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1.
J Med Virol ; 94(6): 2402-2413, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718416

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to provide a more accurate representation of COVID-19's case fatality rate (CFR) by performing meta-analyses by continents and income, and by comparing the result with pooled estimates. We used multiple worldwide data sources on COVID-19 for every country reporting COVID-19 cases. On the basis of data, we performed random and fixed meta-analyses for CFR of COVID-19 by continents and income according to each individual calendar date. CFR was estimated based on the different geographical regions and levels of income using three models: pooled estimates, fixed- and random-model. In Asia, all three types of CFR initially remained approximately between 2.0% and 3.0%. In the case of pooled estimates and the fixed model results, CFR increased to 4.0%, by then gradually decreasing, while in the case of random-model, CFR remained under 2.0%. Similarly, in Europe, initially, the two types of CFR peaked at 9.0% and 10.0%, respectively. The random-model results showed an increase near 5.0%. In high-income countries, pooled estimates and fixed-model showed gradually increasing trends with a final pooled estimates and random-model reached about 8.0% and 4.0%, respectively. In middle-income, the pooled estimates and fixed-model have gradually increased reaching up to 4.5%. in low-income countries, CFRs remained similar between 1.5% and 3.0%. Our study emphasizes that COVID-19 CFR is not a fixed or static value. Rather, it is a dynamic estimate that changes with time, population, socioeconomic factors, and the mitigatory efforts of individual countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Asia , COVID-19/epidemiology , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
2.
Toxics ; 9(12)2021 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592920

ABSTRACT

Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a polymer used for surface modification of important substances in the modern pharmaceutical industry and biopharmaceutical fields. Despite the many benefits of PEGylation, there is also the possibility that the application and exposure of the substance may cause adverse effects in the body, such as an immune response. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the sensitization responses that could be induced through the intercomparison of nanomaterials of the PEG-coated group with the original group. We selected gold/silver nanomaterials (NMs) for original group and PEGylated silver/gold NMs in this study. First, we measured the physicochemical properties of the four NMs, such as size and zeta potential under various conditions. Additionally, we performed the test of the NM's sensitization potential using the KeratinoSens™ assay for in vitro test method and the LLNA: 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-FCM for in vivo test method. The results showed that PEGylated-NMs did not lead to skin sensitization according to OECD TG 442 (alternative test for skin sensitization). In addition, gold nanomaterial showed that cytotoxicity of PEGylated-AuNMs was lower than AuNMs. These results suggest the possibility that PEG coating does not induce an immune response in the skin tissue and can lower the cytotoxicity of nanomaterials.

3.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(9): e29576, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381349

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In general, early intervention in disease based on early diagnosis is considered to be very important for improving health outcomes. However, there is still insufficient evidence regarding how medical care that is based on the early diagnosis of confirmed cases can affect the outcome of COVID-19 treatment. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the effect of the duration from the onset of clinical symptoms to confirmation of COVID-19 on the duration from the onset of symptoms to the resolution of COVID-19 (release from quarantine). METHODS: For preliminary data collection, we performed data crawling to extract data from social networks, blogs, and official websites operated by local governments. We collected data from the 4002 confirmed cases in 33 cities reported up to May 31, 2020, for whom sex and age information could be verified. Subsequently, 2494 patients with unclear symptom onset dates and 1349 patients who had not been released or had no data about their release dates were excluded. Thus, 159 patients were finally included in this study. To investigate whether rapid confirmation reduces the prevalence period, we divided the duration from symptom onset to confirmation into quartiles of ≤1, ≤3, ≤6, and ≥7 days, respectively. We investigated the duration from symptom onset to release and that from confirmation to release according to these quartiles. Furthermore, we performed multiple regression analysis to investigate the effects of rapid confirmation after symptom onset on the treatment period, duration of prevalence, and duration until release from isolation. RESULTS: We performed multiple regression analysis to investigate the association between rapid confirmation after symptom onset and the total prevalence period (faster release from isolation). The time from symptom onset to confirmation showed a negative association with the time from confirmation to release (t1=-3.58; P<.001) and a positive association with the time from symptom onset to release (t1=5.86; P<.001); these associations were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The duration from COVID-19 symptom onset to confirmation date is an important variable for predicting disease prevalence, and these results support the hypothesis that a short duration of symptom onset to confirmation can reduce the time from symptom onset to release.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Nanomedicine ; 37: 102438, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1306447

