Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 64
Filter
1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15605, 2022 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069890

ABSTRACT

Frailty is an important risk factor for adverse health-related outcomes. It is classified into several phenotypes according to nutritional state and physical activity. In this context, we investigated whether frailty phenotypes were related to clinical outcome of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP). During the study period, a total of 526 patients were screened for HAP and 480 of whom were analyzed. The patients were divided into four groups according to physical inactivity and malnutrition: nutritional frailty (Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index [GNRI] < 82 and Clinical Frailty Scale [CFS] ≥ 4), malnutrition (GNRI < 82 and CFS < 4), physical frailty (GNRI ≥ 82 and CFS ≥ 4), and normal (GNRI ≥ 82 and CFS < 4). Among the phenotypes, physical frailty without malnutrition was the most common (39.4%), followed by nutritional frailty (30.2%), normal (20.6%), and malnutrition (9.8%). There was a significant difference in hospital survival and home discharge among the four phenotypes (p = 0.009), and the nutritional frailty group had the poorest in-hospital survival and home discharge (64.8% and 34.6%, respectively). In conclusion, there were differences in clinical outcomes according to the four phenotypes of HAP. Assessment of frailty phenotypes during hospitalization may improve outcomes through adequate nutrition and rehabilitation treatment of patients with HAP.


Subject(s)
Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic , Frailty , Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia , Malnutrition , Aged , Exercise , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/complications , Frailty/complications , Geriatric Assessment , Hospitals , Humans , Malnutrition/etiology
2.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(10)2022 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043663

ABSTRACT

The present study used a cross-sectional, descriptive survey design to investigate the influencing factors of COVID-19-related infection prevention behaviors of workers in the automobile manufacturing sector. An online survey was conducted on 157 workers in the automobile manufacturing sector of a company in Korea. We analyzed the collected data using SPSS to test whether there were significant differences in COVID-19 risk perception, crisis communication, health literacy, and infection prevention behaviors according to the general characteristics of the participants. An independent sample t-test and a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were performed. A Pearson's correlation analysis was performed to identify the correlations among COVID-19 risk perception, crisis communication, health literacy, and infection prevention behaviors. Multiple regression analysis was performed to identify the influencing factors of COVID-19 infection prevention behaviors. The regression model was found to be significant, and the employment period at current job, COVID-19 prevention education, source of information, COVID-19 risk perception, crisis communication, and health literacy were also found to be significant. Among the demographic variables, employment period at current job of 5-10 years showed a higher level of infection prevention behaviors than that of <5 years. Moreover, the level of infection prevention behaviors was also significantly higher when COVID-19-related information was acquired through the KDCA/health center. Higher COVID-19 risk perception, crisis communication, and health literacy were associated with significantly higher levels of infection prevention behaviors. Therefore, based on the results, health managers need to develop programs and educate and improve information comprehension and crisis communication skills in order to promote workers' infection prevention behaviors of emerging infectious diseases in an era of global change.

3.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(34): e262, 2022 Aug 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022639

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the effects of comprehensive rehabilitation management on functional recovery and examine the correlation between clinical parameters and improvements in functional outcomes in severe-to-critical inpatients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a tertiary hospital. METHODS: Post-acute COVID-19 patients who had a World Health Organization (WHO) ordinal scale of 5-7, underwent intensive care, and received comprehensive rehabilitation management, including exercise programs, nutritional support, dysphagia evaluation, and psychological care were included. The appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), Medical Research Council sum score, handgrip strength, number of repetitions in the 1-minute sit-to-stand test, gait speed, Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and Functional Ambulation Classification (FAC) were evaluated at hospital stay, discharge, and 1-month follow-up. The correlation between the rehabilitation dose and improvement in each outcome measure was analyzed. RESULTS: Overall, 37 patients were enrolled, of whom 59.5% and 32.4% had a score of 6 and 7 on the WHO ordinal scale, respectively. Lengths of stay in the intensive care unit and hospital were 33.6 ± 23.9 and 63.8 ± 36.5 days. Outcome measures revealed significant improvements at discharge and 1-month follow-up. The SMI was significantly increased at the 1-month follow-up (6.13 [5.24-7.76]) compared with that during the hospital stay (5.80 [5.39-7.05]). We identified dose-response associations between the rehabilitation dose and FAC (ρ = 0.46) and BBS (ρ = 0.50) scores. Patients with older age, longer hospitalization, longer stay at the intensive care unit, longer duration of mechanical ventilation, tracheostomy, a more depressive mood, and poorer nutritional status revealed poorer improvement in gait speed at the 1-month follow-up. CONCLUSION: Comprehensive rehabilitation management effectively improved muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance in severe-to-critical COVID-19 patients. Dose-response relationship of rehabilitation and functional improvement emphasizes the importance of intensive post-acute inpatient rehabilitation in COVID-19 survivors. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT05104411.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Hand Strength , Humans , Inpatients , Intensive Care Units , Tertiary Care Centers
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(35): e30073, 2022 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008661

