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1.
Disabil Health J ; : 101340, 2022 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821205

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is increasingly recognized that children's physical activity behaviors are shaped by neighborhood environment factors and their parent's support. However, these factors have been scarcely studied among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a population at risk of inactivity. OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional survey study was designed to examine how neighborhood environmental factors and parental support are related to physical activity levels of children with ASD. Also, this study examined if the relationship between the environment and physical activity is modified by demographic factors and COVID-19 related concerns. METHODS: An online survey was completed by parents of children with ASD aged 10-17 years. The questionnaire included items related to environmental factors (i.e., distance to school, distance to park, existence of sidewalks, walkability), parent support for physical activity (i.e., encouraging, watching, and providing transportation), child's physical activity, and demographic characteristics. The instrument also queried parental concerns about COVID-19 and their child's physical activity participation. RESULTS: The results indicate that proximity to a local park and to school is positively associated with physical activity. Parent's encouraging behavior correlated with and predicted children's physical activity levels. Also, higher levels of COVID-19 related concerns among parents were related to decreased physical activity supporting behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that the neighborhood environment, in particular the distance between home and parks and schools, and parent support behavior are influential factors that may shape physical activity behaviors for children with ASD.

2.
HLA ; 100(1): 52-58, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816658

ABSTRACT

The effects of COVID-19 vaccination on alloimmunization and clinical impact in transplant candidates remain largely unknown. In a 61-year-old man who had no donor-specific antibodies (DSA) and was planned to undergo ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation (ABOi KT), DSAs (anti-A24, anti-B51, and anti-Cw14) developed after COVID-19 vaccination. After desensitization therapy, antibody level was further increased, leading to flow cytometric crossmatch-positive status. Donor-specific T cell immunity using interferon-gamma ELISPOT was continuously negative, whereas SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell immunity was intact. After confirming the C1q-negative status of DSA, the patient received ABOi KT. The patient had stable graft function and suppressed alloimmunity up to 2 months after KT. COVID-19 vaccination might relate to alloimmunization in transplant candidates, and desensitization through immune monitoring can help guide transplantation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Alleles , Antibodies , COVID-19 Vaccines , Flow Cytometry , Graft Rejection , Graft Survival , HLA Antigens , Humans , Living Donors , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
3.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(4)2022 04 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810209

ABSTRACT

The serratus anterior muscle is commonly involved in myofascial pain syndrome and is treated with many different injective methods. Currently, there is no definite injection point for the muscle. This study provides a suggestion for injection points for the serratus anterior muscle considering the intramuscular neural distribution using the whole-mount staining method. A modified Sihler method was applied to the serratus anterior muscles (15 specimens). The intramuscular arborization areas were identified in terms of the anterior (100%), middle (50%), and posterior axillary line (0%), and from the first to the ninth ribs. The intramuscular neural distribution for the serratus anterior muscle had the largest arborization patterns in the fifth to the ninth rib portion of between 50% and 70%, and the first to the fourth rib portion had between 20% and 40%. These intramuscular neural distribution-based injection sites are in relation to the external anatomical line for the frequently injected muscles to facilitate the efficiency of botulinum neurotoxin injections. Lastly, the intramuscular neural distribution of serratus anterior muscle should be considered in order to practice more accurately without the harmful side effects of trigger-point injections and botulinum neurotoxin injections.


Subject(s)
Botulinum Toxins , Myofascial Pain Syndromes , Botulinum Toxins/therapeutic use , Humans , Injections, Intramuscular/methods , Muscle, Skeletal , Myofascial Pain Syndromes/drug therapy
4.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(4)2022 04 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810208

ABSTRACT

Botulinum neurotoxin injection for treating glabellar frown lines is a commonly used method; however, side effects, such as ptosis and samurai eyebrow, have been reported due to a lack of comprehensive anatomical knowledge. The anatomical factors important for the injection of the botulinum neurotoxin into the corrugator supercilii muscle has been reviewed in this study. Current understanding on the localization of the botulinum neurotoxin injection point from newer anatomy examination was evaluated. We observed that for the glabellar-frown-line-related muscles, the injection point could be more accurately demarcated. We propose the injection method and the best possible injection sites for the corrugator supercilii muscle. We propose the optimal injection sites using external anatomical landmarks for the frequently injected muscles of the face to accelerate effective glabellar frown line removal. Moreover, these instructions would support a more accurate procedure without adverse events.


