Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 374
Filter
Add filters

Year range
1.
International Journal of Sustainable Building Technology and Urban Development ; 13(2):184-197, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1955302

ABSTRACT

After the global pandemic of COVID-19, many people were afraid of an unknown disease without a cure, Travelers’ behavior has changed due to the government’s policy and people’s risk perception. The goal of this study is to analyze the data obtained through the survey and find the mode choice factors that influenced the selection of transportation changed due to COVID-19. The data needed for analysis were collected through a survey on the selection of transportation before and after the outbreak of COVID-19, at the peak time (the third pandemic in Korea from November 2020 to February 2021), and after the peak. In order to analyze the correlation between travel mode choice and individual tendency, bivariate probit model was developed. This study found that (1) due to the spread of COVID-19, private cars and private transportation are reduced, and public transportation is greatly reduced. (2) behavior changes were different depending on the type of work and working conditions. (3) behavior changes were different depending on the perception of public transportation. In conclusion, this study can prevent the spread of COVID-19 and help policy decision according to the travelers’ behavior in a different pandemic situation than before. © International Journal of Sustainable Building Technology and Urban Development.

2.
Ann Glob Health ; 88(1): 35, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954603

ABSTRACT

Background: Resource limited settings have an ongoing need for access to quality emergency care. The World Health Organization - International Committee of the Red Cross Basic Emergency Care (BEC) course is one mechanism to address this need. Training of BEC trainers has been challenging due to barriers including cost, travel logistics, scheduling, and more recently, social distancing regulations related to the coronavirus pandemic. Objective: We seek to determine if an online virtual format is an effective way to train additional trainers while overcoming these barriers. Methods: The BEC Training-of-Trainers (ToT) course was adapted to a virtual format and delivered entirely online. Participants were assessed with a multiple choice pre- and post-test and completed a course feedback form upon completion. Results from the virtual course were then compared to the results from an in-person ToT course. Findings: The in-person course pre- and post-tests were completed by 121 participants with a pre-test mean of 87% (range 60-100%) and a post-test mean of 95% (range: 75-100; p < 0.05). Virtual course pre- and post-tests by 27 participants were analyzed with a pre-test mean of 89% (range 75-100%) and a post-test mean of 96% (range: 79-100; p < 0.05). No difference in test improvements between the courses was detected (z = -0.485; p = 0.627). The course feedback was completed by 93 in-person participants and 28 virtual participants. Feedback survey responses were similar for all questions except for course length, with in-person participant responses trending towards the course being too long. Conclusions: A virtual format BEC ToT course is effective, feasible, and acceptable. When compared to an in-person course, no difference was detected in nearly all metrics for the virtual format. Utilizing this format for future courses can assist in scaling both the BEC ToT and, by extension, the BEC course globally, particularly in regions facing barriers to in-person training.


Subject(s)
Emergency Medical Services , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes ; 15, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1938110

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To determine the costs and trends of telehealth utilization before and during the COVID-19 pandemic for patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Methods: We calculated the proportions of patients with CVD who used telehealth before (January 2019-February 2020) and during (March 2020-April 2021) the pandemic using MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters. We compared the trends of telehealth utilization among CVD patients by sex, age, claim type, payment plan, and rural/urban status. We calculated mean, SD, median, and IQR of total and average telehealth costs. Results: The results show that telehealth utilization spiked in March 2020 and further rapidly increased and peaked in April 2020. Telehealth utilization increased from 0.021% in March 2019 to 6.7% in March 2020 and from 0.024% in April 2019 to 39.8% in April 2020. After peaking in April 2020, telehealth utilization rapidly fell in May-June 2020 and then gradually decreased before rebounding in October-December 2020. It resumed the decline through April 2021 remained much higher than the prepandemic level. Telehealth utilization was higher during the pandemic for females than males;for younger age groups (aged 18-44 or 45-64) than older age group (aged 65+);for commercial claims than Medicare supplemental insurance;for capitated insurance plans than non-capitated insurance plans;and for patients in urban areas than rural areas. From March 2020-February 2021, the mean (SD) telehealth cost per visit was $115.7 (66) (median [IQR], $104.8 [$75.8-$139.4]), with patient out-of-pocket cost $25.5 (42.8) (median [IQR], $10 [$0-$30]), insurance cost $90.4 (71.0) (median [IQR], $83 [$45.3-$121.3]), and the mean (SD) number of telehealth utilizations per patient was 1.67 (1.8) (median [IQR], 1 [1-2]). Conclusions: Policymakers, health care practitioners, and insurance companies should be aware of trends and costs of telehealth utilization among patients with CVD. Our results show that telehealth would facilitate better management of CVD. Our results may inform future policies and practices to meet the increased demand for telehealth.