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The respiratory system is the first line of defense against outside pollutants. Recently, respiratory health has been receiving increasing attention due to the increase in fine dust, which reduces respiratory function and increases incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and in coronavirus pandemic, which can cause severe acute respiratory syndrome. METHODS: This clinical pilot trial was designed to secure evidence for a main clinical trial and to confirm the efficacy and safety of Liriope platyphylla (LP) extract for improving respiratory function. We conducted a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial with 22 participants from June 30, 2021, to August 25, 2021. The primary outcome was Breathlessness, Cough, and Sputum Scale score. Secondary outcomes included forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1), forced expiratory volume at 1 s/forced vital capacity ratio, cough assessment test score, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease assessment test score, peripheral blood mononuclear cell counts (white blood cells, eosinophils, T cells, and B cells), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, cytokine (interleukin-1ß, interleukin-4, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, interferon-γ, and immunoglobulin E) levels, antioxidant (glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase) levels, and nitric oxide level. RESULTS: A total of 22 participants were randomly assigned to 2 groups: the LP group (n = 11), who took 1000 mg of LP extract per day, and the placebo group, who took 1000 mg of dextrin per day. Participants took 1 capsule twice a day for 4 weeks. For the Breathlessness, Cough, and Sputum Scale, the interaction between group and visit was statistically significant in a blend of analyses of variance. interleukin-8, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ levels decreased more in the LP group than in the placebo group. The sample size required for large-scale clinical trials in the future was 50. There were no side effects. CONCLUSION: LP extract can enhance respiratory function. The detailed data we obtained support conducting the future main large-scale clinical trial.


Subject(s)
Interleukin-8 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein , Cough/etiology , Dextrins/therapeutic use , Dust , Dyspnea/complications , Glutathione Peroxidase , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Interferon-gamma , Interleukin-1beta , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-6/therapeutic use , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Nitric Oxide , Pilot Projects , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Superoxide Dismutase , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/therapeutic use
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(17)2022 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006005

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the efficacy and safety of convalescent plasma (CP) transfusion against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) via a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). A total of 5467 articles obtained from electronic databases were assessed; however, only 34 RCTs were eligible after manually screening and eliminating unnecessary studies. The beneficial effect was addressed by assessing the risk ratio (RR) and standardized mean differences (SMDs) of the meta-analysis. It was demonstrated that CP therapy is not effective in improving clinical outcomes, including reducing mortality with an RR of 0.88 [0.76; 1.03] (I2 = 68% and p = 0.10) and length of hospitalization with SMD of -0.47 [-0.95; 0.00] (I2 = 99% and p = 0.05). Subgroup analysis provided strong evidence that CP transfusion does not significantly reduce all-cause mortality compared to standard of care (SOC) with an RR of 1.01 [0.99; 1.03] (I2 = 70% and p = 0.33). In addition, CP was found to be safe for and well-tolerated by COVID-19 patients as was the SOC in healthcare settings. Overall, the results suggest that CP should not be applied outside of randomized trials because of less benefit in improving clinical outcomes for COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
6.
Antiviral Res ; 205: 105381, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982553

