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1.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 732450, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463487

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants that escape vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies has indicated the importance of T cell responses against this virus. In this study, we highlight the SARS-CoV-2 epitopes that induce potent T cell responses and discuss whether T cell responses alone are adequate to confer protection against SARS-CoV-2 and describe the administration of 20 peptides with an RNA adjuvant in mice. The peptides have been synthesized based on SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid protein sequences. Our study demonstrates that immunization with these peptides significantly increases the proportion of effector memory T cell population and interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-, interleukin-4 (IL-4)-, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-, and granzyme B-producing T cells. Of these 20 peptides, four induce the generation of IFN-γ-producing T cells, elicit CD8+ T cell (CTL) responses in a dose-dependent manner, and induce cytotoxic T lymphocytes that eliminate peptide-pulsed target cells in vivo. Although it is not statistically significant, these peptide vaccines reduce viral titers in infected hamsters and alleviate pulmonary pathology in SARS-CoV-2-infected human ACE2 transgenic mice. These findings may aid the design of effective SARS-CoV-2 peptide vaccines, while providing insights into the role of T cells in SARS-CoV-2 infection.

2.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 148(4): 996-1006.e18, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330917

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Our understanding of adaptive immune responses in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is rapidly evolving, but information on the innate immune responses by natural killer (NK) cells is still insufficient. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the phenotypic and functional status of NK cells and their changes during the course of mild and severe COVID-19. METHODS: We performed RNA sequencing and flow cytometric analysis of NK cells from patients with mild and severe COVID-19 at multiple time points in the course of the disease using cryopreserved PBMCs. RESULTS: In RNA-sequencing analysis, the NK cells exhibited distinctive features compared with healthy donors, with significant enrichment of proinflammatory cytokine-mediated signaling pathways. Intriguingly, we found that the unconventional CD56dimCD16neg NK-cell population expanded in cryopreserved PBMCs from patients with COVID-19 regardless of disease severity, accompanied by decreased NK-cell cytotoxicity. The NK-cell population was rapidly normalized alongside the disappearance of unconventional CD56dimCD16neg NK cells and the recovery of NK-cell cytotoxicity in patients with mild COVID-19, but this occurred slowly in patients with severe COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The current longitudinal study provides a deep understanding of the NK-cell biology in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , RNA-Seq
4.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 17(13), 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-662126

ABSTRACT

Studies have documented the impact of various types of health care information technology (HIT) on patient outcomes. However, literature on the HIT products is largely for outpatients and little is known about those for hospitalized patients. In 2014, a Korean hospital developed an inpatient portal known as the Smart Bedside Station (SBS). A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the associated factors for accessing the medication view menu (Today's Medication) on the SBS using data from October 2018 through September 2019. A root cause analysis with expert review was conducted to identify additional barriers for accessing the medication view menu. Approximately 92.58% of the study population accessed the SBS at least once during their hospital stay. However, 99.20% of accessed patients used the SBS for entertainment purposes (e.g., television) and 40.16% viewed the medication information. Younger age, higher education, and certain jobs were significant associated factors for accessing the medication information. In conclusion, this study revealed strong associations between accessing the medication view menu on the SBS and a number of associated factors. Based on the results, further research is warranted to suggest new items to access the medication view menu by hospitalized patients.

5.
Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 54(4): 163-167, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-718517

ABSTRACT

The dramatic spread of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has profound impacts on every continent and life. Due to human-to-human transmission of COVID-19, nuclear medicine staffs also cannot escape the risk of infection from workplaces. Every staff in the nuclear medicine department must prepare for and respond to COVID-19 pandemic which tailored to the characteristics of our profession. This article provided the guidance prepared by the Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine (KSNM) in cooperation with the Korean Society of Infectious Disease (KSID) and Korean Society for Healthcare-Associated Infection Control and Prevention (KOSHIC) in managing the COVID-19 pandemic for the nuclear medicine department. We hope that this guidance will support every practice in nuclear medicine during this chaotic period.

6.
Sci Immunol ; 5(49)2020 07 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639363

ABSTRACT

Although most SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals experience mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), some patients suffer from severe COVID-19, which is accompanied by acute respiratory distress syndrome and systemic inflammation. To identify factors driving severe progression of COVID-19, we performed single-cell RNA-seq using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from healthy donors, patients with mild or severe COVID-19, and patients with severe influenza. Patients with COVID-19 exhibited hyper-inflammatory signatures across all types of cells among PBMCs, particularly up-regulation of the TNF/IL-1ß-driven inflammatory response as compared to severe influenza. In classical monocytes from patients with severe COVID-19, type I IFN response co-existed with the TNF/IL-1ß-driven inflammation, and this was not seen in patients with milder COVID-19. Interestingly, we documented type I IFN-driven inflammatory features in patients with severe influenza as well. Based on this, we propose that the type I IFN response plays a pivotal role in exacerbating inflammation in severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunophenotyping , Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 , Cells, Cultured , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Influenza, Human/blood , Influenza, Human/virology , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Cell Analysis , Transcriptome , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
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