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1.
PLoS ONE [Electronic Resource] ; 17(12):e0278530, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162584

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Co-circulation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and other respiratory viruses, such as influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), can be a severe threat to public health. The accurate detection and differentiation of these viruses are essential for clinical laboratories. Herein, we comparatively evaluated the performance of the Kaira COVID-19/Flu/RSV Detection Kit (Kaira;Optolane, Seongnam, Korea) for detection of SARS-CoV-2, influenza A and B, and RSV in nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) specimens with that of the PowerChek SARS-CoV-2, Influenza A&B, RSV Multiplex Real-time PCR Kit (PowerChek;Kogene Biotech, Seoul, Korea).

2.
Clinical Laboratory ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2121562

ABSTRACT

Background: The incidence of respiratory viral diseases including parainfluenza virus (PIV) infection has decreased noticeably due to strict quarantine measures during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the recent outbreak of PIV in children occurred unexpectedly and the distribution pattern showed prominent differences from before the COVID-19 pandemic. PIV is one of the major viral pathogens related to acute lower respiratory infection in young children and the elderly. Accordingly, the authors intended to identify the incidence and distribution pattern of PIV outbreaks and to contribute to public health by providing information on it. Methods: This study was conducted retrospectively to investigate the incidence and distribution of PIV according to age group, gender, month, and season, and to analyze the co-infections from March 2020 to February 2022. The detection for respiratory microorganisms was performed through FilmArray assay.Results: The overall incidence for at least one respiratory pathogen was 45.9% (665/1,450). PIV was not detected at all from March 2020 to August 2021. However, it was first detected in September 2021 and the rate in the month that followed, October, accounted for 60% (114/190) of the total PIV infections during the entire study period. It also accounted for 44.9% (190/423) of patients with respiratory pathogens from September 2021 to February 2022. It reached the highest proportion at 90.5% (114/126) in October 2021. As for the distribution according to the age groups, group 3 (58.4%) accounted for the highest percentage, followed by group 4 (21.1%). In the PIV positive cases, the overall rate of more than two respiratory pathogens was 32.6% (62/190). The most common pattern of co-infection was PIV3 with rhinovirus/enterovirus (67.7%), followed by PIV3 with adenovirus (8.1%) and PIV3 with rhinovirus/enterovirus and adenovirus (8.1%).Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought about many changes in our daily lives. It has been confirmed that the seasonal distribution of PIV was distinctly different from before the COVID-19 pandemic. It is anticipated that this phenomenon will affect the incidence or distribution of other respiratory pathogens and viral epidemiology. Therefore, clinicians should pay attention to these changes in terms of public health.

3.
Journal of Thoracic Oncology ; 17(9):S173-S174, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2031509

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Following assessment of the effectiveness and feasibility based on the results from a two-year population-based nationwide prospective multi-center trial, the Korean government implemented a national lung cancer screening program using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) for high-risk smokers in 2019. Methods: National Health Insurance Corporation selected high risk targets who are current smokers aged 54 to 74 years with 30 packs per year or more smoking history on the basis of national health-screening database. (Figure 1). Those eligible were offered lung cancer screening by invitation letters in every two years. Screening units provide LDCT using radiation less than 3mGy by at least 16-row multi-detector CT scanners. Screening results were reported by Lung Imaging Reporting and Data System (Lung-RADS). The examinee received results by mail or e-mail;after then, counseling on results and mandatory smoking cessation counselling were provided by certified doctors. National Cancer Center monitored participation rates, post-counseling rates and statistics of screening result for quality control. Screening positive rate is defined as proportion of Lung-RADS category 3 and 4 nodules. Results: The participation rate gradually increased from 24.8% among 332,244 eligible targets in 2019, 25.9% in 2020, to 38.7% among 310,260 targets in 2021, however, the proportion of examinees who participated in post-counseling decreased from 46.3% in 2019 to 32.7% in 2021 due to the COVID-19 pandemic (Figure 2). The positive rates slightly decreased from 9.2% in 2019 to 8.7% in 2021. The variation in positive rates of screening units showed a tendency to decrease (in 2019, the 1st quartile was 4.3%, and the 3rd quartile was 12.9%;and in 2021, 5.2% and 12.5% respectively). Conclusions: National lung cancer screening program has been implemented successfully in Korea with controlling screening positive rates not so high. Controlling false negatives and strengthening post-screening management including smoking cessation counselling needs to improve. [Formula presented] [Formula presented] Keywords: National Lung Cancer Screening, Quality control