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has raised the alarm to search for effective therapy for this virus. To date several vaccines have been approved but few available drugs reported recently still need approval from FDA. Remdesivir was approved for emergency use only. In this report, the SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro was expressed and purified. By using a FRET-based enzymatic assay, we have screened a library consisting of more than 300 different niclosamide derivatives and identified three molecules JMX0286, JMX0301, and JMX0941 as potent allosteric inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro, with IC50 values similar to that of known covalent inhibitor boceprevir. In a cell-based antiviral assay, these inhibitors can inhibit the virus growth with EC50 in the range of 2-3 µM. The mechanism of action of JMX0286, JMX0301, and JMX0941 were characterized by enzyme kinetics, affinity binding and protein-based substrate digestion. Molecular docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and hydration studies suggested that JMX0286, JMX0301, JMX0941 bind specifically to an allosteric pocket of the SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease. This study provides three potent compounds for further studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins
7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 912898, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957161

ABSTRACT

Two years into the COVID-19 pandemic there is still a need for vaccines to effectively control the spread of novel SARS-CoV-2 variants and associated cases of severe disease. Here we report a messenger RNA vaccine directly encoding for a nanoparticle displaying 60 receptor binding domains (RBDs) of SARS-CoV-2 that acts as a highly effective antigen. A construct encoding the RBD of the Delta variant elicits robust neutralizing antibody response, and also provides protective immunity against the Delta variant in a widely used transgenic mouse model. We ultimately find that the proposed mRNA RBD nanoparticle-based vaccine provides a flexible platform for rapid development and will likely be of great value in combatting current and future SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , mRNA Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Transgenic , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , mRNA Vaccines/immunology
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(5): e2212996, 2022 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1849966

ABSTRACT

Importance: The factors associated with long-term serum levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies after COVID-19 vaccination in healthy individuals have rarely been investigated. Objective: To investigate factors associated with anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study included health care workers at Kyungpook National University Chilgok Hospital (Daegu, Korea) with no history of SARS-CoV-2 infection who received 2 doses of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (Pfizer/BioNTech; first dose, March 17-20, 2021; second dose, April 7-10, 2021). Serum samples were collected at 2, 4, and 6 months after the second injection. Interventions: SARS-CoV-2 BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. Main Outcomes and Measures: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits up to 6 months after the receipt of 2 doses of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. The main outcome was factors associated with anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels at 6 months. Results: All 50 participants (mean [SD] age, 34.7 [9.4] years; 10 [20.0%] male; mean [SD] body mass index, 21.8 [5.4]) acquired anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and maintained positive antibody (cutoff ≥30%) up to 6 months. The mean serum antibody level decreased with time (91.9%, 89.3%, and 81.5% at 2, 4, and 6 months, respectively). Serum antibody levels at 6 months were correlated with antibody levels at 2 months (R = 0.944; P < .001). The anti-SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody level was inversely correlated with weight, body mass index, body fat amount, and body weight to height ratio in Spearman correlation analysis. A 1-SD increase in body weight, weight to height ratio, and body mass index was associated with a 4%- to 5%-decrease in anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in multiple linear regression analysis for women. In multivariate analysis for categorized variables, lower serum level of antibody (ie, <81.5%) was associated with weight (weight ≥55 kg: odds ratio, 9.01; 95% CI, 1.44-56.40). The probabilities of less than 70% and less than 80% antibody at 6 months were 0% and 11% in participants weighing less than 55 kg, respectively, but 16% and 42% in participants weighing 55 kg or greater. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, the inverse correlation of anti-SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody levels with weight was sustained up to 6 months after vaccination. A booster shot of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination may be given later than 6 months after the second dose in young and middle-aged healthy persons with low body weight.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , Body Weight , COVID-19/prevention & control , Demography , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
9.
Front Psychol ; 13: 861630, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834546

