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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(5): 171-176, 2022 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675341

ABSTRACT

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations have higher prevalences of health conditions associated with severe COVID-19 illness compared with non-LGBT populations (1). The potential for low vaccine confidence and coverage among LGBT populations is of concern because these persons historically experience challenges accessing, trusting, and receiving health care services (2). Data on COVID-19 vaccination among LGBT persons are limited, in part because of the lack of routine data collection on sexual orientation and gender identity at the national and state levels. During August 29-October 30, 2021, data from the National Immunization Survey Adult COVID Module (NIS-ACM) were analyzed to assess COVID-19 vaccination coverage and confidence in COVID-19 vaccines among LGBT adults aged ≥18 years. By sexual orientation, gay or lesbian adults reported higher vaccination coverage overall (85.4%) than did heterosexual adults (76.3%). By race/ethnicity, adult gay or lesbian non-Hispanic White men (94.1%) and women (88.5%), and Hispanic men (82.5%) reported higher vaccination coverage than that reported by non-Hispanic White heterosexual men (74.2%) and women (78. 6%). Among non-Hispanic Black adults, vaccination coverage was lower among gay or lesbian women (57.9%) and bisexual women (62.1%) than among heterosexual women (75.6%). Vaccination coverage was lowest among non-Hispanic Black LGBT persons across all categories of sexual orientation and gender identity. Among gay or lesbian adults and bisexual adults, vaccination coverage was lower among women (80.5% and 74.2%, respectively) than among men (88.9% and 81.7%, respectively). By gender identity, similar percentages of adults who identified as transgender or nonbinary and those who did not identify as transgender or nonbinary were vaccinated. Gay or lesbian adults and bisexual adults were more confident than were heterosexual adults in COVID-19 vaccine safety and protection; transgender or nonbinary adults were more confident in COVID-19 vaccine protection, but not safety, than were adults who did not identify as transgender or nonbinary. To prevent serious illness and death, it is important that all persons in the United States, including those in the LGBT community, stay up to date with recommended COVID-19 vaccinations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Gender Identity , Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Heterosexuality/psychology , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , United States/epidemiology
2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(12): 2217-2225, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595231

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigated patients with potential severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reinfection in the United States during May-July 2020. METHODS: We conducted case finding for patients with potential SARS-CoV-2 reinfection through the Emerging Infections Network. Cases reported were screened for laboratory and clinical findings of potential reinfection followed by requests for medical records and laboratory specimens. Available medical records were abstracted to characterize patient demographics, comorbidities, clinical course, and laboratory test results. Submitted specimens underwent further testing, including reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), viral culture, whole genome sequencing, subgenomic RNA PCR, and testing for anti-SARS-CoV-2 total antibody. RESULTS: Among 73 potential reinfection patients with available records, 30 patients had recurrent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms explained by alternative diagnoses with concurrent SARS-CoV-2 positive RT-PCR, 24 patients remained asymptomatic after recovery but had recurrent or persistent RT-PCR, and 19 patients had recurrent COVID-19 symptoms with concurrent SARS-CoV-2 positive RT-PCR but no alternative diagnoses. These 19 patients had symptom recurrence a median of 57 days after initial symptom onset (interquartile range: 47-76). Six of these patients had paired specimens available for further testing, but none had laboratory findings confirming reinfections. Testing of an additional 3 patients with recurrent symptoms and alternative diagnoses also did not confirm reinfection. CONCLUSIONS: We did not confirm SARS-CoV-2 reinfection within 90 days of the initial infection based on the clinical and laboratory characteristics of cases in this investigation. Our findings support current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidance around quarantine and testing for patients who have recovered from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Laboratories , Reinfection
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(50): 1723-1730, 2021 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575163

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is critical to controlling the COVID-19 pandemic, and health care providers play an important role in achieving high vaccination coverage (1). To examine the prevalence of report of a provider recommendation for COVID-19 vaccination and its association with COVID-19 vaccination coverage and attitudes, CDC analyzed data among adults aged ≥18 years from the National Immunization Survey-Adult COVID Module (NIS-ACM), a nationally representative cellular telephone survey. Prevalence of report of a provider recommendation for COVID-19 vaccination among adults increased from 34.6%, during April 22-May 29, to 40.5%, during August 29-September 25, 2021. Adults who reported a provider recommendation for COVID-19 vaccination were more likely to have received ≥1 dose of a COVID-19 vaccine (77.6%) than were those who did not receive a recommendation (61.9%) (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 1.12). Report of a provider recommendation was associated with concern about COVID-19 (aPR = 1.31), belief that COVID-19 vaccines are important to protect oneself (aPR = 1.15), belief that COVID-19 vaccination was very or completely safe (aPR = 1.17), and perception that many or all of their family and friends had received COVID-19 vaccination (aPR = 1.19). Empowering health care providers to recommend vaccination to their patients could help reinforce confidence in, and increase coverage with, COVID-19 vaccines, particularly among groups known to have lower COVID-19 vaccination coverage, including younger adults, racial/ethnic minorities, and rural residents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel/psychology , Physician-Patient Relations , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Health , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
Radiol Case Rep ; 16(10): 2972-2977, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284494

ABSTRACT

Literature describing patients with concomitant COVID-19 infection with acute appendicitis in pediatric patients is growing, and understanding the clinical picture of such patients is relevant in their treatment. We report 3 male children who were surgically treated for acute appendicitis and had concomitant SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our first patient was a 12-year-old male who presented with symptoms indicative of appendicitis but no respiratory symptoms associated with COVID-19 (eg cough, shortness of breath). Laboratory evaluation revealed leukopenia and an elevated C-reactive protein; imaging was consistent with acute appendicitis and an acute pulmonary viral infection. Though he lacked diffuse peritonitis on physical examination or a leukocytosis, he was found to have perforated appendicitis in the operating room. Our second patient was another 12-year-old male whose suspected appendicitis was confirmed via ultrasound and surgery. He tested positive for COVID-19 1 month prior and he continued to test positive for infection on admission without any associated respiratory symptoms. Our third patient was a 13-year-old patient who also presented with symptomatic acute appendicitis without apparent COVID-19 manifestations. These cases provide further examples of pediatric patients with concomitant acute appendicitis and COVID-19 infection, namely an unusual presentation of perforated appendicitis with asymptomatic COVID-19-related pulmonary infection and the more common acute appendicitis with asymptomatic COVID-19 infection.

5.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(5): 1301-1308, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201501

ABSTRACT

In January 2020, Santa Clara County, California, USA, began identifying laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease among residents. County staff conducted case and contact investigations focused on households and collected detailed case demographic, occupation, exposure, and outcome information. We describe the first 200 test-positive cases during January 31-March 20, 2020, to inform future case and contact investigations. Probable infection sources included community transmission (104 cases), known close contact with a confirmed case-patient (66 cases), and travel (30 cases). Disease patterns across race and ethnicity, occupational, and household factors suggested multiple infection risk factors. Disproportionately high percentages of case-patients from racial and ethnic subgroups worked outside the home (Hispanic [86%] and Filipino [100%]); household transmission was more common among persons from Vietnam (53%). Even with the few initial cases, detailed case and contact investigations of household contacts capturing occupational and disaggregated race and ethnicity data helped identify at-risk groups and focused solutions for disease control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , California/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vietnam
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(12): 2217-2225, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087722

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigated patients with potential severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reinfection in the United States during May-July 2020. METHODS: We conducted case finding for patients with potential SARS-CoV-2 reinfection through the Emerging Infections Network. Cases reported were screened for laboratory and clinical findings of potential reinfection followed by requests for medical records and laboratory specimens. Available medical records were abstracted to characterize patient demographics, comorbidities, clinical course, and laboratory test results. Submitted specimens underwent further testing, including reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), viral culture, whole genome sequencing, subgenomic RNA PCR, and testing for anti-SARS-CoV-2 total antibody. RESULTS: Among 73 potential reinfection patients with available records, 30 patients had recurrent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms explained by alternative diagnoses with concurrent SARS-CoV-2 positive RT-PCR, 24 patients remained asymptomatic after recovery but had recurrent or persistent RT-PCR, and 19 patients had recurrent COVID-19 symptoms with concurrent SARS-CoV-2 positive RT-PCR but no alternative diagnoses. These 19 patients had symptom recurrence a median of 57 days after initial symptom onset (interquartile range: 47-76). Six of these patients had paired specimens available for further testing, but none had laboratory findings confirming reinfections. Testing of an additional 3 patients with recurrent symptoms and alternative diagnoses also did not confirm reinfection. CONCLUSIONS: We did not confirm SARS-CoV-2 reinfection within 90 days of the initial infection based on the clinical and laboratory characteristics of cases in this investigation. Our findings support current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidance around quarantine and testing for patients who have recovered from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Laboratories , Reinfection
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(28): 923-929, 2020 Jul 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-981648

ABSTRACT

During January 1, 2020-May 18, 2020, approximately 1.3 million cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and 83,000 COVID-19-associated deaths were reported in the United States (1). Understanding the demographic and clinical characteristics of decedents could inform medical and public health interventions focused on preventing COVID-19-associated mortality. This report describes decedents with laboratory-confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, using data from 1) the standardized CDC case-report form (case-based surveillance) (https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/reporting-pui.html) and 2) supplementary data (supplemental surveillance), such as underlying medical conditions and location of death, obtained through collaboration between CDC and 16 public health jurisdictions (15 states and New York City).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Health Status Disparities , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Public Health Surveillance , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Chronic Disease , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(38): 1364-1368, 2020 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-792334

ABSTRACT

As of September 21, 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had resulted in 6,786,352 cases and 199,024 deaths in the United States.* Health care personnel (HCP) are essential workers at risk for exposure to patients or infectious materials (1). The impact of COVID-19 on U.S. HCP was first described using national case surveillance data in April 2020 (2). Since then, the number of reported HCP with COVID-19 has increased tenfold. This update describes demographic characteristics, underlying medical conditions, hospitalizations, and intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, stratified by vital status, among 100,570 HCP with COVID-19 reported to CDC during February 12-July 16, 2020. HCP occupation type and job setting are newly reported. HCP status was available for 571,708 (22%) of 2,633,585 cases reported to CDC. Most HCP with COVID-19 were female (79%), aged 16-44 years (57%), not hospitalized (92%), and lacked all 10 underlying medical conditions specified on the case report form† (56%). Of HCP with COVID-19, 641 died. Compared with nonfatal COVID-19 HCP cases, a higher percentage of fatal cases occurred in males (38% versus 22%), persons aged ≥65 years (44% versus 4%), non-Hispanic Asians (Asians) (20% versus 9%), non-Hispanic Blacks (Blacks) (32% versus 25%), and persons with any of the 10 underlying medical conditions specified on the case report form (92% versus 41%). From a subset of jurisdictions reporting occupation type or job setting for HCP with COVID-19, nurses were the most frequently identified single occupation type (30%), and nursing and residential care facilities were the most common job setting (67%). Ensuring access to personal protective equipment (PPE) and training, and practices such as universal use of face masks at work, wearing masks in the community, and observing social distancing remain critical strategies to protect HCP and those they serve.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases/mortality , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
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