4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(6): 1180-1188, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933530

ABSTRACT

We conducted a retrospective cohort study to assess the effect vaccination with the live-attenuated recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-Zaire Ebola virus vaccine had on deaths among patients who had laboratory-confirmed Ebola virus disease (EVD). We included EVD-positive patients coming to an Ebola Treatment Center in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo during 2018-2020. Overall, 25% of patients vaccinated before symptom onset died compared with 63% of unvaccinated patients. Vaccinated patients reported fewer EVD-associated symptoms, had reduced time to clearance of viral load, and had reduced length of stay at the Ebola Treatment Center. After controlling for confounders, vaccination was strongly associated with decreased deaths. Reduction in deaths was not affected by timing of vaccination before or after EVD exposure. These findings support use of preexposure and postexposure recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-Zaire Ebola virus vaccine as an intervention associated with improved death rates, illness, and recovery time among patients with EVD.


Subject(s)
Ebola Vaccines , Ebolavirus , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Vesicular Stomatitis , Animals , Democratic Republic of the Congo/epidemiology , Ebolavirus/genetics , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/diagnosis , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/prevention & control , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Vaccination , Vaccines, Attenuated , Vesicular Stomatitis/chemically induced , Vesiculovirus/genetics
5.
Movement Disorders Clinical Practice ; 9(SUPPL 1):S46, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925969

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify patterns of change in behavior and attitudes on lifestyle habits and mental health [CS1] [SM2] over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic in a cohort of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients in British Columbia, Canada. Background: The coronavirus pandemic has had a significant impact with PD patients with changes to normal routines, social interactions, and physical activity[1]. Understanding issues affecting individuals with PD allows clinicians to better assist patients. Methods: Between May 2021 to July 2021, we sent a survey to 503 PD patients seen at our tertiary centre movement disorder clinic, of which 204 responded. Questions were based on changes in behavior in a range of activities of daily living including physical activity, food preparation and consumption, and mental health pre- and post pandemic. Results: Of the 204 respondents, 202 (99.0%) reported not having ever tested positive for the virus with 128 (62.7%) patients having received 1 dose of the vaccine and 71 (34.8%) patients having received 2 doses. 91 (44.6%) of respondents reported having significantly or somewhat less physical activity as compared with before the pandemic while 33 (16%) reported increased exercise. 41 (20.1%) of respondents reported increased consumption of convenience food whereas 74 (36%) reported less fast food consumption. The number of respondents rating their mental health as good, very good or excellent dropped from 183 (90%) estimated pre-pandemic to 166 (81%) at the time of the survey, with 57 (28%) reporting worse feelings of depression. Conclusion: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has had a significant impact on mood and healthy habits including levels of physical activity, and healthy eating in a significant group of ILPD, whereas a still sizable group reports improvements in healthy habits compared to the pandemic. Identifying risk factors as well as contributors to positive change will be important to provide targeted and effective support.