ABSTRACT

How can sport community involvement influence life satisfaction during a pandemic? Self-expansion theory posits that individuals seek to gain resources such as positive interpersonal relationships for growth and achievement. By considering psychological capital (PsyCap) as a dispositional resource intervening between sport community involvement and life satisfaction, we examined an empirical model to test the chain of effects. Based on the stress process model, distress and generational group (Generation Z vs. others) were tested as moderators. Participants (N = 233) responded to the scale item questionnaire for model assessment. Supporting the hypothesized relationships, the model was supported with a significant moderated-moderated mediation. The mediation effect of PsyCap was stronger when distress level was lower and such interaction effect was amplified for Generation Z (Gen Z). Whereas the global sport communities and Gen Z were found to be more particularly vulnerable to COVID-19, our findings suggest that there are psychological pathways for fans to maintain their resilience. It is foremost imperative to lower the stress level of sport fans for their community involvement to positively affect life satisfaction. Gen Z were more stressed during the pandemic but individuals who managed to cope with stress were able to leverage community involvement to boost positive psychological resources. Acknowledgment of these effects brings implications for better management strategies and provides avenues for new research.

10.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 256(3): 209-214, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808667

ABSTRACT

Insufficient data are available on comprehensive evaluation of demographics, symptoms or signs, laboratory findings, and disease course in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We aimed to evaluate whether COPD patients are more prone to severe COVID-19 compared with those without COPD. We also investigate the clinical characteristics and disease course of COVID-19 in patients with COPD versus those without COPD. Patients were selected from a Korean nationwide cohort of 5,628 patients with confirmed COVID-19 and who had completed treatment or quarantine by April 30, 2020; 3,673 patients aged 40 years or older were included in this study. COPD was diagnosed using patient reports of physician-diagnosed COPD. During the study period, all patients with COVID-19 in Korea were hospitalized following the national health policy. Of the study participants, 38 (1.0%) had COPD. Regarding initial symptoms, COPD patients with COVID-19 showed greater sputum production (50.0% vs. 29.8%, p < 0.01) and dyspnea (36.8% vs. 14.9%, p < 0.01) than those without COPD. In addition, patients with COPD were more likely to receive oxygen therapy or non-invasive ventilation (29.0% vs. 13.7%, p = 0.01) and had a higher mortality (21.1% vs. 6.4%, p < 0.01) than those without COPD. After adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and comorbidities, COPD patients showed increased risk of severe COVID-19 compared with those without COPD. Our nationwide study showed that COVID-19 patients with COPD have higher symptomatic burden and more severe disease course than those without COPD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
11.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-330864

ABSTRACT

This study empirically examines how the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has impacted foreign direct investment (FDI), using the quarterly data on bilateral FDI flows from 173 home to 192 host countries from the first quarter of 2019 to the second quarter of 2021. We measure the severity of COVID-19 damage using three indicators—the number of confirmed cases, the number of deaths, and the stringency index of government policies that restrict people’s activities. We also differentiate FDI flows via two different entry modes—greenfield FDI and cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&A). We find heterogeneous effects of COVID-19 impacts on FDI by sector and entry mode. The severity of COVID-19 in host countries adversely affected FDI in the manufacturing sector regardless of the entry mode, but the effect of home countries’ COVID-19 situation on FDI was insignificant. On the other hand, in the service sector, the severity of COVID-19 in both host and home countries has significantly negative impact on greenfield FDI, not on cross-border M&A.

12.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330759

ABSTRACT

Two years into the COVID-19 pandemic there is still a need for vaccines to effectively control the spread of novel SARS-CoV-2 variants and associated cases of severe disease. Here we report a messenger RNA vaccine directly encoding for a nanoparticle displaying 60 receptor binding domains (RBDs) of SARS-CoV-2 that acts as a highly effective antigen. A construct encoding the RBD of the delta variant elicits robust neutralizing antibody response with neutralizing titers an order of magnitude above currently approved mRNA vaccines. The construct also provides protective immunity against the delta variant in a widely used transgenic mouse model. We ultimately find that the proposed mRNA RBD nanoparticle-based vaccine provides a flexible platform for rapid development and will likely be of great value in combatting current and future SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern.