Subject(s)
Botulinum Toxins, Type A , Botulinum Toxins , Neuromuscular Agents , Skin Aging , Botulinum Toxins, Type A/therapeutic use , Eyebrows , Facial Muscles , Forehead
5.
Reg Anesth Pain Med ; 47(5): 322-326, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639316

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The use of the botulinum neurotoxin injection is a growing area of research and clinical activity, with a focus on its role in facilitating postoperative pain management after reconstructive breast surgery. The study aimed to find out the standard injection points for botulinum neurotoxin injection by revealing the intramuscular nerve arborization of the pectoralis major. METHODS: Sihler's technique was conducted on the pectoralis major muscles (16 cadaveric specimens). The intramuscular nerve arborization was documented relative to the inferior border of the clavicle bone and lateral border of the sternum. RESULTS: After the staining, the pectoralis major was divided into fifths transversely from the inferior border of the clavicle and vertically into fifths from the lateral border of the sternum. Intramuscular nerve arborization of the pectoralis major muscle was the largest in the middle sections of the muscle belly. DISCUSSION: The results indicate that botulinum neurotoxin should be applied to the pectoralis major in certain regions. The regions of major arborization are optimal as the most effective and most reliable points for injecting botulinum neurotoxin.


Subject(s)
Botulinum Toxins , Mammaplasty , Humans , Injections, Intramuscular/methods , Pain , Pectoralis Muscles/surgery
6.
Int J Educ Technol High Educ ; 18(1): 52, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430489

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate instructional changes made by faculty for emergency online teaching necessitated by the COVID-19 pandemic, and hence to explore key factors related to those changes from an ecological systems perspective. Data on various individual, course, and institutional factors and instructional change variables were collected from 201 educators at higher education institutions. Results revealed that the level of instructional changes made by faculty was on average between substituting their existing course for an online one with some functional improvement (augmentation-level 3) and critical course redesign (modification-level 4), but that educators did not reach the level of the creation of new tasks which were previously inconceivable (redefinition-level 5). The biggest instructional change was found to be in teaching behaviors, followed by technology use, with only small changes in beliefs about online teaching. Factors that most highly correlated with instructional change were individual educators' technology acceptance and innovation propensity, media synchronicity of the course, and the fidelity of institutional support. Recommendations are provided to aid strategic coping by universities facing a major crisis, with insights that may ultimately improve the quality of higher education in non-crisis contexts.

7.
Medicine ; 100(33), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1410301

ABSTRACT

The prognostic impact of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection has not been well evaluated. We estimated the prognostic implications of AF in SARS-CoV-2 confirmed patients. The OpenData4Covid19 (https://hira-covid19.net/) project is a global research collaboration on coronavirus disease (COVID-19), hosted by the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Korea and the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service of Korea. This dataset comprises all COVID-19-tested patients and their individual histories of medical service use from January 1, 2017 to May 15, 2020. All patients >19 years with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were included. The primary endpoint was a composite of death and intensive care unit admission. In total, 7162 adults with SARS-CoV-2 infection were included in this study. The prevalence of AF was 1.8% (n = 130). Patients with AF had unfavorable characteristics, such as older age and higher prevalence of comorbidities. The primary endpoint was more common in patients with AF than in those without (33.9% vs 12.9%, P < .001). In the multivariable model, age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.035, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.030-1.040), female sex (OR: 0.618, 95% CI: 0.535-0.713), diabetes (OR: 1.341, 95% CI: 1.093-1.580), and chronic kidney disease (OR: 2.714, 95% CI: 1.541-4.777) were associated with the primary endpoint. However, AF was not an independent predictor of the primary endpoint (OR: 1.402, 95% CI: 0.932-2.108). Patients with AF and concomitant SARS-CoV-2 infection had more comorbidities and a worse prognosis. However, an independent association between AF and adverse clinical outcomes was not evident.

8.
Surg Radiol Anat ; 43(12): 2025-2030, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351281

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to detect the idyllic locations for botulinum neurotoxin injection by analyzing the intramuscular neural distributions of the sartorius muscles. METHODS: An altered Sihler's staining was conducted on sartorius muscles (15 specimens). The nerve entry points and intramuscular arborization areas were measured as a percentage of the total distance from the most prominent point of the anterior superior iliac spine (0%) to the medial femoral epicondyle (100%). RESULTS: Intramuscular neural distribution were densely detected at 20-40% and 60-80% for the sartorius muscles. The result suggests that the treatment of sartorius muscle spasticity requires botulinum neurotoxin injections in particular locations. CONCLUSIONS: These locations, corresponding to the locations of maximum arborization, are suggested as the most suggestive points for botulinum neurotoxin injection.


Subject(s)
Botulinum Toxins/administration & dosage , Motor Endplate/anatomy & histology , Muscle Spasticity/drug therapy , Muscle, Skeletal/anatomy & histology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cadaver , Female , Humans , Injections, Intramuscular , Male , Middle Aged , Muscle, Skeletal/innervation , Thigh/anatomy & histology , Thigh/innervation
9.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255268, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332007

ABSTRACT

How and why do people comply with protective behaviours during COVID-19? The emerging literature employs a variable-centered approach, typically using a narrow selection of constructs within a study. This study is the first to adopt a person-centred approach to identify complex patterns of compliance, and holistically examine underlying psychological differences, integrating multiple psychology paradigms and epidemiology. 1575 participants from Australia, US, UK, and Canada indicated their behaviours, attitudes, personality, cognitive/decision-making ability, resilience, adaptability, coping, political and cultural factors, and information consumption during the pandemic's first wave. Using Latent Profile Analysis, two broad groups were identified. The compliant group (90%) reported greater worries, and perceived protective measures as effective, whilst the non-compliant group (about 10%) perceived them as problematic. The non-compliant group were lower on agreeableness and cultural tightness-looseness, but more extraverted, and reactant. They utilised more maladaptive coping strategies, checked/trusted the news less, and used official sources less. Females showed greater compliance than males. By promoting greater appreciation of the complexity of behaviour during COVID-19, this research provides a critical platform to inform future studies, public health policy, and targeted behaviour change interventions during pandemics. The results also challenge age-related stereotypes and assumptions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Adaptation, Psychological/physiology , Adult , Australia , Canada , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Public Policy
11.
Diabetes Metab J ; 45(1): 109-114, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-953623

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the impact of social distancing due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We retrospectively analyzed the change in glycosylated hemoglobin level (ΔHbA1c) in people with T2DM who undertook social distancing because of COVID-19. We compared the ΔHbA1c between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 cohorts that were enrolled at the same time of year. The ΔHbA1c of the COVID-19 cohort was significantly higher than that of two non-COVID-19 cohorts. Subgroup analysis according to age and baseline HbA1c level showed that social distancing significantly increased the mean HbA1c level of participants of <50 years. The ΔHbA1c of participants of <50 years and with HbA1c <7.0% in the COVID-19 cohort showed larger changes than other subgroups. In adjusted model, adjusted ΔHbA1c levels in the COVID-19 cohort remained significantly higher than those in the two other cohorts. Social distancing negatively impacts blood glucose control in people with T2DM, especially those who are younger and have good blood glucose control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Physical Distancing , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
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