6.
Neurology ; 98(18 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925542

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine the optimal time for SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination, after infusion with anti-CD20 therapy, in patients with multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (MS/NMOSD) as there are currently no guidelines. Background: To achieve adequate immunity against SARS-CoV-2, mRNA vaccines (BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273) stimulate B and T cells. Therefore, it is imperative to ensure MS/NMOSD patients on anti-CD20 therapy have enough B cells to produce antibodies at the time of vaccination. Design/Methods: This was a retrospective study at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark. We identified all MS/NMOSD patients on anti-CD20 therapy (Ocrelizumab or Rituximab) who received a SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine. Some of these patients were not on the standard, biannual dosing schedule due to treatment guideline modifications made during the pandemic. Antibody response to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was checked at least 4 weeks after the second dose of the vaccine. Results: We analyzed 23 vaccinated MS/NMOSD patients on anti-CD20 therapy (87% on Ocrelizumab and 13% on Rituximab). Patients were divided into two groups: those who developed antibodies after vaccination (52%) and those who did not (48%). There was no significant difference between the two groups in age, gender, MS type, expanded disability status scale, type of anti-CD20 therapy, and brand of vaccine. However, there was statistical significance in the interval between infusion and vaccination between the groups (p-value -0.03;9.2±3.9 vs 6.2±3.1months). Additionally, none of these patients had a relapse. Conclusions: The mean interval between infusion and vaccination was 9.2 months in those that developed antibodies and 6.2 months in those that did not. Patients on anti-CD20 therapy may mount an immune response when vaccinated if the time between infusion and vaccination is extended beyond 6 months. The main limitation of this study was the variable timing in the collection of CD19 counts.

7.
Neurology ; 98(18 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925345

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate whether there is an association between Myasthenia Gravis (MG) and COVID-19 vaccination. Background: New onset or exacerbation of MG after vaccination was previously reported. Design/Methods: The reporting rate of MG cases after COVID-19 vaccination was compared to that of MG after all other vaccinations in 3 time periods: the vaccine period (December 2020- July 2021);the pre-vaccine pandemic period (April 2020-November 2020) and pre-pandemic period (January 2019-August 2019). Self-controlled case series analysis and case-centered analysis were used. Six weeks after vaccination was defined as the risk period for possible causeeffect relationship. For self-controlled case analysis, the risk period was followed by one month of washout and another six weeks of control monitoring. Results: 77 and 3 cases with MG after COVID-19 vaccination and all other vaccinations were reported during the vaccine period respectively. The reporting rate of MG after COVID-19 vaccination was significantly higher than the reporting rate of MG after other vaccines (4 vs 0.1 per 10 million p< 0.00001). However, the reporting rate was within the incidence range expected in the general population. Two cases of MG after vaccination were reported during pandemic period and none in the pre-pandemic period. Using self-controlled and case centered analyses, there is a significant difference in the reporting rate of MG after COVID-19 vaccination between the risk period and control period (92.2% vs 2.6-3.9% p<0.00001). The reporting rate of MG after COVID-19 vaccination was not significantly different between Johnson and Johnson, Moderna and Pfizer vaccines. Conclusions: There is no significant increase in reporting rate of MG after COVID-19 vaccination. Although the reporting rate of MG after COVID-19 vaccination was significantly higher during the risk period compared to the control period, a non-reported or undiagnosed concomitant COVID-19 infection, other triggering factors or non-adherence to medications cannot be excluded;this could account for the observed increase.

8.
Neurology ; 98(18 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925344

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate whether there is an relationship between Miller Fisher Syndrome (MFS) and COVID-19 vaccination Background: MFS was rarely reported after COVID-19 vaccination. Design/Methods: The reporting rate of MFS cases after COVID-19 vaccination was compared to the rate after all other vaccinations in 3 time periods: COVID-19 vaccination (December 2020 - July 2021);COVID-19 pandemic outside the vaccination time period (April 2020-November 2020) and the time outside of COVID-19 vaccination and the pandemic (January 2019-August 2019). Self-controlled case series analysis and case-centered analysis was used. Six weeks after vaccination was defined as the risk period of possible association. Results: 12 cases after COVID-19 vaccination and 1 case from all other vaccinations were reported during the vaccine period. The reporting rate of MFS after COVID-19 vaccination (0.62 per 10 million vaccinations) was significantly higher than the rate after other vaccinations (0.04 per 10 million vaccinations) p<0.05. Both reporting rates are within the incidence range expected in the general population. No cases of MFS were reported during the pandemic period and 2 cases of MFS were reported outside the pandemic period. Using self-controlled and case centered analyses, there was a significant difference in the reporting rate of MFS after COVID-19 vaccination between the risk period and control period (91.6% vs 0-8,3% p<0.00001). The reporting rate of MFS after each vaccine used in USA (Johnson & Johnson, Pfizer and Moderna) was within the expected incidence range and there was no significant difference between them. Conclusions: There is no association between MFS and COVID-19 vaccination. Although the reporting rate MFS after COVID-19 was significantly higher during the risk period compared to control period, and compared to the rate of other vaccines, the number of reported cases was low and within the expected incidence range. Furthermore, cases of MFS related to COVID-19 infection or other triggering factors cannot be excluded.

9.
Obstetrics and Gynecology ; 139(SUPPL 1):6S-7S, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925302

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: At the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, providers were encouraged to counsel patients interested in longacting reversible contraception (LARC) about immediate postpartum placement to decrease in-person postpartum visits. We assessed the impact of this COVID-related hospital policy on postpartum LARC uptake. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we compared patients who delivered a live born infant(s) during two periods, one immediately prior to the COVID pandemic (“pre-COVID cohort” (December 16, 2019 to March 1, 2020)), and one at the onset of the pandemic (“COVID cohort” (March 16-May 31, 2020)). We collected electronic medical record data, including sociodemographic characteristics and contraception choices, in the antenatal and postpartum periods for 649 patients. Odds ratios were adjusted for age and race. RESULTS: We found an increase in immediate postpartum LARC use during COVID (13% vs. 9%, P=.12, aOR 1.44, CI 0.87-2.39). The etonogestrel implant was the most placed form of immediate postpartum LARC in both cohorts (67% and 71% in pre- and during COVID cohorts, respectively). In general, contraceptive choices at discharge differed between the cohorts (P=.01), with fewer patients desiring LARC placement at the postpartum visit during COVID (13% vs. 6% in pre- and during COVID cohorts). There was no difference between the average number of postpartum visits attended in each cohort (OR 0.93, CI 0.68-1.28). CONCLUSION: Changes in contraceptive counseling during COVID were accompanied by differences in postpartum contraceptive choices at discharge. Targeted contraceptive counseling can influence patient choices in the setting of expected barriers to routine postpartum care.

10.
9th International Conference on Learning and Collaboration Technologies, LCT 2022 Held as Part of the 24th HCI International Conference, HCII 2022 ; 13329 LNCS:158-175, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1919644

ABSTRACT

Due to the recent Covid-19 pandemic, we have seen a considerable shift to online education. The pandemic prompted many academic institutions to quickly develop virtual courses and improve pre-existing online courses to deal with the drastic increase of online students. However, the process of creating virtual courses remains largely tedious. With technological advancement, institutions can now offer personalized virtual courses for individual students by automating course content creation. Computer-generated course content can be easily customized to meet individual student needs. This study examines the potential problems associated with virtual learning and evaluates the feasibility of employing computer-generated course content. It also analyzes the influence avatar teachers have on student learning and engagement as a first step in determining the impact of computer-generated courses. The study shows that institutions should ensure video lectures are well designed and utilize an appropriate teacher voice. The study reports mixed feedback from an interview study that explores the impact of human and avatar teachers’ physical characteristics on student learning. Some students believed that the avatar teachers were engaging, while some found it distracting. On the other hand, some students did not feel that the teacher’s physical characteristics impacted their learning as long as the course material was delivered well. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