13.
Kidney Res Clin Pract ; 41(2): 263-266, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1743148
14.
J Infect Dis ; 225(5): 777-784, 2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722482

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are limited data directly comparing immune responses to vaccines and to natural infections with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study assessed the immunogenicity of the BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccines over a 3-month period and compared the immune responses with those to natural infections. METHOD: We enrolled healthcare workers who received BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccines and patients with confirmed COVID-19 and then measured S1 immunoglobulin (Ig) G and neutralizing antibodies and T-cell responses. RESULTS: A total of 121 vaccinees and 26 patients with confirmed COVID-19 were analyzed. After the second dose, the BNT162b2 vaccine yielded S1 IgG antibody responses similar to those achieved with natural infections (mean IgG titer [standard deviation], 2241 [899] vs 2601 [5039]; P = .68) but significantly stronger than responses to the ChAdOx1 vaccine (174 [96]; P < .001). The neutralizing antibody titer generated by BNT162b2 was 6-fold higher than that generated by ChAdOx1 but lower than that by natural infection. T-cell responses persisted for 3 months with BNT162b2 and natural infection but decreased with ChAdOx1. CONCLUSIONS: Antibody responses after the second dose of BNT162b2 are higher than after the second dose of ChAdOx1 and like those occurring after natural infection. T-cell responses are maintained longer in BNT162b2 vaccinees than in ChAdOx1 vaccinees.


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , /adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , /adverse effects , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccination
15.
Immune Netw ; 21(6): e41, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704288

ABSTRACT

Correlation between vaccine reactogenicity and immunogenicity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is unclear. Thus, we investigated to determine whether the reactogenicity after coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination is associated with antibody (Ab) titers and T cell responses. This study was prospective cohort study done with 131 healthcare workers at tertiary center in Seoul, South Korea. The degrees of the local reactions after the 1st and 2nd doses of ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (ChAdOx1) vaccination were significantly associated with the S1-specific IgG Ab titers (p=0.003 and 0.01, respectively) and neutralizing Ab (p=0.04 and 0.10, respectively) in age- and sex-adjusted multivariate analysis, whereas those after the BNT162b2 vaccination did not show significant associations. T cell responses did not show significant associations with the degree of reactogenicity after the ChAdOx1 vaccination or the BNT162b2 vaccination. Thus, high degree of local reactogenicity after the ChAdOx1 vaccine may be used as an indicator of strong humoral immune responses against SARS-CoV-2.

16.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314997

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Despite the proven benefits of dexamethasone in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, the optimum time for the administration of dexamethasone is unknown. We investigated the progression of COVID-19 pneumonia based on the timing of dexamethasone administration. Methods: : A single-center, retrospective cohort study based on medical record reviews was conducted between June 10 and September 21, 2020. We compared the risk of severe COVID-19, defined as the use of a high-flow nasal cannula or a mechanical ventilator, between groups that received dexamethasone either within 24 hours of hypoxemia (early dexamethasone group) or 24 hours after hypoxemia (late dexamethasone group). Hypoxemia was defined as room-air SpO 2 <90%. Results: : Among 59 patients treated with dexamethasone for COVID-19 pneumonia, 30 were in the early dexamethasone group and 29 were in the late dexamethasone group. There was no significant difference in baseline characteristics, the time interval from symptom onset to diagnosis or hospitalization, or the use of antiviral or antibacterial agents between the two groups. The early dexamethasone group showed a significantly lower rate of severe COVID-19 compared to the control group (75.9% vs 40.0%, P-value=0.012). Further, the early dexamethasone group showed a significantly shorter total duration of oxygen supplementation (10.45 d vs. 21.61 d, P-value=0.003) and length of stay in the hospital (19.76 d vs. 27.21 d, P-value=0.013). However, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and in-hospital mortality rates were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions: : Early administration of dexamethasone may prevent the progression of COVID-19 to a severe disease, without increased mortality.