ABSTRACT

Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) pose a significant threat to human health, with high mortality rates, and require effective vaccines. We showed that, harnessed with novel RNA-mediated chaperone function, hemagglutinin (HA) of H5N1 HPAIV could be displayed as an immunologically relevant conformation on self-assembled chimeric nanoparticles (cNP). A tri-partite monomeric antigen was designed including: i) an RNA-interaction domain (RID) as a docking tag for RNA to enable chaperna function (chaperna: chaperone + RNA), ii) globular head domain (gd) of HA as a target antigen, and iii) ferritin as a scaffold for 24 mer-assembly. The immunization of mice with the nanoparticles (~46 nm) induced a 25-30 fold higher neutralizing capacity of the antibody and provided cross-protection from homologous and heterologous lethal challenges. This study suggests that cNP assembly is conducive to eliciting antibodies against the conserved region in HA, providing potent and broad protective efficacy.


Subject(s)
Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/drug effects , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza in Birds/immunology , RNA/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Birds/virology , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/genetics , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/therapeutic use , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/pathogenicity , Influenza Vaccines/chemistry , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza in Birds/prevention & control , Influenza in Birds/virology , Mice , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Pandemics , RNA/genetics , RNA/therapeutic use
5.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(7)2021 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323149

ABSTRACT

Biomarkers play a vital role in clinical care. They enable early diagnosis and treatment by identifying a patient's condition and disease course and act as an outcome measure that accurately evaluates the efficacy of a new treatment or drug. Due to the rapid development of digital technologies, digital biomarkers are expected to grow tremendously. In the era of change, this scoping review was conducted to see which digital biomarkers are progressing in neuromuscular disorders, a diverse and broad-range disease group among the neurological diseases, to discover available evidence for their feasibility and reliability. Thus, a total of 10 studies were examined: 9 observational studies and 1 animal study. Of the observational studies, studies were conducted with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) patients. Non-peer reviewed poster presentations were not considered, as the articles may lead to erroneous results. The only animal study included in the present review investigated the mice model of ALS for detecting rest disturbances using a non-invasive digital biomarker.

6.
Br J Sports Med ; 56(16): 901-912, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322785

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine the potential associations between physical activity and risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe illness from COVID-19 and COVID-19 related death using a nationwide cohort from South Korea. METHODS: Data regarding 212 768 Korean adults (age ≥20 years), who tested for SARS-CoV-2, from 1 January 2020 to 30 May 2020, were obtained from the National Health Insurance Service of South Korea and further linked with the national general health examination from 1 January 2018 to 31 December 2019 to assess physical activity levels. SARS-CoV-2 positivity, severe COVID-19 illness and COVID-19 related death were the main outcomes. The observation period was between 1 January 2020 and 31 July 2020. RESULTS: Out of 76 395 participants who completed the general health examination and were tested for SARS-CoV-2, 2295 (3.0%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2, 446 (0.58%) had severe illness from COVID-19 and 45 (0.059%) died from COVID-19. Adults who engaged in both aerobic and muscle strengthening activities according to the 2018 physical activity guidelines had a lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (2.6% vs 3.1%; adjusted relative risk (aRR), 0.85; 95% CI 0.72 to 0.96), severe COVID-19 illness (0.35% vs 0.66%; aRR 0.42; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.91) and COVID-19 related death (0.02% vs 0.08%; aRR 0.24; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.99) than those who engaged in insufficient aerobic and muscle strengthening activities. Furthermore, the recommended range of metabolic equivalent task (MET; 500-1000 MET min/week) was associated with the maximum beneficial effect size for reduced risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (aRR 0.78; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.92), severe COVID-19 illness (aRR 0.62; 95% CI 0.43 to 0.90) and COVID-19 related death (aRR 0.17; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.98). Similar patterns of association were observed in different sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSION: Adults who engaged in the recommended levels of physical activity were associated with a decreased likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe COVID-19 illness and COVID-19 related death. Our findings suggest that engaging in physical activity has substantial public health value and demonstrates potential benefits to combat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Cohort Studies , Exercise , Humans , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
7.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(6): e26368, 2021 06 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278290

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of social big data is an important emerging concern in public health. Internet search volumes are useful data that can sensitively detect trends of the public's attention during a pandemic outbreak situation. OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to analyze the public's interest in COVID-19 proliferation, identify the correlation between the proliferation of COVID-19 and interest in immunity and products that have been reported to confer an enhancement of immunity, and suggest measures for interventions that should be implemented from a health and medical point of view. METHODS: To assess the level of public interest in infectious diseases during the initial days of the COVID-19 outbreak, we extracted Google search data from January 20, 2020, onward and compared them to data from March 15, 2020, which was approximately 2 months after the COVID-19 outbreak began. In order to determine whether the public became interested in the immune system, we selected coronavirus, immune, and vitamin as our final search terms. RESULTS: The increase in the cumulative number of confirmed COVID-19 cases that occurred after January 20, 2020, had a strong positive correlation with the search volumes for the terms coronavirus (R=0.786; P<.001), immune (R=0.745; P<.001), and vitamin (R=0.778; P<.001), and the correlations between variables were all mutually statistically significant. Moreover, these correlations were confirmed on a country basis when we restricted our analyses to the United States, the United Kingdom, Italy, and Korea. Our findings revealed that increases in search volumes for the terms coronavirus and immune preceded the actual occurrences of confirmed cases. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that during the initial phase of the COVID-19 crisis, the public's desire and actions of strengthening their own immune systems were enhanced. Further, in the early stage of a pandemic, social media platforms have a high potential for informing the public about potentially helpful measures to prevent the spread of an infectious disease and provide relevant information about immunity, thereby increasing the public's knowledge.


Subject(s)
Attention , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Pandemics , Search Engine/trends , Social Media/trends , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/trends , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Search Engine/statistics & numerical data , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , United Kingdom/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Vitamins/immunology
8.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e047152, 2021 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1214977

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Disasters are events that disrupt the daily functioning of a community or society, and may increase long-term risk of adverse cardiometabolic outcomes, including cardiovascular disease, obesity and diabetes. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review to determine the impact of disasters, including pandemics, on cardiometabolic outcomes across the life-course. DESIGN: A systematic search was conducted in May 2020 using two electronic databases, EMBASE and Medline. All studies were screened in duplicate at title and abstract, and full-text level. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they assessed the association between a population-level or community disaster and cardiometabolic outcomes ≥1 month following the disaster. There were no restrictions on age, year of publication, country or population. Data were extracted on study characteristics, exposure (eg, type of disaster, region, year), cardiometabolic outcomes and measures of effect. Study quality was evaluated using the Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal tools. RESULTS: A total of 58 studies were included, with 24 studies reporting the effects of exposure to disaster during pregnancy/childhood and 34 studies reporting the effects of exposure during adulthood. Studies included exposure to natural (n=35; 60%) and human-made (n=23; 40%) disasters, with only three (5%) of these studies evaluating previous pandemics. Most studies reported increased cardiometabolic risk, including increased cardiovascular disease incidence or mortality, diabetes and obesity, but not all. Few studies evaluated the biological mechanisms or high-risk subgroups that may be at a greater risk of negative health outcomes following disasters. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this study suggest that the burden of disasters extend beyond the known direct harm, and attention is needed on the detrimental indirect long-term effects on cardiometabolic health. Given the current COVID-19 pandemic, these findings may inform public health prevention strategies to mitigate the impact of future cardiometabolic risk. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020186074.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Disasters , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Child , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(12): e22103, 2020 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-967271

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: South Korea is one of the few countries that has succeeded in flattening the curve of new COVID-19 cases and avoiding a second outbreak by implementing multiple strategies, ranging from an individual level to the population level. OBJECTIVE: We aim to discuss the unique strategies and epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 in South Korea and present a summary of policies implemented by the Korean government during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We designed a cross-sectional study of epidemiological data published by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on October 1, 2020. We analyzed detailed epidemiological information of COVID-19 cases, including the number of confirmed cases and resulting deaths. RESULTS: As of October 1, 2020, a total of 23,889 confirmed COVID-19 cases and 415 deaths were reported in South Korea. In this paper, we present data on the epidemiological characteristics and transmission of the disease and discuss how the South Korean government, health care providers, and society responded to the COVID-19 outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 in South Korea and the government's successful efforts in managing the spread of the disease can provide important insights to other countries dealing with the ongoing pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Epidemiologic Methods , Humans , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
10.
Theranostics ; 11(3): 1207-1231, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-966958

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread worldwide and poses a threat to humanity. However, no specific therapy has been established for this disease yet. We conducted a systematic review to highlight therapeutic agents that might be effective in treating COVID-19. Methods: We searched Medline, Medrxiv.org, and reference lists of relevant publications to identify articles of in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies on treatments for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and COVID-19 published in English until the last update on October 11, 2020. Results: We included 36 studies on SARS, 30 studies on MERS, and 10 meta-analyses on SARS and MERS in this study. Through 12,200 title and 830 full-text screenings for COVID-19, eight in vitro studies, 46 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on 6,886 patients, and 29 meta-analyses were obtained and investigated. There was no therapeutic agent that consistently resulted in positive outcomes across SARS, MERS, and COVID-19. Remdesivir showed a therapeutic effect for COVID-19 in two RCTs involving the largest number of total participants (n = 1,461). Other therapies that showed an effect in at least two RCTs for COVID-19 were sofosbuvir/daclatasvir (n = 114), colchicine (n = 140), IFN-ß1b (n = 193), and convalescent plasma therapy (n = 126). Conclusions: This review provides information to help establish treatment and research directions for COVID-19 based on currently available evidence. Further RCTs are required.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19/mortality , Carbamates/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Combinations , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Humans , Imidazoles/therapeutic use , Immunization, Passive/methods , Pyrrolidines/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/mortality , Sofosbuvir/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Valine/analogs & derivatives , Valine/therapeutic use
11.
Int J Infect Dis ; 100: 302-308, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-959814

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Since the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in December of 2019 in China, estimating the pandemic's case fatality rate (CFR) has been the focus and interest of many stakeholders. In this manuscript, we prove that the method of using the cumulative CFR is static and does not reflect the trend according to the daily change per unit of time. METHODS: A proportion meta-analysis was carried out on the CFR in every country reporting COVID-19 cases. Based on these results, we performed a meta-analysis for a global COVID-19 CFR. Each analysis was performed using two different calculations of CFR: according to the calendar date and according to the days since the outbreak of the first confirmed case. We thus explored an innovative and original calculation of CFR, concurrently based on the date of the first confirmed case as well as on a daily basis. RESULTS: For the first time, we showed that using meta-analyses according to the calendar date and days since the outbreak of the first confirmed case, were different. CONCLUSION: We propose that a CFR according to days since the outbreak of the first confirmed case might be a better predictor of the current CFR of COVID-19 and its kinetics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Global Health , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Clin Med ; 9(8)2020 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690725

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: The use of corticosteroids in critical coronavirus infections, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), or Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has been controversial. However, a meta-analysis on the efficacy of steroids in treating these coronavirus infections is lacking. (2) Purpose: We assessed a methodological criticism on the quality of previous published meta-analyses and the risk of misleading conclusions with important therapeutic consequences. We also examined the evidence of the efficacy of corticosteroids in reducing mortality in SARS, MERS and COVID-19. (3) Methods: PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science were used to identify studies published until 25 April 2020, that reported associations between steroid use and mortality in treating SARS/MERS/COVID-19. Two investigators screened and extracted data independently. Searches were restricted to studies on humans, and articles that did not report the exact number of patients in each group or data on mortality were excluded. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) or hazard ratios (HRs) under the fixed- and random-effect model. (4) Results: Eight articles (4051 patients) were eligible for inclusion. Among these selected studies, 3416 patients were diagnosed with SARS, 360 patients with MERS, and 275 with COVID-19; 60.3% patients were administered steroids. The meta-analyses including all studies showed no differences overall in terms of mortality (OR 1.152, 95% CI 0.631-2.101 in the random effects model, p = 0.645). However, this conclusion might be biased, because, in some studies, the patients in the steroid group had more severe symptoms than those in the control group. In contrast, when the meta-analysis was performed restricting only to studies that used appropriate adjustment (e.g., time, disease severity), there was a significant difference between the two groups (HR 0.378, 95% CI 0.221-0.646 in the random effects model, p < 0.0001). Although there was no difference in mortality when steroids were used in severe cases, there was a difference among the group with more underlying diseases (OR 3.133, 95% CI 1.670-5.877, p < 0.001). (5) Conclusions: To our knowledge, this study is the first comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis providing the most accurate evidence on the effect of steroids in coronavirus infections. If not contraindicated, and in the absence of side effects, the use of steroids should be considered in coronavirus infection including COVID-19.

14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(14)2020 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646402

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: The global threat of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues. The diversity of clinical characteristics and progress are reported in many countries as the duration of the pandemic is prolonged. We aimed to perform a novel systematic review and meta-analysis focusing on findings about correlations between clinical characteristics and laboratory features of patients with COVID-19. (2) Methods: We analyzed cases of COVID-19 in different countries by searching PubMed, Embase, Web of Science databases and Google Scholar, from the early stage of the outbreak to late March. Clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, and treatment strategies were retrospectively reviewed for the analysis. (3) Results: Thirty-seven (n = 5196 participants) COVID-19-related studies were eligible for this systematic review and meta-analysis. Fever, cough and fatigue/myalgia were the most common symptoms of COVID-19, followed by some gastrointestinal symptoms which are also reported frequently. Laboratory markers of inflammation and infection including C-reactive protein (CRP) (65% (95% confidence interval (CI) 56-81%)) were elevated, while lymphocyte counts were decreased (63% (95% CI 47-78%)). Meta-analysis of treatment approaches indicated that three modalities of treatment were predominantly used in the majority of patients with a similar prevalence, including antiviral agents (79%), antibiotics (78%), and oxygen therapy (77%). Age was negatively correlated with number of lymphocytes, but positively correlated with dyspnea, number of white blood cells, neutrophils, and D-dimer. Chills had been proved to be positively correlated with chest tightness, lung abnormalities on computed tomography (CT) scans, neutrophil/lymphocyte/platelets count, D-dimer and CRP, cough was positively correlated with sputum production, and pulmonary abnormalities were positively correlated with CRP. White blood cell (WBC) count was also positively correlated with platelet counts, dyspnea, and neutrophil counts with the respective correlations of 0.668, 0.728, and 0.696. (4) Conclusions: This paper is the first systematic review and meta-analysis to reveal the relationship between various variables of clinical characteristics, symptoms and laboratory results with the largest number of papers and patients until now. In elderly patients, laboratory and clinical characteristics indicate a more severe disease course. Moreover, treatments such as antiviral agents, antibiotics, and oxygen therapy which are used in over three quarters of patients are also analyzed. The results will provide "evidence-based hope" on how to manage this unanticipated and overwhelming pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Age Factors , Betacoronavirus , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Chills/virology , Cough/virology , Dyspnea/virology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Inflammation/virology , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocyte Count , Pandemics , Platelet Count , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 56(6)2020 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-622723

ABSTRACT

Background and objective: Despite medical advances, we are facing the unprecedented disaster of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic without available treatments and effective vaccines. As the COVID-19 pandemic has approached its culmination, desperate efforts have been made to seek proper treatments and response strategies, and the number of clinical trials has been rapidly increasing. In this time of the pandemic, it is believed that learning lessons from it would be meaningful in preparing for future pandemics. Thus, this study aims at providing a comprehensive landscape of COVID-19 related clinical trials based on the ClinicalTrials.gov database. Materials and methods: Up to 30 March 2020, we identified a total of 147 eligible clinical trials and reviewed the overview of the studies. Results: Until then, the most clinical trials were set up in China. Treatment approaches are the most frequent purpose of the registered studies. Chloroquine, interferon, and antiviral agents such as remdesivir, lopinavir, and ritonavir are agents under investigation in these trials. Conclusions: In this study, we introduced the promising therapeutic options that many researchers and clinicians are interested in, and to address the hidden issues behind clinical trials in this COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Clinical Trials as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , COVID-19 , Databases, Factual , Humans , Pandemics
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