11.
Palliative Medicine ; 36(1 SUPPL):109, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1916767

ABSTRACT

Background/aims: Community Palliative Care (CPC) in Ireland has traditionally been delivered face to face in the home or the outpatient clinic setting. The COVID-19 pandemic necessitated the introduction of Video Consultation (VC) as a modality of CPC service provision. Evidence supports the feasibility of VC in CPC. There is a paucity of evidence regarding patient satisfaction with key components of the palliative care consultation when delivered virtually. To incorporate VC into routine practice, evaluation of the service user experience is essential. Methods: Mixed quantitative and qualitative study. The formulated telephone questionnaire evaluated satisfaction with VC in three domains;Use of Technology, Communication using Video Technology and Components of the Palliative Care Consultation. Results were analysed descriptively with thematic analysis of free text additional information. Results: All patients (n=19) were satisfied or very satisfied with VC. The majority of patients (79%) had not used VC as a modality for interactions with healthcare professionals previously. All patients felt able to communicate what they wanted to say. The majority felt comfortable asking questions (84%) and most (78%) were not concerned that they could not be physically examined. Patients were satisfied with discussing physical symptoms (84%) and medications (100%). Areas that were not discussed or had less favourable feedback included spirituality and faith and discussing future care. Themes identified included: Flexibility offered by VC, identification of an ongoing role for VC and overall preference for face to face interaction. Conclusions: Patients were satisfied with VC as a mechanism of CPC provision overall. Levels of satisfaction varied across key components of the consultation demonstrating the strengths and limitations of this modality at present. This provides clinicians with valuable information to guide future research and service development.

12.
ANNALS OF OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE ; 34, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1912707

ABSTRACT

Background: Although coronavirus disease 2019 is causing a variety of psychological problems for workers, there are few longitudinal studies on changes in workers' mental health by workplace intervention. This study aimed to evaluate the change in the prevalence of depression and anxiety according to the active involvement of the workplace. Methods: This study was conducted on 1,978 workers at a workplace who underwent a health screening from January 2019 to August 2020, and classified depression and anxiety disorders using a self-report questionnaire. After the first pandemic, the company stopped health screening, took paid leave and telecommuting, and conducted interventions such as operating its own screening clinic. To see if this workplace intervention affects workers' mental health, we conducted generalized estimating equations to compare odds ratio (OR). Results: In the pre-intervention group, 384 people (16.86%) had depression, and 507 people (22.26%) had anxiety disorder. Based on the OR before intervention, the OR of depression decreased to 0.76 (0.66-0.87) and the OR of anxiety disorder decreased to 0.73 (0.65-0.82). Conclusions: As a result of this study, it was confirmed that workplace intervention was related to a decrease in depression and anxiety. This study provides basic data to improve workers' mental health according to workplace intervention, and further research is needed according to workplace intervention in the future.

13.
PROCEEDINGS OF THE 12TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CLOUD COMPUTING AND SERVICES SCIENCE (CLOSER) ; : 238-245, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1911972

ABSTRACT

Mobile games are very popular among young generations, especially during the worldwide Covid-19 pandemic. The pandemic has caused an enormous increase in data transactions and computation over the Internet. Computing for games often consumes a vast amount of computational resources. Nowadays, mobile devices require heavy computing tasks. For this reason, edge computing resources are essentially needed in the game industry for non-latency data transactions. However, edge computing involves many aspects that make its architecture highly complex to evaluate. Pure performance evaluation of such computing systems is necessary for real-world mobile edge computing systems (MEC) in the game industry. This paper proposes a closed queuing network to evaluate the performance of a game execution scenario in MEC. The model permits the evaluation of the following metrics: mean response time, drop rate, and utilization level. The results indicate that the variation in the number of physical machines (PM) and virtual machines (VM) has a similar impact on the system's overall performance. The results also show that dropped messages can be avoided by making small calibrations on the capabilities of the VM/PM resources. Finally, this study seeks to assist the development of game computing systems at MEC without the need for prior expenses with real infrastructures.

14.
OPTICS EXPRESS ; 30(12):22233-22246, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1910463

ABSTRACT

We propose a measurement method for sensitive and label-free detections of virus-like particles (VLPs) using color images of nanoplasmonic sensing chips. The nanoplasmonic chip consists of 5x5 gold nanoslit arrays and the gold surface is modified with specific antibodies for spike protein. The resonant wavelength of the 430-nm-period gold nanoslit arrays underwater environment is about 570 nm which falls between the green and red bands of the color CCD. The captured VLPs by the specific antibodies shift the plasmonic resonance of the gold nanoslits. It results in an increased brightness of green pixels and decreased brightness of red pixels. The image contrast signals of (green - red) / (red + green) show good linearity with the surface particle density. The experimental tests show the image contrast method can detect 100-nm polystyrene particles with a surface density smaller than 2 particles/mu m(2). We demonstrate the application for direct detection of SARS-CoV-2 VLPs using a simple scanner platform. A detection limit smaller than 1 pg/mL with a detection time less than 30 minutes can be achieved. (C) 2022 Optica Publishing Group under the terms of the Optica Open Access Publishing Agreement

15.
1st Annual Meeting of the Symposium on Human-Computer Interaction for Work, CHIWORK 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1909846

ABSTRACT

Remote meetings have become more prevalent due to the COVID-19 pandemic and technology that facilitates remote work. There is limited research on the effect of remote meetings on group performance and the goal of this study is to identify how distractions affect the individual and group creativity in remote work meetings. A virtual study was conducted where groups of four people participated in divergent and convergent thinking tasks. One group member was assigned an additional non-meeting task while another was assigned as a scribe. Measures of creative performance (e.g., uniqueness of idea) of the distracted members and the group were analyzed. The results show that the distractee contributed (on average) less time and ideas when compared to monotaskers and those assigned as a scribe. The study highlights ways that remote meetings can facilitate creativity. © 2022 ACM.

16.
Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development ; 28(6):821-830, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1909147

ABSTRACT

PurposeThis paper explores community college entrepreneurship education's near-instantaneous transition to online course delivery following the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic.Design/methodology/approachPrimary data were obtained from 92 community college entrepreneurship faculty via online survey in late March of 2020, right at the time faculty were required to transition their courses to an online mode of delivery due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were collected in partnership with the National Association for Community College Entrepreneurship and the Entrepreneurship Education Project.FindingsWhile the majority of community college entrepreneurship educators have taught online previously, many were not familiar with exemplar education technology tools and applications, demonstrating an opportunity for continued professional development. To deliver courses online, educators primarily relied on pre-recorded lectures and using Zoom as the technology platform of choice. Last, there were significant faculty concerns about their ability to effectively create an “experiential” classroom virtually for students to learn and practice entrepreneurship.Originality/valueThis is the first paper investigating how community college entrepreneurship educators responded to one of the most disruptive events to ever impact entrepreneurship education (viz. the COVID-19 pandemic). More broadly, this is also one of very few studies exploring both (1) community college entrepreneurship education and (2) how unexpected crises (e.g. natural disasters, pandemics) impact educational environments.

17.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(11): 4082-4091, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1904135

