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2.
Antiviral Res ; : 105473, 2022 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2122318

ABSTRACT

To identify potent antiviral compounds, we introduced a high-throughput screen platform that can rapidly classify hit compounds according to their target. In our platform, we performed a compound screen using a lentivirus-based pseudovirus presenting a spike protein of coronavirus, and we evaluated the hit compounds using an amplified luminescence proximity homogeneous assay (alpha) test with purified host receptor protein and the receptor binding domain of the viral spike. With our screen platform, we were able to identify both spike-specific compounds (class I) and broad-spectrum antiviral compounds (class II). Among the hit compounds, thiosemicarbazide was identified to be selective to the interaction between the viral spike and its host cell receptor, and we further optimized the binding potency of thiosemicarbazide through modification of the pyridine group. Among the class II compounds, we found raloxifene and amiodarone to be highly potent against human coronaviruses including Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and SARS-CoV-2. In particular, using analogs of the benzothiophene moiety, which is also present in raloxifene, we have identified benzothiophene as a novel structural scaffold for broad-spectrum antivirals. This work highlights the strong utility of our screen platform using a pseudovirus assay and an alpha test for rapid identification of potential antiviral compounds, which can lead to the accelerated development of therapeutics against newly emerging viral infections.

3.
iScience ; 25(12): 105571, 2022 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105157

ABSTRACT

With the continuous emergence of highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants, the comparison of their infectivity has become a critical issue for public health. However, a direct assessment of the viral characteristic has been challenging because of the lack of appropriate experimental models and efficient methods. Here, we integrated human alveolar organoids and single-cell transcriptome sequencing to facilitate the evaluation. In a proof-of-concept study with four highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants, including GR (B.1.1.119), Alpha (B.1.1.7), Delta (B.1.617.2), and Omicron (BA.1), a rapid evaluation of the relative infectivity was possible. Our system demonstrates that the Omicron variant is 5- to 7-fold more infectious to human alveolar cells than the other SARS-CoV-2 variants at the initial stage of infection. To our knowledge, for the first time, this study measures the relative infectivity of the Omicron variant under multiple virus co-infection and provides new experimental procedures that can be applied to monitor emerging viral variants.

4.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 988559, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099179

ABSTRACT

Background: The impact of nirmatrelvir/ritonavir treatment on shedding of viable virus in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is unclear. Methods: A prospective cohort study evaluating mildly ill COVID-19 patients was conducted. Virologic responses were compared between nirmatrelvir/ritonavir-treatment and supportive care groups. Risk factors and relevant clinical factors for shedding of viable virus were investigated. Results: A total of 80 COVID-19 patients were enrolled and 222 sputum specimens were collected. Ten patients were dropped during follow-up, and 33 patients in the nirmatrelvir/ritonavir and 37 in the supportive care groups were compared. The median age was 67 years, and 67% were male. Clinical characteristics were similar between groups. Viral loads decreased significantly faster in the nirmatrelvir/ritonavir group compared with the supportive care group (P < 0.001), and the slope was significantly steeper (-2.99 ± 1.54 vs. -1.44 ± 1.52; P < 0.001). The duration of viable virus shedding was not statistically different between groups. In the multivariable analyses evaluating all collected specimens, male gender (OR 2.51, 95% CI 1.25-5.03, P = 0.010), symptom score (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.07-1.87, P = 0.015), days from symptom onset (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.59-0.88, P = 0.002), complete vaccination (OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.01-0.87, P = 0.038), and BA.2 subtype (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.26-0.91, P = 0.025) were independently associated with viable viral shedding, while nirmatrelvir/ritonavir treatment was not. Conclusion: Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir treatment effectively reduced viral loads of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variants but did not decrease the duration of viable virus shedding.

5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(11)2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090408

ABSTRACT

The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a fatal acute viral respiratory disease caused by MERS-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection. To date, no vaccine has been approved for MERS-CoV despite continuing outbreaks. Inactivated vaccines are a viable option when developed using the appropriate inactivation methods and adjuvants. In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective effects of MERS-CoV vaccine candidates inactivated by three different chemical agents. MERS-CoV was effectively inactivated by formaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, and binary ethylene imine and induced humoral and cellular immunity in mice. Although inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in the lungs four days after the challenge, the immunized hDPP4-transgenic mouse group showed 100% protection against a challenge with MERS-CoV (100 LD50). In particular, the immune response was highly stimulated by MERS-CoV inactivated with formaldehyde, and all mice survived a challenge with the minimum dose. In the adjuvant comparison test, the group immunized with inactivated MERS-CoV and AddaVax had a higher immune response than the group immunized with aluminum potassium sulfate (alum). In conclusion, our study indicates that the three methods of MERS-CoV inactivation are highly immunogenic and protective in mice and show strong potential as vaccine candidates when used with an appropriate adjuvant.

6.
Antiviral Res ; 208: 105430, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2060394

ABSTRACT

As the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic remains uncontrolled owing to the continuous emergence of variants of concern, there is an immediate need to implement the most effective antiviral treatment strategies, especially for risk groups. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic potency of nirmatrelvir, remdesivir and molnupiravir, and their combinations in SARS-CoV-2 infected K18-hACE2 transgenic mice. Systemic treatment of mice with each drug (20 mg/kg) resulted in slightly enhanced antiviral efficacy and yielded an increased life expectancy of only about 20-40% survival. However, combination therapy with nirmatrelvir (20 mg/kg) and molnupiravir (20 mg/kg) in lethally infected mice showed profound inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 replication in both the lung and brain and synergistically improved survival rates up to 80% compared to those with nirmatrelvir (36%, P < 0.001) and molnupiravir (43%, P < 0.001) administered alone. This combination therapy effectively reduced clinical severity score, virus-induced tissue damage, and viral distribution compared to those in animals treated with these monotherapies. Furthermore, all these assessments associated with this combination were also significantly higher than that of mice receiving remdesivir monotherapy (P < 0.001) and the nirmatrelvir (20 mg/kg) and remdesivir (20 mg/kg) combination (P < 0.001), underscored the clinical significance of this combination. By contrast, the nirmatrelvir and remdesivir combination showed less antiviral efficacy, with lower survival compared to nirmatrelvir monotherapy due to the insufficient plasma exposure of the remdesivir, demonstrating the inefficient therapeutic effect of this combination in the mouse model. The combination therapy with nirmatrelvir and molnupiravir contributes to alleviated morbidity and mortality, which can serve as a basis for the design of clinical studies of this combination in the treatment of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Mice , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Mice, Transgenic
7.
J Korean Acad Nurs ; 52(4): 391-406, 2022 Aug.
Article in Korean | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2040073

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to provide foundational knowledge on nursing tasks performed on patients with COVID-19 in a nationally-designated inpatient treatment unit. METHODS: This study employs both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The quantitative method investigated the content and frequency of nursing tasks for 460 patients (age ≥ 18 y, 57.4% men) from January 20, 2020, to September 30, 2021, by analyzing hospital information system records. Qualitative data were collected via focus group interviews. The study involved interviews with three focus groups comprising 18 nurses overall to assess their experiences and perspectives on nursing care during the pandemic from February 3, 2022, to February 15, 2022. The data were examined with thematic analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 49 different areas of nursing tasks (n = 130,687) were identified based on the Korean Patient Classification System for nurses during the study period. Among the performed tasks, monitoring of oxygen saturation and measuring of vital signs were considered high-priority. From the focus group interview, three main themes and eleven sub-themes were generated. The three main themes are "Experiencing eventfulness in isolated settings," "All-around player," and "Reflections for solutions." CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, it is imperative to ensure adequate staffing levels, compensation, and educational support for nurses. The study further propose improving guidelines for emerging infectious diseases and patient classification systems to improve the overall quality of patient care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Focus Groups , Hospitalization , Humans , Inpatients , Male , Pandemics
8.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 2315-2325, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004929

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite a successful vaccination programme, the emergence of mutated variants that can escape current levels of immunity mean infections continue. Herein, we report the development of CT-P63, a broad-spectrum neutralizing monoclonal antibody. In vitro studies demonstrated potent neutralizing activity against the most prevalent variants, including Delta and the BA.1 and BA.2 sub-lineages of Omicron. In a transgenic mouse model, prophylactic CT-P63 significantly reduced wild-type viral titres in the respiratory tract and CT-P63 treatment proved efficacious against infection with Beta, Delta, and Omicron variants of SARS-CoV-2 with no detectable infectious virus in the lungs of treated animals. A randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, Phase I, single ascending dose study in healthy volunteers (NCT05017168) confirmed the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of CT-P63. Twenty-four participants were randomized and received the planned dose of CT-P63 or placebo. The safety and tolerability of CT-P63 were evaluated as primary objectives. Eight participants (33.3%) experienced a treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE), including one grade ≥3 (blood creatine phosphokinase increased). There were no deaths, treatment-emergent serious adverse events, TEAEs of special interest, or TEAEs leading to study drug discontinuation in the CT-P63 groups. Serum CT-P63 concentrations rapidly peaked before declining in a biphasic manner and systemic exposure was dose proportional. Overall, CT-P63 was clinically safe and showed broad-spectrum neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2 variants in vitro and in vivo.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , Creatine Kinase , Humans , Mice , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
9.
J Infect Dis ; 226(6): 975-978, 2022 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752117

ABSTRACT

A prospective cohort study was conducted for adults with a diagnosis of with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Convalescent blood samples were obtained 4, 6, and 11 months after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The seropositivity of anti-spike antibody was maintained in all patients (100%) until 11 months after COVID-19 diagnosis. Neutralizing antibody levels against wild-type SARS-CoV-2 gradually decreased but remained positive in >50% of patients 11 months after diagnosis: in 98.5% (67 of 68) at 4 months, 86.8% (46 of 53) at 6 months, and 58.8% (40 of 68) at 11 months. However, cross-neutralizing activity against the Beta and Delta variants was attenuated 2.53-fold and 2.93-fold, respectively, compared with the wild-type strain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , NAV1.2 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel , Neutralization Tests , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
10.
Scientific reports ; 12(1), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1651354

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a zoonotic virus, responsible for outbreaks of a severe respiratory illness in humans with a fatality rate of 30%. Currently, there are no vaccines or United States food and drug administration (FDA)-approved therapeutics for humans. The spike protein displayed on the surface of MERS-CoV functions in the attachment and fusion of virions to host cellular membranes and is the target of the host antibody response. Here, we provide a molecular method for neutralizing MERS-CoV through potent antibody-mediated targeting of the receptor-binding subdomain (RBD) of the spike protein. The structural characterization of the neutralizing antibody (KNIH90-F1) complexed with RBD using X-ray crystallography revealed three critical epitopes (D509, R511, and E513) in the RBD region of the spike protein. Further investigation of MERS-CoV mutants that escaped neutralization by the antibody supported the identification of these epitopes in the RBD region. The neutralizing activity of this antibody is solely provided by these specific molecular structures. This work should contribute to the development of vaccines or therapeutic antibodies for MERS-CoV.

11.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(4): 614.e1-614.e4, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670352

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Neutralizing antibodies are among the factors used to measure an individual's immune status for the control of infectious diseases. We aimed to confirm the persistence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) neutralizing antibody levels in patients who had recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Plasma donors in South Korea who had completely recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection had follow-up testing to determine the persistence of neutralizing antibodies using a plaque-reduction neutralization test and ELISA. RESULTS: Of the 111 participants-aged 20-29 years, 37/111 (33.3%); 30-39 years, 17/111 (15.3%); 40-49 years, 23/111 (20.7%); 50-59 years, 21/111 (18.9%); 60-65 years, 13/111 (11.7%); male, 43/111 (38.7%); female, 68/111 (61.3%)-66.1% still had neutralizing antibodies approximately 9 months (range 255-302 days) after confirmation of the diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we analysed the titre of neutralizing antibodies associated with predicting immune status in individuals with natural infection. Information about the persistence and change in levels of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 can be utilized to provide evidence for developing vaccination schedules for individuals with previous infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1260, 2022 01 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648095

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a zoonotic virus, responsible for outbreaks of a severe respiratory illness in humans with a fatality rate of 30%. Currently, there are no vaccines or United States food and drug administration (FDA)-approved therapeutics for humans. The spike protein displayed on the surface of MERS-CoV functions in the attachment and fusion of virions to host cellular membranes and is the target of the host antibody response. Here, we provide a molecular method for neutralizing MERS-CoV through potent antibody-mediated targeting of the receptor-binding subdomain (RBD) of the spike protein. The structural characterization of the neutralizing antibody (KNIH90-F1) complexed with RBD using X-ray crystallography revealed three critical epitopes (D509, R511, and E513) in the RBD region of the spike protein. Further investigation of MERS-CoV mutants that escaped neutralization by the antibody supported the identification of these epitopes in the RBD region. The neutralizing activity of this antibody is solely provided by these specific molecular structures. This work should contribute to the development of vaccines or therapeutic antibodies for MERS-CoV.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/chemistry , Crystallography, X-Ray , Humans , Protein Domains
13.
J Extracell Vesicles ; 11(1): e12179, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605805

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) entry is mediated by the interaction of the viral spike (S) protein with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on the host cell surface. Although a clinical trial testing soluble ACE2 (sACE2) for COVID-19 is currently ongoing, our understanding of the delivery of sACE2 via small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) is still rudimentary. With excellent biocompatibility allowing for the effective delivery of molecular cargos, sEVs are broadly studied as nanoscale protein carriers. In order to exploit the potential of sEVs, we design truncated CD9 scaffolds to display sACE2 on the sEV surface as a decoy receptor for the S protein of SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, to enhance the sACE2-S binding interaction, we employ sACE2 variants. sACE2-loaded sEVs exhibit typical sEVs characteristics and bind to the S protein. Furthermore, engineered sEVs inhibit the entry of wild-type (WT), the globally dominant D614G variant, Beta (K417N-E484K-N501Y) variant, and Delta (L452R-T478K-D614G) variant SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus, and protect against authentic SARS-CoV-2 and Delta variant infection. Of note, sACE2 variants harbouring sEVs show superior antiviral efficacy than WT sACE2 loaded sEVs. Therapeutic efficacy of the engineered sEVs against SARS-CoV-2 challenge was confirmed using K18-hACE2 mice. The current findings provide opportunities for the development of new sEVs-based antiviral therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Extracellular Vesicles/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Protein Binding , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs
14.
J Virol Methods ; 299: 114306, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446918

ABSTRACT

Considering the global impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, generating suitable experimental models is imperative. For pre-clinical studies, researchers require animal models displaying pathological features similar to those observed in patients; therefore, establishing animal models for COVID-19 is crucial. The golden Syrian hamster model mimics conditions observed in humans with mild severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. However, a golden Syrian hamster model of severe infection has not been reported. J2N-k hamsters are utilized as a cardiomyopathy model; therefore, we used cardiomyopathic J2N-k hamsters showing conditions similar to those of severe COVID-19 complicated with cardiovascular diseases, as patients with cardiovascular diseases exhibit a higher risk of morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19 than patients without cardiovascular diseases. Unlike that in golden Syrian hamsters, SARS-CoV-2 infection was lethal in J2N-k hamsters, with a median lethal dose of 104.75 plaque-forming units for the S clade of SARS-CoV-2 (A, GenBank: MW466791.1). High viral titers and viral genomes were detected in the lungs of J2N-k and golden Syrian hamster models harvested 3 days after infection. Pathological features of SARS-CoV-2-associated lung injury were observed in both models. The J2N-k hamster model can aid in developing vaccines or therapeutics against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Animals , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Mesocricetus , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Virus Res ; 305: 198563, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415831

ABSTRACT

This study compared the lethality of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 variants belonging to the S, V, L, G, GH, and GR clades using K18-human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 heterozygous mice. To estimate the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of each variant, increasing viral loads (100-104 plaque-forming units [PFU]) were administered intranasally. Mouse weight and survival were monitored for 14 days. The LD50 of the GH and GR clades was significantly lower than that of other clades at 50 PFU. These findings suggest that the GH and GR clades, which are prevalent worldwide, are more virulent than the other clades.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/mortality , Receptors, Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Load/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Base Sequence , Body Weight , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Gene Expression , Humans , Lethal Dose 50 , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Phylogeny , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Transgenes , Vero Cells , Viral Plaque Assay , Virulence
16.
J Infect Dis ; 224(5): 754-763, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381010

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is insufficient data on the longevity of immunity acquired after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: We aimed to evaluate the duration of SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral and cellular immunity according to the clinical severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The study population comprised asymptomatic (n = 14), symptomatic/nonpneumonic (n = 42), and pneumonic (n = 41) patients. RESULTS: The anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin class G and neutralizing antibody (NAb) titers lasted until 6 months after diagnosis, with positivity rates of 66.7% and 86.9%, respectively. Older age, prolonged viral shedding, and accompanying pneumonia were more frequently found in patients with sustained humoral immunity. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-specific T-cell response was strongly observed in pneumonic patients and prominent in individuals with sustained humoral immunity. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, most (>85%) patients carry NAb until 6 months after diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, providing insights for establishing vaccination strategies against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Virus Shedding
17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(3): e550-e558, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338090

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Zoonotic coronaviruses have emerged as a global threat by causing fatal respiratory infections. Given the lack of specific antiviral therapies, application of human convalescent plasma retaining neutralizing activity could be a viable therapeutic option that can bridges this gap. METHODS: We traced antibody responses and memory B cells in peripheral blood collected from 70 recovered Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) patients for 3 years after the 2015 outbreak in South Korea. We also used a mouse infection model to examine whether the neutralizing activity of collected sera could provide therapeutic benefit in vivo upon lethal MERS-CoV challenge. RESULTS: Anti-spike-specific IgG responses, including neutralizing activity and antibody-secreting memory B cells, persisted for up to 3 years, especially in MERS patients who suffered from severe pneumonia. Mean antibody titers gradually decreased annually by less than 2-fold. Levels of antibody responses were significantly correlated with fever duration, viral shedding periods, and maximum viral loads observed during infection periods. In a transgenic mice model challenged with lethal doses of MERS-CoV, a significant reduction in viral loads and enhanced survival was observed when therapeutically treated with human plasma retaining a high neutralizing titer (> 1/5000). However, this failed to reduce pulmonary pathogenesis, as revealed by pathological changes in lungs and initial weight loss. CONCLUSIONS: High titers of neutralizing activity are required for suppressive effect on the viral replication but may not be sufficient to reduce inflammatory lesions upon fatal infection. Therefore, immune sera with high neutralizing activity must be carefully selected for plasma therapy of zoonotic coronavirus infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Mice , Republic of Korea , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
18.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(2): 292-296, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1312375

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the longevity of spike-specific antibody responses and neutralizing activity in the plasma of recovered Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) patients. METHODS: We traced the antibody responses and neutralizing activity against MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in peripheral blood samples collected from 70 recovered MERS patients for 5 years after the 2015 MERS outbreak in South Korea. We also measured the half-life of neutralizing antibody titres in the longitudinal specimens. RESULTS: The seropositivity rate persisted for up to 4 years (50.7-56.1%), especially in MERS patients who suffered from severe pneumonia, and then decreased (35.9%) in the fifth year. Although the spike-specific antibody responses decreased gradually, the neutralizing antibody titres decreased more rapidly (half-life: 20 months) in 19 participants without showing negative seroconversion during the study period. Only five (26.3%) participants had neutralizing antibody titres greater than 1/1000 of PRNT50, and a high neutralizing antibody titre over 1/5000 was not detected in the participants at five years after infection. DISCUSSION: The seropositivity rate of the recovered MERS patients persisted up to 4 years after infection and significantly dropped in the fifth year, whereas the neutralizing antibody titres against MERS-CoV decreased more rapidly and were significantly reduced at 4 years after infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
20.
Cells ; 10(2)2021 01 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069793

ABSTRACT

Systemic infection is an important risk factor for the development cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration in older people. Animal experiments show that systemic challenges with live bacteria cause a neuro-inflammatory response, but the effect of age on this response in these models is unknown. Young (2 months) and middle-aged mice (13-14 months) were intraperitoneally challenged with live Escherichia coli (E. coli) or saline. The mice were sacrificed at 2, 3 and 7 days after inoculation; for all time points, the mice were treated with ceftriaxone (an antimicrobial drug) at 12 and 24 h after inoculation. Microglial response was monitored by immunohistochemical staining with an ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1) antibody and flow cytometry, and inflammatory response by mRNA expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators. We observed an increased microglial cell number and moderate morphologically activated microglial cells in middle-aged mice, as compared to young mice, after intraperitoneal challenge with live E. coli. Flow cytometry of microglial cells showed higher CD45 and CD11b expressions in middle-aged infected mice compared to young infected mice. The brain expression levels of pro-inflammatory genes were higher in middle-aged than in young infected mice, while middle-aged infected mice had similar expression levels of these genes in the systemic compartment. We conclude that systemic challenge with live bacteria causes an age-dependent neuro-inflammatory and microglial response. Our data show signs of an age-dependent disconnection of the inflammatory transcriptional signature between the brain and the systemic compartment.


Subject(s)
Escherichia coli/metabolism , Microglia/metabolism , Aging , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Male , Mice
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