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1.
Korean J Fam Med ; 44(3): 158-167, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238483

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to improve the clinical course of patients through rapid response by analyzing the characteristics of critically ill patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Busan between December 1, 2020, and December 31, 2021. METHODS: We divided patients diagnosed with COVID-19 into mild-to-moderate and critical groups based on their clinical severity. The critically ill patients were further sub-divided into delta and delta variant non-epidemic group. RESULTS: The following factors were significantly more frequent in critically ill patients than in patients with mild-tomoderate symptoms: male sex, age ≥60 years, symptoms at the time of diagnosis, and those with underlying diseases. The following factors were significantly more common in the non-delta variant epidemic group than in the delta variant epidemic group in critically ill patients: male sex, age ≥60 years, underlying diseases, and not being vaccinated. In the delta variant epidemic group, the duration between confirmation of disease and its progression to critically ill status was significantly shorter than that in the non-delta variant epidemic group. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 is characterized by the emergence of new variants and repeated epidemics. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the characteristics of critically ill patients to efficiently distribute and manage medical resources.

2.
Front Psychol ; 14: 1168243, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323719

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has placed immense pressure on healthcare workers, in particular, Intensive Care Unit (ICU) nurses, who are at the forefront of managing critically ill COVID-19 patients. This has led to increased stressors and workload, which are associated with negative mental health outcomes such as depression, job stress, sleep disturbances, and burnout. However, COVID-19-related resilience may have mitigated these negative effects. ICU nurses with higher levels of COVID-19-related resilience may be better equipped to manage the stress and job demands during the pandemic, leading to improved mental health outcomes. Therefore, this study aimed to comprehensively explore the factors influencing the resilience of ICU nurses and provide baseline knowledge for future studies to develop interventions that promote COVID-19-related resilience. With shift work and COVID-19 experience with adult patients from hospitals across three regions of South Korea. The questionnaire included scales/measures of nurses' depression, job stress, sleep quality, and burnout. Results confirmed that resilience was negatively correlated with depression and burnout, and that ICU nurses' relative levels of resilience strongly influenced their experience of burnout. The findings of this study make a significant contribution to the literature because they focus on resilience, specifically in the context of ICU nursing in South Korea, which has become more challenging and demanding due to the pandemic.

3.
Journal of College Student Psychotherapy ; 37(2):71-86, 2023.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2297156

ABSTRACT

Using a cross-sectional survey (N = 1,225), this study examines the psychological well-being (stress, anxiety, depression), life satisfaction, supportive parent communication, and likelihood to seek mental and emotional support from different sources between FGCSs and non-FGCSs during the early period of the COVID-19 pandemic. Results show that while FGCSs and non-FGCSs report similar levels of stress and depression, FGCSs have higher anxiety and lower life satisfaction and supportive parent communication than non-FGCSs. Although supportive parent communication is negatively associated with stress, anxiety, and depression and positively associated with life satisfaction in both groups, these associations are stronger for FGCSs than non-FGCSs. Further, FGCSs are less likely to seek mental and emotional help from family and friends than non-FGCSs, while these help-seeking behaviors may mitigate their mental distress and enhance their life satisfaction. We address college mental disparity and highlight the lack of interpersonal support for FGCSs' mental wellness during this health crisis. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of College Student Psychotherapy is the property of Taylor & Francis Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

4.
Dev Reprod ; 26(4): 135-144, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280537

ABSTRACT

As the number of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccinations increases, various side effects are being reported, and menstrual abnormalities have been reported as a side effect in women. However, it is still unclear whether the COVID-19 vaccine has detrimental effects on the female reproductive system. Therefore, we investigated the effect of excessive immune response on reproductive function by administering Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) instead of the COVID-19 vaccine. The immune response in mice was induced by injection of LPS. Mice injected with saline 5 times were used as a control group, and mice injected with LPS 5 times were used as an experimental group. Repeated administration of LPS significantly reduced the number of corpus luteum (CL). On the other hand, the injection of LPS did not affect the development of follicles leading before the CL. The expression of the apoptosis-related genes Fas and Fas-L increased in the experimental group. In addition, the expression of the inflammation-related genes increased in the experimental group. In this study, we confirmed that LPS had detrimental effects on the uterus and ovaries in mice. These results suggest that injection of LPS can cause immune reactions within the uterus and ovaries and cause hormonal changes, which can have adverse effects such as abnormal operation or bleeding of the menstrual cycle. These results are expected to help determine the cause of decreased reproductive function, infertility, or physiological disorders caused by the COVID-19 vaccine.

5.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 988559, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287528

ABSTRACT

Background: The impact of nirmatrelvir/ritonavir treatment on shedding of viable virus in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is unclear. Methods: A prospective cohort study evaluating mildly ill COVID-19 patients was conducted. Virologic responses were compared between nirmatrelvir/ritonavir-treatment and supportive care groups. Risk factors and relevant clinical factors for shedding of viable virus were investigated. Results: A total of 80 COVID-19 patients were enrolled and 222 sputum specimens were collected. Ten patients were dropped during follow-up, and 33 patients in the nirmatrelvir/ritonavir and 37 in the supportive care groups were compared. The median age was 67 years, and 67% were male. Clinical characteristics were similar between groups. Viral loads decreased significantly faster in the nirmatrelvir/ritonavir group compared with the supportive care group (P < 0.001), and the slope was significantly steeper (-2.99 ± 1.54 vs. -1.44 ± 1.52; P < 0.001). The duration of viable virus shedding was not statistically different between groups. In the multivariable analyses evaluating all collected specimens, male gender (OR 2.51, 95% CI 1.25-5.03, P = 0.010), symptom score (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.07-1.87, P = 0.015), days from symptom onset (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.59-0.88, P = 0.002), complete vaccination (OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.01-0.87, P = 0.038), and BA.2 subtype (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.26-0.91, P = 0.025) were independently associated with viable viral shedding, while nirmatrelvir/ritonavir treatment was not. Conclusion: Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir treatment effectively reduced viral loads of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variants but did not decrease the duration of viable virus shedding.

6.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1056693, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2199538

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study aimed to examine the relationship between smartphone dependency (SD) and mental health (MH) in adolescents in order to develop and implement plans pertaining to SD control. Methods: Raw data from the 16th Online Adolescent Health Behavior Survey in 2020 were analyzed. A total of 482 respondents were selected as study subjects based on their experience of smartphone overdependence (SO), specifically, 241 participants whose score for SO was 37 or higher (Group 2) and age- and gender-matched 241 participants whose score was lower than 10 (Group 1). Results: Frequency analysis, cross-tab analysis (χ2 test), and multinomial logistic regression were performed Analysis shows that the MH affecting the increase in SO is the subjective perception of happiness, subjective perception of stress, sadness and despair, and experience of Loneliness. But, the variable affecting the reduction is the subjective evaluation of sleep quality. The likelihood of SO increased as adolescents felt unhappier [Exp (ß) = 2.408] and more stressed [Exp (ß) = 4.453] and more often felt lonely [Exp (ß) = 8.149], but the likelihood decreased as they had neither sufficient nor insufficient sleep duration [Exp (ß) = 0.344]. The findings suggest that it is necessary to develop aggressive measures for the prevention and management of MH in adolescents showing SO because mental health is closely linked to SD. In developing the measures, realistic approaches to widely pervasive SO among adolescents should be explored by taking into account MH factors, that is, predictors of SO, and the characteristics of youths, such that they can self-control smartphone use and form desirable life habits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Smartphone , Humans , Adolescent , Mental Health , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
7.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(39): e289, 2022 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065446