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on weight gain in children and adolescents remains unknown. We aimed to identify an estimated 15-year trend in mean body mass index (BMI) changes and prevalence of obesity and overweight among Korean adolescents from 2005 to 2020, including the period of the COVID-19 pandemic. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed data taken from a nationwide survey (Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey), between 2005 and 2020. Representative samples of one million Korean adolescents aged 13-18 years (n=1,057,885) were examined. The 15-year trends in mean BMI and proportion of obesity or overweight, and the changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic were analyzed. RESULTS: The data of 1,057,885 Korean adolescents were analyzed (mean age: 14.98 years; females, 48.4%). The estimated weighted mean BMI was 20.5 kg/m2 [95% confidence interval (CI), 20.4-20.5] from 2005 to 2008 and 21.5 kg/m2 (95% CI, 21.4-21.6) in 2020 (during the COVID-19 pandemic). Although the 15-year trend of mean BMI gradually increased, the change in mean BMI before and during the pandemic significantly lessened (ßdiff, -0.027; 95% CI, -0.028 to -0.026). The 15-year (2005-2020) trend changes in the prevalence of obesity and overweight were similar (obesity prevalence from 2005-2008, 3.2%; 95% CI, 3.1-3.3 vs. obesity prevalence in 2020, 8.6%; 95% CI, 8.2-9.0; ßdiff, -0.309; 95% CI, -0.330 to -0.288). CONCLUSIONS: The 15-year trend of overall mean BMI and obesity and overweight prevalence demonstrated a significant increase; however, its slope decreased during the pandemic. These landmark results suggest the need for the development of precise strategies to prevent pediatric obesity and overweight during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , Adolescent , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Overweight/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
18.
Medical Imaging 2022: Biomedical Applications in Molecular, Structural, and Functional Imaging ; 12036, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1901881

ABSTRACT

As of 14 December 2021, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused nearly 269 million confirmed cases and almost 5.3 million deaths worldwide. Chest computed tomography (CT) has high diagnostic sensitivity for the detection of pulmonary disease in COVID-19 patients. Toward timely and accurate clinical evaluation and prognostication, radiomic analyses of CT images have been explored to investigate the correlation of imaging and non-imaging clinical manifestations and outcomes. Delta (∆) radiomics optimally performed from pre-infection to the post-critical phase, requires baseline data typically not obtained in clinical settings;additionally, their robustness is affected by differences in acquisition protocols. In this work, we investigated the reliability, sensitivity, and stability of whole-lung radiomic features of CT images of nonhuman primates either mock-exposed or exposed to SARS-CoV-2 to study imaging biomarkers of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Images were acquired at a pre-exposure baseline and post-exposure days, and lung fields were segmented. The reliability of radiomic features was assessed, and the dynamic range of each feature was compared to the maximum normal intra-subject variation and ranked. © 2022 SPIE

19.
IEEE Sensors Journal ; : 1-1, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1901479

ABSTRACT

The spread of COVID-19 issues high demand on measuring body temperature, which necessitates thermometers. To alleviate a burden to equip/carry thermometers, this paper develops a framework “TherMobile”that measures body temperature using a commercial-off-the-shelf smartphone that most people carry everywhere. Considering that most (if not all) smartphones have a temperature sensor on its battery, we utilize heat transfer from a body part that makes contact with the smartphone, to the smartphone battery. To this end, we collect a time series of the smartphone battery temperature for different pairs of the initial temperature of the smartphone battery and the temperature of a body part, and then classify them. To enable the data collection and classification to infer the temperature of the body part, we address important practical issues, including how to gather data for different target temperatures of a body part (although human body temperature is not controllable), and how to minimize a burden for individual users to gather all necessary data. Our experiments demonstrate that “TherMobile”achieves 90.0% accuracy of measuring body temperature with 1.0°C granularity, enabling a commercial-off-the-shelf smartphone to substitute for a thermometer without any additional hardware. IEEE

20.
Applied Economics Letters ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1900874

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of vaccination on social isolation and loneliness. Data from 6,049 individuals were collected from the Understanding America Study (UAS). I use the fixed effect model with the panel data to control time-constant unobserved characteristics which affect vaccination status as well as social isolation. Vaccination was related to about 2 percentage points increase in the proportion of those who met family or friends in person. Days in the past week interacting with family or friends increased. Vaccination was also associated with about 1 percentage point decrease in the proportion of those who felt lonely for more than one day in the past week. The degree of loneliness measured by how often respondents felt lonely in the past week decreased by 2 percentage points for the vaccinated respondents. I found that vaccination decreased subjective social isolation (loneliness) and objective social isolation (interaction with people in person). I also consider the dynamic effect of vaccination status on social isolation. Results suggest that the effect of vaccination became bigger with increasing duration of vaccination. © 2022 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL