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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(15)2022 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969220

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to provide essential data for the establishment of education and policy for the formation of healthy lifestyles of adolescents in the future by analyzing the patterns of changes in society due to the prolonged COVID-19 in the physical activities, sleeping habits, obesity, and mental health of Korean adolescents. To this end, a total of 147,346 adolescents were selected and analyzed according to the purpose of the study in the 2018 (14th), 2019 (15th), and 2020 (16th) raw data of the "Youth Health Behavior Online Survey," an annual national approval statistical survey conducted by a Korean government agency. The study examined changes in the physical activity, obesity, sleep, and mental health of Korean adolescents due to COVID-19. The physical activity rate of Korean adolescents in 2019 decreased by 5.3% from 2018. In addition, the physical activity rate in 2020 decreased by 2.1% compared to 2019. It was found that physical activity steadily decreased (p < 0.001). The obesity rate increased by 0.9% in 2019 compared to 2018 and by 1.8% in 2020 compared to 2019. Although the obesity rate steadily increased, it was found that it was accelerated due to COVID-19 (p < 0.001). Looking at the subjective sleep satisfaction rate of Korean adolescents, in 2019, it was 0.1% lower than in 2018, while in 2020, when COVID-19 began, it increased by 3.5% compared to 2019. It was found that satisfaction with sleep increased after COVID-19. Finally, the mental health characteristics of Korean adolescents by year were divided into stress and depression. Stress decreased by 1% compared to 2019 and 2018 and by 6.2% compared to 2020 and 2019. Depression increased by 1% in 2019 compared to 2018 and decreased by 3.4% in 2020 compared to 2019. In other words, stress and depression decreased after COVID-19. In 2020, when COVID-19 occurred, it was confirmed that there was a change in the health behavior of adolescents compared to 2018 and 2019. Therefore, active responses from schools, families, and communities are required to foster healthy lifestyle habits in social changes such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Adolescent , Adolescent Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Exercise , Humans , Obesity/epidemiology , Pandemics , Sleep
2.
Science ; : eabp8337, 2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962060

ABSTRACT

Understanding the circumstances that lead to pandemics is important for their prevention. Here, we analyze the genomic diversity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) early in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We show that SARS-CoV-2 genomic diversity before February 2020 likely comprised only two distinct viral lineages, denoted A and B. Phylodynamic rooting methods, coupled with epidemic simulations, reveal that these lineages were the result of at least two separate cross-species transmission events into humans. The first zoonotic transmission likely involved lineage B viruses around 18 November 2019 (23 October-8 December), while the separate introduction of lineage A likely occurred within weeks of this event. These findings indicate that it is unlikely that SARS-CoV-2 circulated widely in humans prior to November 2019 and define the narrow window between when SARS-CoV-2 first jumped into humans and when the first cases of COVID-19 were reported. As with other coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2 emergence likely resulted from multiple zoonotic events.

3.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(17): e133, 2022 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834343

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The potential for a nosocomial outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from a fully vaccinated individual is largely unknown. METHODS: In October 2021, during the time when the delta variant was dominant, a nosocomial outbreak of COVID-19 occurred in two wards in a tertiary care hospital in Seoul, Korea. We performed airflow investigations and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of the virus. RESULTS: The index patient developed symptoms 1 day after admission, and was diagnosed with COVID-19 on day 4 post-admission. He was fully vaccinated (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) 2 months before the diagnosis. Three inpatients and a caregiver in the same room, two inpatients in an adjacent room, two inpatients in rooms remote from the index room, and one nurse on the ward tested positive. Also, two resident doctors who stayed in an on-call room located on the same ward tested positive (although they had no close contact), as well as a caregiver who stayed on an adjacent ward, and a healthcare worker who had casual contact with this caregiver. Samples from five individuals were available for WGS, and all showed ≤ 1 single-nucleotide polymorphism difference. CCTV footage showed that the index case walked frequently in the corridors of two wards. An airflow study showed that the air from the corridor flowed into the resident on-call room, driven by an air circulator that was always turned on. CONCLUSION: Transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 from a fully vaccinated index occurred rapidly via the wards and on-call room. Care must be taken to not use equipment that can change the airflow.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , COVID-19/epidemiology , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785642

ABSTRACT

A sense of control and autonomy are key components in guiding health-related behaviors and quality of life in people with chronic diseases. This study investigated whether autonomy support from health professionals moderates the impact of personal control on psychological well-being through healthy behaviors in patients with hypertension and cardiovascular comorbidities. Data from 149 hypertensive patients with comorbid cardiovascular risk factors were collected via self-administered surveys. A moderated mediation effect of a hypothesized model was analyzed using the PROCESS macro bootstrapping method. Autonomy support from health professionals moderated the relationship between personal control and healthy behaviors (B = 0.16, t = 2.48, p < 0.05), showing that the effect of personal control on healthy behaviors differed by the level of autonomy support. Additionally, autonomy support moderated the mediation effect of healthy behaviors in the relationship between personal control and psychological well-being (Index = 0.15; 95% CI = 0.010, 0.335). The mediation effect existed only in patients with higher autonomy support. The findings demonstrate that autonomy support from health professionals plays a crucial role in reinforcing the positive impact of personal control on healthy behaviors and psychological well-being. Enhancing the supportive attitudes of health professionals that facilitate patients' autonomous self-regulation is necessary for better health outcomes in people with combined cardiovascular diseases.


Subject(s)
Hypertension , Quality of Life , Health Behavior , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Personal Autonomy , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
J Infect Dis ; 225(9): 1554-1560, 2022 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recently, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission through exposure to aerosols has been suggested. Therefore, we investigated the possibility of aerosol SARS-CoV-2 transmission within an apartment complex where residents reported testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 despite having no direct contact with other SARS-CoV-2-infected people. METHODS: Information on symptom onset and exposure history of the patients was collected by global positioning system (GPS) tracking to investigate possible points of contact or spread. Samples collected from patients and from various areas of the complex were analyzed using RNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis was also performed. RESULTS: Of 19 people with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, 5 reported no direct contact with other residents and were from apartments in the same vertical line. Eight environmental samples tested positive for the virus. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that 3 of the positive cases and 1 environmental sample belonged to the B.1.497 lineage. Additionally, 3 clinical specimens and 1 environmental sample from each floor of the complex had the same amino acid substitution in the ORF1ab region. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 transmission possibly occurs between different floors of an apartment building through aerosol transmission via nonfunctioning drain traps.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aerosols , Humans , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
7.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(33): e233, 2021 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370979

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission among non-close contacts is not infrequent. We evaluated the proportion and circumstances of individuals to whom SARS-CoV-2 was transmitted without close contact with the index patient in a nosocomial outbreak in a tertiary care hospital in Korea. From March 2020 to March 2021, there were 36 secondary cases from 14 SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. Of the 36 secondary cases, 26 (72%) had been classified as close contact and the remaining 10 (28%) were classified as non-close contact. Of the 10 non-close contact, 4 had short conversations with both individuals masked, 4 shared a space without any conversation with both masked, and the remaining 2 entered the space after the index had left. At least one quarter of SARS-CoV-2 transmissions occurred among non-close contacts. The definition of close contact for SARS-CoV-2 exposure based on the mode of droplet transmission should be revised to reflect the airborne nature of SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Humans , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
8.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(1): 101-106, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356179

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The development of a rapid diagnostic test for viable SARS-CoV-2 is important for infection control. Real-time RT-PCR assays detect non-viable virus, and cell culture differentiates viable virus but it takes several weeks and is labour-intensive. Subgenomic RNAs may reflect replication-competent virus. We therefore evaluated the usefulness of subgenomic RNAs for diagnosing viable SARS-CoV-2 in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Patients with various severities of confirmed COVID-19 were enrolled at a tertiary hospital between February and December 2020. RT-PCR assay results for genomic and subgenomic RNA of SARS-CoV-2 from nasopharyngeal swab, sputum and saliva specimens were compared with cell culture results. RESULTS: A total 189 specimens from 20 COVID-19 patients were tested in genomic and subgenomic PCR assays and cultured on Vero cells. Of these 189 samples, 62 (33%) gave positive culture results, 93 (49%) negative results and the remaining 34 (18%) indeterminate results. Compared with cell culture results, the sensitivities of genomic RNA and subgenomic RNA of the N and S genes were comparable at 100%, but the specificity of subgenomic RNA (N, 65% and S, 68%) was higher than that of genomic RNA (N, 23% and S, 17%, p < 0.001). The mean durations of positive culture and subgenomic RNA were 11.39 ± 10.34 and 13.75 ± 11.22 days after symptom onset (p 0.437), respectively, while that of genomic RNA was 22.85 ± 11.83 days after symptom onset (p < 0.001). DISCUSSION: Our comparison of subgenomic RNA detection with symptom duration and SARS-CoV-2 culture positivity provides a significant advancement on the transmissibility-based approach beyond the detection of SARS-CoV-2 genomic RNA, and warrants further studies on the development of better diagnostic strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19 , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Vero Cells
9.
Infect Chemother ; 53(2): 332-341, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335280

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks occur in hospitals in many parts of the world. In hospital settings, the possibility of airborne transmission needs to be investigated thoroughly. MATERIALS AND METHODS: There was a nosocomial outbreak of COVID-19 in a hematologic ward in a tertiary hospital, Seoul, Korea. We found 11 patients and guardians with COVID-19 through vigorous contact tracing and closed-circuit television monitoring. We found one patient who probably had acquired COVID-19 through airborne-transmission. We performed airflow investigation with simulation software, whole-genome sequencing of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). RESULTS: Of the nine individuals with COVID-19 who had been in the hematologic ward, six stayed in one multi-patient room (Room 36), and other three stayed in different rooms (Room 1, 34, 35). Guardian in room 35 was close contact to cases in room 36, and patient in room 34 used the shared bathroom for teeth brushing 40 minutes after index used. Airflow simulation revealed that air was spread from the bathroom to the adjacent room 1 while patient in room 1 did not used the shared bathroom. Airflow was associated with poor ventilation in shared bathroom due to dysfunctioning air-exhaust, grill on the door of shared bathroom and the unintended negative pressure of adjacent room. CONCLUSION: Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in the hematologic ward occurred rapidly in the multi-patient room and shared bathroom settings. In addition, there was a case of possible airborne transmission due to unexpected airflow.

10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(11)2021 May 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256526

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the current study is to investigate the changes in physical activity (PA), sleep time (ST), and body weight (BW) Pre- and during COVID-19 in South Korea, and specifically, PA data were obtained during COVID-19 at three-time points based on the multilevel social distancing policies. All data were surveyed by questionnaires online and offline, and participants were required to fill in the monthly average of daily step counts were recorded an application on participants' smartphone devices from Pre-COVID-19 (2019 year) and during COVID-19 (2020 year). Participants were 834 adults (males: 54.4%, female: 45.6%) and all statistical analyses were summarized by SPSS 25.0 program. The monthly average of daily step counts was 6747.09 during Pre-COVID-19, but the PA during COVID-19 was 5812.11 daily step counts per month. Also, there were significant pairwise differences between average PA Pre-COVID-19 and each level of social distancing (p < 0.001). After COVID-19, the participants who slept less than 7 hours decreased by 3.6%, while those who slept more than 9 hours increased by that much. As a result of BW, 269 participants responded their BW changed during COVID-19, and 199 of them reported they gained BW during COVID-19 (74.0%). Although self-reported questionnaires may have led to an under-or over-estimation of ST and BW, the present study found that the environment in which the COVID-19 is prevalent had adverse relationships on PA, ST, and BW. Therefore, it is important to identify strategies to motivate individuals for remaining physically active and getting adequate sleep while maintaining social distancing due to the presence of the COVID-19 global pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Body Weight , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Republic of Korea , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep
11.
Innov High Educ ; 46(5): 519-538, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202253

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) has brought significant changes to college students, but there is a lack of empirical studies regarding how the pandemic has affected student mental health among college students in the U.S. To fill the gap in the literature, this study describes stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms for students in a public research university in Kentucky during an early phase of COVID-19 and their usage of mental health services. Results show that about 88% of students experienced moderate to severe stress, with 44% of students showing moderate to severe anxiety and 36% of students having moderate to severe depression. In particular, female, rural, low-income, and academically underperforming students were more vulnerable to these mental health issues. However, a majority of students with moderate or severe mental health symptoms never used mental health services. Our results call for proactively reaching out to students, identifying students at risk of mental health issues, and providing accessible care.

13.
Biomol Ther (Seoul) ; 29(3): 268-272, 2021 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140725

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has caused more than 100 million confirmed cases of human infectious disease (COVID-19) since December 2019 to paralyze our global community. However, only limited access has been allowed to COVID-19 vaccines and antiviral treatment options. Here, we report the efficacy of the anticancer drug pralatrexate against SARS-CoV-2. In Vero and human lung epithelial Calu-3 cells, pralatrexate reduced viral RNA copies of SARS-CoV-2 without detectable cytotoxicity, and viral replication was successfully inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. In a time-to-addition assay, pralatrexate treatment at almost half a day after infection also exhibited inhibitory effects on the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in Calu-3 cells. Taken together, these results suggest the potential of pralatrexate as a drug repurposing COVID-19 remedy.

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