4.
25th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences, MicroTAS 2021 ; : 1515-1516, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2012143

ABSTRACT

The result readouts of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) still remain challenging because current techniques require bulky equipment and could not give clear visualization. In this study, we developed a paper device to integrate LAMP and a novel strategy for power-free and naked-eye readout of result relied on polydopamine aggregation. The introduced paper device was used to detect DNA extracted from Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7), Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium), and SARS-CoV-2 plasmid. © 2021 MicroTAS 2021 - 25th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences. All rights reserved.

5.
Chemosensors ; 10(4):17, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1820181

ABSTRACT

Accurate and timely detection of infectious pathogens is urgently needed for disease treatment and control of possible outbreaks worldwide. Conventional methods for pathogen detection are usually time-consuming and labor-intensive. Novel strategies for the identification of pathogenic nucleic acids are necessary for practical application. The advent of microfluidic technology and microfluidic devices has offered advanced and miniaturized tools to rapidly screen microorganisms, improving many drawbacks of conventional nucleic acid amplification-based methods. In this review, we summarize advances in the microfluidic approach to detect pathogens based on nucleic acid amplification. We survey microfluidic platforms performing two major types of nucleic acid amplification strategies, namely, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and isothermal nucleic acid amplification. We also provide an overview of nucleic acid amplification-based platforms including studies and commercialized products for SARS-CoV-2 detection. Technologically, we focus on the design of the microfluidic devices, the selected methods for sample preparation, nucleic acid amplification techniques, and endpoint analysis. We also compare features such as analysis time, sensitivity, and specificity of different platforms. The first section of the review discusses methods used in microfluidic devices for upstream clinical sample preparation. The second section covers the design, operation, and applications of PCR-based microfluidic devices. The third section reviews two common types of isothermal nucleic acid amplification methods (loop-mediated isothermal amplification and recombinase polymerase amplification) performed in microfluidic systems. The fourth section introduces microfluidic applications for nucleic acid amplification-based detection of SARS-CoV-2. Finally, the review concludes with the importance of full integration and quantitative analysis for clinical microbial identification.

6.
Clinical Laboratory ; : 9, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1667675

ABSTRACT

Background: Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is the most common infectious disease in all ages and genders worldwide. Respiratory microorganisms such as respiratory viruses, are commonly responsible for causing ARI. COVID-19 is still prevalent in Korea. The implementation of lockdown and strict control measures, the mandatory wearing of masks, and social distancing are critical steps for controlling the risk of COVID-19 spread. This study was conducted to find out how these changes in daily lives impacted the distribution of respiratory microorganisms. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to identify the incidence and distribution patterns of ARI-causing respiratory microorganisms before (Period.) and during the COVID-19 pandemic (Period.) in terms of detection method, age, month, and season. In particular, data in Periods. and. were compared for eight major kinds of respiratory microorganisms: adenovirus (AdV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human rhinovirus/enterovirus (Rhino/Entero), influenza virus (Flu) A, Flu B, human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) 3, respiratory syncytial virus, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Results: A total of 27,191 respiratory specimens were tested, of which 5,513 were obtained from children and adolescents (age groups 1. 5) and 21,678 from adults (age group 6). The overall positive rates for at least one respiratory microorganism in Periods. and. were 23.1% (1,199/5,193) and 4.9% (1,070/21,998), respectively (p < 0.001). The overall positive rates in male and female patients were significantly different (8.7% vs. 7.9%;p = 0.016). On the FilmArray (TM) RP assay, positive rates in all age groups decreased significantly in Period. compared with Period.. AdV, Rhino/Entero, and Flu A were detected in all four seasons, but HMPV and HPIV3 were not detected. The overall positive rates on FilmArray and the Flu antigen test in Period. were significantly decreased. In the COVID-19 test, the positive rates were high in March and April 2020, and decreased thereafter, but these increased again in the winter of 2020/2021. Conclusions: Life changes due to COVID-19 pandemic have had a significant impact on the distribution of respiratory microorganisms;our study results might provide useful information on respiratory virus epidemiology.

7.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics ; 111(3):e412-e412, 2021.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-1428052
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