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with hematologic malignancies may produce replication-competent virus beyond 20 days of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, data regarding the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from patients with prolonged viral shedding is limited. METHODS: In May 2022, four additional cases of COVID-19 were reported in a hematologic ward at a tertiary care hospital in South Korea, after an 8-week isolation of a patient with prolonged viral shedding. We performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of SARS-CoV-2 to evaluate the possibility of post-isolation transmission from this prolonged viral shedding. RESULTS: A patient (case 1) with acute myeloid leukemia was released from isolation 54 days after the diagnosis of COVID-19 based on rising Ct value of up to 29.3, and moved to a six-patient room. On days 10 and 11 post-isolation, his doctor (case 2) and 2 patients who were his roommates (case 3, 4) had positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR results. Additionally, 16 days post-isolation, another patient (case 5) in a remote room had positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR result. All the three patients were hospitalized for ≥ 14 days when they were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Except for case 3, the remaining 4 cases were available for WGS, which revealed that case 1 exhibited a 7 nucleotides difference in comparison to cases 4 and 5 and case 2 displayed a 20 nucleotides difference compared with case 1, while sequences of cases 4 and 5 were identical. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the possibility of transmission from the patient with prolonged viral shedding, no evidence of the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from the patient with prolonged positive RT-PCR using WGS was found.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospitals , Humans , Nucleotides , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Shedding
8.
Clin Lab ; 68(9)2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025359

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To assess protective immunity among a general population against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the correlation of the commercially available solid-phase assay (SPA) for SARS-CoV-2 IgG with a neutralization assay must be investigated. METHODS: Both the neutralization assay and SPA were performed on samples of 143 recovered coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. SARS-CoV-2 IgG was measured using two SPAs for the chemiluminescence immunoassay principle with different target proteins: nucleocapsid and spike protein (Architect i2000SR [Abbott] and Liaison XL [DiaSorin], respectively). The plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) was conducted to obtain titers for the neutralizing antibody. RESULTS: All patients had PRNT titers ranging from 10 to 2,560. Spike Ab SPA had greater sensitivity than nucleocapsid Ab SPA (81.1% [116/143] and 70.6% [101/143], respectively, p = 0.003). The values measured for both SPAs had a positive correlation with the PRNT titers (both R = 0.77, p < 0.001). To predict a high PRNT titer (≥ 160), cutoff values of two SPAs were adjusted based on receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis. The nucleocapsid Ab SPA (cutoff index of 4.17) attained 90.3% sensitivity and 75.9% specificity, whereas the spike Ab SPA (cutoff value of 109 unit/mL) attained 87.1% sensitivity and 89.3% specificity. Therefore, the spike Ab SPA had greater specificity than the nucleocapsid Ab SPA (p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: The qualitative SPA for nucleocapsid Ab, as well as the quantitative SPA for spike Ab, had a modest positive correlation with the neutralization assay. However, spike Ab SPA was more suitable for neutralizing capacity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(15)2022 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969220

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to provide essential data for the establishment of education and policy for the formation of healthy lifestyles of adolescents in the future by analyzing the patterns of changes in society due to the prolonged COVID-19 in the physical activities, sleeping habits, obesity, and mental health of Korean adolescents. To this end, a total of 147,346 adolescents were selected and analyzed according to the purpose of the study in the 2018 (14th), 2019 (15th), and 2020 (16th) raw data of the "Youth Health Behavior Online Survey," an annual national approval statistical survey conducted by a Korean government agency. The study examined changes in the physical activity, obesity, sleep, and mental health of Korean adolescents due to COVID-19. The physical activity rate of Korean adolescents in 2019 decreased by 5.3% from 2018. In addition, the physical activity rate in 2020 decreased by 2.1% compared to 2019. It was found that physical activity steadily decreased (p < 0.001). The obesity rate increased by 0.9% in 2019 compared to 2018 and by 1.8% in 2020 compared to 2019. Although the obesity rate steadily increased, it was found that it was accelerated due to COVID-19 (p < 0.001). Looking at the subjective sleep satisfaction rate of Korean adolescents, in 2019, it was 0.1% lower than in 2018, while in 2020, when COVID-19 began, it increased by 3.5% compared to 2019. It was found that satisfaction with sleep increased after COVID-19. Finally, the mental health characteristics of Korean adolescents by year were divided into stress and depression. Stress decreased by 1% compared to 2019 and 2018 and by 6.2% compared to 2020 and 2019. Depression increased by 1% in 2019 compared to 2018 and decreased by 3.4% in 2020 compared to 2019. In other words, stress and depression decreased after COVID-19. In 2020, when COVID-19 occurred, it was confirmed that there was a change in the health behavior of adolescents compared to 2018 and 2019. Therefore, active responses from schools, families, and communities are required to foster healthy lifestyle habits in social changes such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Adolescent , Adolescent Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Exercise , Humans , Obesity/epidemiology , Pandemics , Sleep
10.
Science ; 377(6609): 960-966, 2022 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962060

ABSTRACT

Understanding the circumstances that lead to pandemics is important for their prevention. We analyzed the genomic diversity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) early in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We show that SARS-CoV-2 genomic diversity before February 2020 likely comprised only two distinct viral lineages, denoted "A" and "B." Phylodynamic rooting methods, coupled with epidemic simulations, reveal that these lineages were the result of at least two separate cross-species transmission events into humans. The first zoonotic transmission likely involved lineage B viruses around 18 November 2019 (23 October to 8 December), and the separate introduction of lineage A likely occurred within weeks of this event. These findings indicate that it is unlikely that SARS-CoV-2 circulated widely in humans before November 2019 and define the narrow window between when SARS-CoV-2 first jumped into humans and when the first cases of COVID-19 were reported. As with other coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2 emergence likely resulted from multiple zoonotic events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Zoonoses , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Computer Simulation , Genetic Variation , Genomics/methods , Humans , Molecular Epidemiology , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Zoonoses/epidemiology , Viral Zoonoses/virology
11.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(17): e133, 2022 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834343

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The potential for a nosocomial outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from a fully vaccinated individual is largely unknown. METHODS: In October 2021, during the time when the delta variant was dominant, a nosocomial outbreak of COVID-19 occurred in two wards in a tertiary care hospital in Seoul, Korea. We performed airflow investigations and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of the virus. RESULTS: The index patient developed symptoms 1 day after admission, and was diagnosed with COVID-19 on day 4 post-admission. He was fully vaccinated (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) 2 months before the diagnosis. Three inpatients and a caregiver in the same room, two inpatients in an adjacent room, two inpatients in rooms remote from the index room, and one nurse on the ward tested positive. Also, two resident doctors who stayed in an on-call room located on the same ward tested positive (although they had no close contact), as well as a caregiver who stayed on an adjacent ward, and a healthcare worker who had casual contact with this caregiver. Samples from five individuals were available for WGS, and all showed ≤ 1 single-nucleotide polymorphism difference. CCTV footage showed that the index case walked frequently in the corridors of two wards. An airflow study showed that the air from the corridor flowed into the resident on-call room, driven by an air circulator that was always turned on. CONCLUSION: Transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 from a fully vaccinated index occurred rapidly via the wards and on-call room. Care must be taken to not use equipment that can change the airflow.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , COVID-19/epidemiology , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785642

ABSTRACT

A sense of control and autonomy are key components in guiding health-related behaviors and quality of life in people with chronic diseases. This study investigated whether autonomy support from health professionals moderates the impact of personal control on psychological well-being through healthy behaviors in patients with hypertension and cardiovascular comorbidities. Data from 149 hypertensive patients with comorbid cardiovascular risk factors were collected via self-administered surveys. A moderated mediation effect of a hypothesized model was analyzed using the PROCESS macro bootstrapping method. Autonomy support from health professionals moderated the relationship between personal control and healthy behaviors (B = 0.16, t = 2.48, p < 0.05), showing that the effect of personal control on healthy behaviors differed by the level of autonomy support. Additionally, autonomy support moderated the mediation effect of healthy behaviors in the relationship between personal control and psychological well-being (Index = 0.15; 95% CI = 0.010, 0.335). The mediation effect existed only in patients with higher autonomy support. The findings demonstrate that autonomy support from health professionals plays a crucial role in reinforcing the positive impact of personal control on healthy behaviors and psychological well-being. Enhancing the supportive attitudes of health professionals that facilitate patients' autonomous self-regulation is necessary for better health outcomes in people with combined cardiovascular diseases.


Subject(s)
Hypertension , Quality of Life , Health Behavior , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Personal Autonomy , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
J Infect Dis ; 225(9): 1554-1560, 2022 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recently, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission through exposure to aerosols has been suggested. Therefore, we investigated the possibility of aerosol SARS-CoV-2 transmission within an apartment complex where residents reported testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 despite having no direct contact with other SARS-CoV-2-infected people. METHODS: Information on symptom onset and exposure history of the patients was collected by global positioning system (GPS) tracking to investigate possible points of contact or spread. Samples collected from patients and from various areas of the complex were analyzed using RNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis was also performed. RESULTS: Of 19 people with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, 5 reported no direct contact with other residents and were from apartments in the same vertical line. Eight environmental samples tested positive for the virus. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that 3 of the positive cases and 1 environmental sample belonged to the B.1.497 lineage. Additionally, 3 clinical specimens and 1 environmental sample from each floor of the complex had the same amino acid substitution in the ORF1ab region. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 transmission possibly occurs between different floors of an apartment building through aerosol transmission via nonfunctioning drain traps.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aerosols , Humans , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
15.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(33): e233, 2021 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370979

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission among non-close contacts is not infrequent. We evaluated the proportion and circumstances of individuals to whom SARS-CoV-2 was transmitted without close contact with the index patient in a nosocomial outbreak in a tertiary care hospital in Korea. From March 2020 to March 2021, there were 36 secondary cases from 14 SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. Of the 36 secondary cases, 26 (72%) had been classified as close contact and the remaining 10 (28%) were classified as non-close contact. Of the 10 non-close contact, 4 had short conversations with both individuals masked, 4 shared a space without any conversation with both masked, and the remaining 2 entered the space after the index had left. At least one quarter of SARS-CoV-2 transmissions occurred among non-close contacts. The definition of close contact for SARS-CoV-2 exposure based on the mode of droplet transmission should be revised to reflect the airborne nature of SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Humans , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
16.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(1): 101-106, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356179

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The development of a rapid diagnostic test for viable SARS-CoV-2 is important for infection control. Real-time RT-PCR assays detect non-viable virus, and cell culture differentiates viable virus but it takes several weeks and is labour-intensive. Subgenomic RNAs may reflect replication-competent virus. We therefore evaluated the usefulness of subgenomic RNAs for diagnosing viable SARS-CoV-2 in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Patients with various severities of confirmed COVID-19 were enrolled at a tertiary hospital between February and December 2020. RT-PCR assay results for genomic and subgenomic RNA of SARS-CoV-2 from nasopharyngeal swab, sputum and saliva specimens were compared with cell culture results. RESULTS: A total 189 specimens from 20 COVID-19 patients were tested in genomic and subgenomic PCR assays and cultured on Vero cells. Of these 189 samples, 62 (33%) gave positive culture results, 93 (49%) negative results and the remaining 34 (18%) indeterminate results. Compared with cell culture results, the sensitivities of genomic RNA and subgenomic RNA of the N and S genes were comparable at 100%, but the specificity of subgenomic RNA (N, 65% and S, 68%) was higher than that of genomic RNA (N, 23% and S, 17%, p < 0.001). The mean durations of positive culture and subgenomic RNA were 11.39 ± 10.34 and 13.75 ± 11.22 days after symptom onset (p 0.437), respectively, while that of genomic RNA was 22.85 ± 11.83 days after symptom onset (p < 0.001). DISCUSSION: Our comparison of subgenomic RNA detection with symptom duration and SARS-CoV-2 culture positivity provides a significant advancement on the transmissibility-based approach beyond the detection of SARS-CoV-2 genomic RNA, and warrants further studies on the development of better diagnostic strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19 , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Vero Cells
17.
Infect Chemother ; 53(2): 332-341, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335280

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks occur in hospitals in many parts of the world. In hospital settings, the possibility of airborne transmission needs to be investigated thoroughly. MATERIALS AND METHODS: There was a nosocomial outbreak of COVID-19 in a hematologic ward in a tertiary hospital, Seoul, Korea. We found 11 patients and guardians with COVID-19 through vigorous contact tracing and closed-circuit television monitoring. We found one patient who probably had acquired COVID-19 through airborne-transmission. We performed airflow investigation with simulation software, whole-genome sequencing of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). RESULTS: Of the nine individuals with COVID-19 who had been in the hematologic ward, six stayed in one multi-patient room (Room 36), and other three stayed in different rooms (Room 1, 34, 35). Guardian in room 35 was close contact to cases in room 36, and patient in room 34 used the shared bathroom for teeth brushing 40 minutes after index used. Airflow simulation revealed that air was spread from the bathroom to the adjacent room 1 while patient in room 1 did not used the shared bathroom. Airflow was associated with poor ventilation in shared bathroom due to dysfunctioning air-exhaust, grill on the door of shared bathroom and the unintended negative pressure of adjacent room. CONCLUSION: Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in the hematologic ward occurred rapidly in the multi-patient room and shared bathroom settings. In addition, there was a case of possible airborne transmission due to unexpected airflow.

18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(11)2021 May 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256526

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the current study is to investigate the changes in physical activity (PA), sleep time (ST), and body weight (BW) Pre- and during COVID-19 in South Korea, and specifically, PA data were obtained during COVID-19 at three-time points based on the multilevel social distancing policies. All data were surveyed by questionnaires online and offline, and participants were required to fill in the monthly average of daily step counts were recorded an application on participants' smartphone devices from Pre-COVID-19 (2019 year) and during COVID-19 (2020 year). Participants were 834 adults (males: 54.4%, female: 45.6%) and all statistical analyses were summarized by SPSS 25.0 program. The monthly average of daily step counts was 6747.09 during Pre-COVID-19, but the PA during COVID-19 was 5812.11 daily step counts per month. Also, there were significant pairwise differences between average PA Pre-COVID-19 and each level of social distancing (p < 0.001). After COVID-19, the participants who slept less than 7 hours decreased by 3.6%, while those who slept more than 9 hours increased by that much. As a result of BW, 269 participants responded their BW changed during COVID-19, and 199 of them reported they gained BW during COVID-19 (74.0%). Although self-reported questionnaires may have led to an under-or over-estimation of ST and BW, the present study found that the environment in which the COVID-19 is prevalent had adverse relationships on PA, ST, and BW. Therefore, it is important to identify strategies to motivate individuals for remaining physically active and getting adequate sleep while maintaining social distancing due to the presence of the COVID-19 global pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Body Weight , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Republic of Korea , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep
19.
Innov High Educ ; 46(5): 519-538, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202253

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) has brought significant changes to college students, but there is a lack of empirical studies regarding how the pandemic has affected student mental health among college students in the U.S. To fill the gap in the literature, this study describes stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms for students in a public research university in Kentucky during an early phase of COVID-19 and their usage of mental health services. Results show that about 88% of students experienced moderate to severe stress, with 44% of students showing moderate to severe anxiety and 36% of students having moderate to severe depression. In particular, female, rural, low-income, and academically underperforming students were more vulnerable to these mental health issues. However, a majority of students with moderate or severe mental health symptoms never used mental health services. Our results call for proactively reaching out to students, identifying students at risk of mental health issues, and providing accessible care.

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