(10): 1000-1009, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1999806

ABSTRACT

Importance: The postacute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) has emerged as a long-term complication in adults, but current understanding of the clinical presentation of PASC in children is limited. Objective: To identify diagnosed symptoms, diagnosed health conditions, and medications associated with PASC in children. Design, Setting and Participants: This retrospective cohort study used electronic health records from 9 US children's hospitals for individuals younger than 21 years who underwent antigen or reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing for SARS-CoV-2 between March 1, 2020, and October 31, 2021, and had at least 1 encounter in the 3 years before testing. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 positivity by viral test (antigen or RT-PCR). Main Outcomes and Measures: Syndromic (symptoms), systemic (conditions), and medication PASC features were identified in the 28 to 179 days following the initial test date. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) were obtained for 151 clinically predicted PASC features by contrasting viral test-positive groups with viral test-negative groups using proportional hazards models, adjusting for site, age, sex, testing location, race and ethnicity, and time period of cohort entrance. The incidence proportion for any syndromic, systemic, or medication PASC feature was estimated in the 2 groups to obtain a burden of PASC estimate. Results: Among 659 286 children in the study sample, 348 091 (52.8%) were male, and the mean (SD) age was 8.1 (5.7) years. A total of 59 893 (9.1%) tested positive by viral test for SARS-CoV-2, and 599 393 (90.9%) tested negative. Most were tested in outpatient testing facility settings (322 813 [50.3%]) or office settings (162 138 [24.6%]). The most common syndromic, systemic, and medication features were loss of taste or smell (aHR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.16-3.32), myocarditis (aHR, 3.10; 95% CI, 1.94-4.96), and cough and cold preparations (aHR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.18-1.96), respectively. The incidence of at least 1 systemic, syndromic, or medication feature of PASC was 41.9% (95% CI, 41.4-42.4) among viral test-positive children vs 38.2% (95% CI, 38.1-38.4) among viral test-negative children, with an incidence proportion difference of 3.7% (95% CI, 3.2-4.2). A higher strength of association for PASC was identified in those cared for in the intensive care unit during the acute illness phase, children younger than 5 years, and individuals with complex chronic conditions. Conclusions and Relevance: In this large-scale, exploratory study, the burden of pediatric PASC that presented to health systems was low. Myocarditis was the most commonly diagnosed PASC-associated condition. Acute illness severity, young age, and comorbid complex chronic disease increased the risk of PASC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(31): 988-992, 2022 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975490

ABSTRACT

The NVX-CoV2373 (Novavax) COVID-19 vaccine is a recombinant spike (rS) protein nanoparticle vaccine with Matrix-M adjuvant to protect against infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. On July 13, 2022, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for the Novavax vaccine for primary COVID-19 immunization of unvaccinated adults aged ≥18 years, administered as 2 doses (5 µg rS and 50 µg Matrix-M adjuvant in each dose) 3 weeks apart (1). On July 19, 2022, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) issued an interim recommendation for use of the Novavax vaccine in persons aged ≥18 years for the prevention of COVID-19.* In the per-protocol† efficacy analysis, vaccine efficacy (VE) against reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-confirmed symptomatic COVID-19 was 89.6% (95% CI = 82.4%-93.8%). The Alpha variant (B.1.1.7) of SARS-CoV-2 was the predominant circulating variant during the period of case accrual for VE assessments. Cases of myocarditis or pericarditis were reported in temporal association with vaccination, suggesting a possible causal relationship. The ACIP recommendation for the use of the Novavax COVID-19 vaccine is interim and will be updated as additional information becomes available. The adjuvanted, protein subunit-based Novavax COVID-19 vaccine provides an additional option for unvaccinated adults, increasing flexibility for the public and for vaccine providers. Vaccination is important for protection against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , Advisory Committees , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunization , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination
12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(26): 859-868, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1912316

ABSTRACT

On June 17, 2022, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) amendments for the mRNA-1273 (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccine for use in children aged 6 months-5 years, administered as 2 doses (25 µg [0.25 mL] each), 4 weeks apart, and BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) COVID-19 vaccine for use in children aged 6 months-4 years, administered as 3 doses (3 µg [0.2 mL] each), at intervals of 3 weeks between doses 1 and 2 and ≥8 weeks between doses 2 and 3. On June 18, 2022, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) issued separate interim recommendations for use of the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine in children aged 6 months-5 years and the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine in children aged 6 months-4 years for the prevention of COVID-19.* Both the Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccines met the criteria for immunobridging, which is the comparison of neutralizing antibody levels postvaccination in young children with those in young adults in whom efficacy had been demonstrated. Descriptive efficacy analyses were also conducted for both Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccines during the period when the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) predominated. No specific safety concerns were identified among recipients of either vaccine. ACIP recommendations for the use of the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine and the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine in children aged 6 months-5 years and 6 months-4 years, respectively, are interim and will be updated as additional information becomes available. Vaccination is important for protecting children aged 6 months-5 years against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Advisory Committees , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Immunization , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination , Young Adult
13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886371

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since its emergence in late 2019, SARS-CoV-2 continues to pose a risk to healthcare personnel (HCP) and patients in healthcare settings. Although all clinical interactions likely carry some risk of transmission, human actions like coughing and care activities like aerosol-generating procedures likely have a higher risk of transmission. The rapid emergence and global spread of SARS-CoV-2 continues to create significant challenges in healthcare facilities, particularly with shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE) used by HCP. Evidence-based recommendations for what PPE to use in conventional, contingency, and crisis standards of care continue to be needed. Where evidence is lacking, the development of specific research questions can help direct funders and investigators. OBJECTIVE: Develop evidence-based rapid guidelines intended to support HCP in their decisions about infection prevention when caring for patients with suspected or known COVID-19. METHODS: IDSA formed a multidisciplinary guideline panel including frontline clinicians, infectious disease specialists, experts in infection control, and guideline methodologists with representation from the disciplines of public health, medical microbiology, pediatrics, critical care medicine and gastroenterology. The process followed a rapid recommendation checklist. The panel prioritized questions and outcomes. Then a systematic review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature was conducted. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to assess the certainty of evidence and make recommendations. RESULTS: The IDSA guideline panel agreed on eight recommendations, including two updated recommendations and one new recommendation added since the first version of the guideline. Narrative summaries of other interventions undergoing evaluations are also included. CONCLUSIONS: Using a combination of direct and indirect evidence, the panel was able to provide recommendations for eight specific questions on the use of PPE for HCP providing care for patients with suspected or known COVID-19. Where evidence was lacking, attempts were made to provide potential avenues for investigation. There remain significant gaps in the understanding of the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 and PPE recommendations may need to be modified in response to new evidence. These recommendations should serve as a minimum for PPE use in healthcare facilities and do not preclude decisions based on local risk assessments or requirements of local health jurisdictions or other regulatory bodies.

14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(11)2022 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869581

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the mental health of populations and highlighted the limitations of mental health care systems. As the trajectory of the pandemic and the economic recovery are still uncertain, decision tools are needed to help evaluate the best interventions to improve mental health outcomes. We developed a system dynamics model that captures causal relationships among population, demographics, post-secondary education, health services, COVID-19 impact, and mental health outcomes. The study was conducted in the Australian state of Victoria. The model was calibrated using historical data and was stratified by age group and by geographic remoteness. Findings demonstrate that the most effective intervention combination includes economic, social, and health sector initiatives. Assertive post-suicide attempt care is the most impactful health sector intervention, but delaying implementation reduces the potency of its impact. Some evidence-based interventions, such as population-wide community awareness campaigns, are projected to worsen mental health outcomes when implemented on their own. Systems modelling offers a powerful decision-support tool to test alternative strategies for improving mental health outcomes in the Victorian context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Victoria/epidemiology
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(14): 517-523, 2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780340

ABSTRACT

Cardiac complications, particularly myocarditis and pericarditis, have been associated with SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) infection (1-3) and mRNA COVID-19 vaccination (2-5). Multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS) is a rare but serious complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection with frequent cardiac involvement (6). Using electronic health record (EHR) data from 40 U.S. health care systems during January 1, 2021-January 31, 2022, investigators calculated incidences of cardiac outcomes (myocarditis; myocarditis or pericarditis; and myocarditis, pericarditis, or MIS) among persons aged ≥5 years who had SARS-CoV-2 infection, stratified by sex (male or female) and age group (5-11, 12-17, 18-29, and ≥30 years). Incidences of myocarditis and myocarditis or pericarditis were calculated after first, second, unspecified, or any (first, second, or unspecified) dose of mRNA COVID-19 (BNT162b2 [Pfizer-BioNTech] or mRNA-1273 [Moderna]) vaccines, stratified by sex and age group. Risk ratios (RR) were calculated to compare risk for cardiac outcomes after SARS-CoV-2 infection to that after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. The incidence of cardiac outcomes after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination was highest for males aged 12-17 years after the second vaccine dose; however, within this demographic group, the risk for cardiac outcomes was 1.8-5.6 times as high after SARS-CoV-2 infection than after the second vaccine dose. The risk for cardiac outcomes was likewise significantly higher after SARS-CoV-2 infection than after first, second, or unspecified dose of mRNA COVID-19 vaccination for all other groups by sex and age (RR 2.2-115.2). These findings support continued use of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines among all eligible persons aged ≥5 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Pericarditis , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/etiology , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
16.
Pediatrics ; 149(4)2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760012

ABSTRACT

This national study evaluated trends in illness severity among 82 798 children with coronavirus disease 2019 from March 1, 2020, to December 30, 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Patient Acuity , Severity of Illness Index
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(11): 416-421, 2022 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1744554

ABSTRACT

The mRNA-1273 (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccine is a lipid nanoparticle-encapsulated, nucleoside-modified mRNA vaccine encoding the stabilized prefusion spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. During December 2020, the vaccine was granted Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) issued an interim recommendation for use among persons aged ≥18 years (1), which was adopted by CDC. During December 19, 2020-January 30, 2022, approximately 204 million doses of Moderna COVID-19 vaccine were administered in the United States (2) as a primary series of 2 intramuscular doses (100 µg [0.5 mL] each) 4 weeks apart. On January 31, 2022, FDA approved a Biologics License Application (BLA) for use of the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine (Spikevax, ModernaTX, Inc.) in persons aged ≥18 years (3). On February 4, 2022, the ACIP COVID-19 Vaccines Work Group conclusions regarding recommendations for the use of the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine were presented to ACIP at a public meeting. The Work Group's deliberations were based on the Evidence to Recommendation (EtR) Framework,* which incorporates the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach† to rank evidence quality. In addition to initial clinical trial data, ACIP considered new information gathered in the 12 months since issuance of the interim recommendations, including additional follow-up time in the clinical trial, real-world vaccine effectiveness studies, and postauthorization vaccine safety monitoring. ACIP also considered comparisons of mRNA vaccine effectiveness and safety in real-world settings when first doses were administered 8 weeks apart instead of the original intervals used in clinical trials (3 weeks for BNT162b2 [Pfizer-BioNTech] COVID-19 vaccine and 4 weeks for Moderna COVID-19 vaccine). Based on this evidence, CDC has provided guidance that an 8-week interval might be optimal for some adolescents and adults. The additional information gathered since the issuance of the interim recommendations increased certainty that the benefits of preventing symptomatic and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, hospitalization, and death outweigh vaccine-associated risks of the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine. On February 4, 2022, ACIP modified its interim recommendation to a standard recommendation§ for use of the fully licensed Moderna COVID-19 vaccine in persons aged ≥18 years.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/administration & dosage , Advisory Committees , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Health Planning Guidelines , Immunization Schedule , Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , United States
18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(6): 1081-1084, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707490

ABSTRACT

The clinical significance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) RNA in stool remains uncertain. We found that extrapulmonary dissemination of infection to the gastrointestinal tract, assessed by the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in stool, is associated with decreased coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survival. Measurement of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in stool may have utility for clinical risk assessment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Feces , Gastrointestinal Tract , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(5): 821-828, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705432

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although mRNA-based severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines report >90% efficacy, breakthrough infections occur. Little is known about their effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 variants, including the highly prevalent B.1.427/B.1.429 variant. METHODS: In this quality improvement project, we collected demographic and clinical information from post-vaccine SARS-CoV-2 cases (PVSCs), defined as healthcare personnel (HCP) with positive SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplification test after receiving ≥1 vaccine dose. Available specimens were tested for L452R, N501Y, and E484K mutations using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Mutation prevalence was compared among unvaccinated, early post-vaccinated (≤14 days after dose 1), partially vaccinated (positive test >14 days after dose 1 and <14 days after dose 2), and fully vaccinated (>14 days after dose 2) PVSCs. RESULTS: From December 2020 to April 2021, ≥23 090 HCP received ≥1 dose of an mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, and 660 HCP cases of SARS-CoV-2 occurred, of which 189 were PVSCs. Among the PVSCs, 114 (60.3%), 49 (25.9%), and 26 (13.8%) were early post-vaccination, partially vaccinated, and fully vaccinated, respectively. Of 261 available samples from vaccinated and unvaccinated HCP, 103 (39.5%), including 42 PVSCs (36.5%), had the L452R mutation presumptive of B.1.427/B.1.429. When adjusted for community prevalence of B.1.427/B.1.429, PVSCs did not have significantly elevated risk of B.1.427/B.1.429 compared with unvaccinated HCP. CONCLUSIONS: Most PVSCs occurred prior to expected onset of full, vaccine-derived immunity. Presumptive B.1.427/B.1.429 was not more prevalent in post-vaccine cases than in unvaccinated SARS-CoV-2 HCP. Continued infection control measures, particularly <14 days post-vaccination, and continued variant surveillance in PVSCs are imperative to control future SARS-CoV-2 surges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Academic Medical Centers , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Incidence , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination
20.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(3): 90-95, 2022 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636128

ABSTRACT

On February 27, 2021, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for the adenovirus-vectored COVID-19 vaccine (Janssen Biotech, Inc., a Janssen Pharmaceutical company, Johnson & Johnson), and on February 28, 2021, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) issued an interim recommendation for its use as a single-dose primary vaccination in persons aged ≥18 years (1,2). On April 13, 2021, CDC and FDA recommended a pause in the use of Janssen COVID-19 vaccine after reports of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS), a rare condition characterized by low platelets and thrombosis, including at unusual sites such as the cerebral venous sinus (cerebral venous sinus thrombosis [CVST]), after receipt of the vaccine.* ACIP rapidly convened two emergency meetings to review reported cases of TTS, and 10 days after the pause commenced, ACIP reaffirmed its interim recommendation for use of the Janssen COVID-19 vaccine in persons aged ≥18 years, but included a warning regarding rare clotting events after vaccination, primarily among women aged 18-49 years (3). In July, after review of an updated benefit-risk assessment accounting for risks of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and TTS, ACIP concluded that benefits of vaccination with Janssen COVID-19 vaccine outweighed risks. Through ongoing safety surveillance and review of reports from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), additional cases of TTS after receipt of Janssen COVID-19 vaccine, including deaths, were identified. On December 16, 2021, ACIP held an emergency meeting to review updated data on TTS and an updated benefit-risk assessment. At that meeting, ACIP made a recommendation for preferential use of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines over the Janssen COVID-19 vaccine, including both primary and booster doses administered to prevent COVID-19, for all persons aged ≥18 years. The Janssen COVID-19 vaccine may be considered in some situations, including for persons with a contraindication to receipt of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
Ad26COVS1/adverse effects , Advisory Committees , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Vaccination/standards , Adult , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , United States/epidemiology
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