17.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314226

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) started to spread in Daegu from the end of February 2020. IgG and IgM antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were measured in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 with moderate to severe symptoms to improve the understanding of antibody responses. Methods: : We enrolled 312 patients with COVID-19 admitted to seven hospitals located in Daegu. Using serum (or plasma) samples from patients with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections, both IgG and IgM antibodies were measured using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (R-FIND COVID-19 ELISA, SG medical, Seoul, Korea). Results: : The median value from the initial diagnosis by confirming SARS-CoV-2 PCR to the sampling date was 24 days (day -1 to 88). The total positive rate of IgG was 93.9% and the positive IgM rate was 39.4%, without considering the elapsed period after diagnosis. Positive IgG and IgM rates were highest at 100.0% and 59.0% in 3 weeks (15–21 days), respectively. IgG showed a high positive rate of 79.3% even within 7 days after the initial diagnosis of the disease and maintained a positive rate of 97.8% until after 8 weeks. Conclusions: : Among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, IgG was detected from the beginning of the diagnosis and persisted for an extended time period.

18.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307963

ABSTRACT

We consider the pandemic spreading of COVID-19 for some selected countries after the outbreak of the coronavirus in Wuhan City, China. We estimated the infection rate and the initial infected individuals of COVID-19 by using the officially reported data at the early stage of the epidemic for the susceptible (S), infectable (I), quarantined (Q), and the cofirmed recovered (Rk) population model, so called SIQRk model. In the reported data we know the quarantined cases and the recovered cases. We can not know the recovered cases from the asymptomatic cases. In the SIQRk model we can estimated the model parameters and the initial infecting cases (confirmed ans asymtomatic cases) from the data fits. We obtained the infection rate in the range between 0.233 and 0.462, the basic reproduction number Ro in the range between 1.8 and 3.5, and the initial number of infected individuals in the range betwee 10 and 8409 for some selected countries. By using fitting parameters we estimated the maximum time of the infection for Germany when the government are performing the quarantine policy. The disease is undergoing to the calm state about six months after first patients were identified.

19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(6): e28452, 2022 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684894

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory disease has emerged as a global issue due to COVID-19. In particular, there has been an increased frequency of occurrence of symptoms such as cough, sputum, and dyspnea, which commonly accompany chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Liriope platyphylla (LP) extract is known to improve respiratory function. LP extract ameliorates the symptoms commonly seen in bronchitis, asthma, and COPD and enhances immunity, as it has anti-inflammatory properties. In a previous study in rats, LP effectively improved respiratory inflammation levels. However, few randomized controlled trials have verified the effects of LP in respiratory disease and there have been no studies to determine the appropriate dose and duration to make it a more convenient functional health product. Based on previous studies, we would like to proceed with this clinical trial under the assumption that LP will help improve respiratory function and produce anti-inflammatory effects. METHODS: This will be a single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial. Participants will randomly be allocated to receive either 1000 mg LP or placebo. The total duration of the clinical trial will be 4 to 6 weeks. A follow-up assessment will be conducted 4 weeks after screening, and the effect and safety of LP application will be assessed at this second visit. The primary outcome will be the breathlessness, cough, and sputum scale score. Secondary outcomes will include pulmonary function, clinical symptoms of cough and sputum (reported through a questionnaire), changes in immune cells, changes in immune factors used to analyze allergic inflammation in bronchi, antioxidant enzyme activity, nitric oxide level, and COPD assessment test score. DISCUSSION: This study has limited inclusion and exclusion criteria and the intervention will be well-controlled. This will be the first randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy and safety of LP extract in adults with cough and sputum. This study will provide insight into the mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effects and improvement of respiratory function of LP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Inflammation , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Cough , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Pilot Projects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 02 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674630

ABSTRACT

Institutional trust plays a crucial role when a nation is facing mega crises (e.g., the COVID-19 pandemic) and has implications for employee work experiences and well-being. To date, researchers largely consider how institutional trust or trust in government may predict variables of interest in isolation. However, this variable-centered perspective ignores the possibility that there are subpopulations of employees who may differ in their trust in different institutions (i.e., the state government, the federal government). To address this, we examined institutional trust with two foci (i.e., trust in state government and trust in federal government) from a person-centered perspective. Using latent profile analysis and data from 492 U.S.-based employees, we identified five trust profiles: high trustors, federal trustors, state trustors, the ambivalent, and distrusters, and found that these profiles differentially predicted attitudes towards and behavioral compliance with CDC recommended COVID-19 prevention practices, job insecurity, affective commitment, helping behavior, and psychological well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Government , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Trust
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL