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1.
CMAJ ; 194(7): E242-E251, 2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714791

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The role of remdesivir in the treatment of patients in hospital with COVID-19 remains ill defined in a global context. The World Health Organization Solidarity randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluated remdesivir in patients across many countries, with Canada enrolling patients using an expanded data collection format in the Canadian Treatments for COVID-19 (CATCO) trial. We report on the Canadian findings, with additional demographics, characteristics and clinical outcomes, to explore the potential for differential effects across different health care systems. METHODS: We performed an open-label, pragmatic RCT in Canadian hospitals, in conjunction with the Solidarity trial. We randomized patients to 10 days of remdesivir (200 mg intravenously [IV] on day 0, followed by 100 mg IV daily), plus standard care, or standard care alone. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included changes in clinical severity, oxygen- and ventilator-free days (at 28 d), incidence of new oxygen or mechanical ventilation use, duration of hospital stay, and adverse event rates. We performed a priori subgroup analyses according to duration of symptoms before enrolment, age, sex and severity of symptoms on presentation. RESULTS: Across 52 Canadian hospitals, we randomized 1282 patients between Aug. 14, 2020, and Apr. 1, 2021, to remdesivir (n = 634) or standard of care (n = 648). Of these, 15 withdrew consent or were still in hospital, for a total sample of 1267 patients. Among patients assigned to receive remdesivir, in-hospital mortality was 18.7%, compared with 22.6% in the standard-of-care arm (relative risk [RR] 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.67 to 1.03), and 60-day mortality was 24.8% and 28.2%, respectively (95% CI 0.72 to 1.07). For patients not mechanically ventilated at baseline, the need for mechanical ventilation was 8.0% in those assigned remdesivir, and 15.0% in those receiving standard of care (RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.75). Mean oxygen-free and ventilator-free days at day 28 were 15.9 (± standard deviation [SD] 10.5) and 21.4 (± SD 11.3) in those receiving remdesivir and 14.2 (± SD 11) and 19.5 (± SD 12.3) in those receiving standard of care (p = 0.006 and 0.007, respectively). There was no difference in safety events of new dialysis, change in creatinine, or new hepatic dysfunction between the 2 groups. INTERPRETATION: Remdesivir, when compared with standard of care, has a modest but significant effect on outcomes important to patients and health systems, such as the need for mechanical ventilation. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT04330690.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hospital Mortality , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Aged , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Canada/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 28(3): 199-204, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672375

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the clinico-epidemiological aspects of influenza in the context of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic; the recent advances in point-of-care molecular diagnostics and co-detection of influenza and coronaviruses, and the development of new influenza therapeutics. RECENT FINDINGS: Rates of influenza have declined globally since the 2020-2021 season; waning population immunity and uncertainty in vaccine strains could pose a risk in its significant resurgence, especially where pandemic public health interventions start being lifted. As symptoms are similar for influenza and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections, accurate, rapid diagnostics are needed to guide management. In addition to neuraminidase inhibitors, newer class of antivirals including polymerase inhibitors show promise in treating influenza infections in adults, children, and high-risk individuals. SUMMARY: This review summarizes the most recent data on rapid molecular diagnostics, including point-of-care tests and co-detection of influenza and SARS-CoV-2 viruses. The implications to inform clinical and infection control practices, and detection of antiviral resistance are discussed. The latest clinical trial data on neuraminidase inhibitors and polymerase inhibitors, their efficacy, limitations, and resistance concerns are reviewed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Neuraminidase/genetics , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(12): 3042-3052, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415645

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of influenza and noninfluenza respiratory viruses (NIRVs) pre-/post-implementation of public health measures aimed to decrease coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission using population-based surveillance data. We hypothesized that such measures could reduce the burden of respiratory viruses (RVs) transmitting via the same routes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An interrupted time-series analysis of RV surveillance data in Alberta, Canada, from May 2017 to July 2020 was conducted. The burden of influenza and NIRVs before and after intervention initiation at week 11 was compared. The analysis was adjusted for seasonality, overdispersion, and autocorrelation. RESULTS: During the study period, an average of 708 and 4056 weekly respiratory multiplex molecular panels were conducted pre-/post-intervention, respectively. We found significant reductions in test positivity rates in the postintervention period for influenza (-94.3%; 95% CI, -93.8 to 97.4%; P<.001) and all NIRVs (-76.5%; 95% CI, -77.3 to -75.8%; P<.001) in the crude model, and -86.2% (95% CI, -91.5 to -77.4%: P<.001) and -75% (95% CI, -79.7 to -69.3%; P<.001), respectively, in the adjusted models. Subanalyses for individual viruses showed significant decreases in respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, enterovirus/rhinovirus, and parainfluenza. For non-severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 human coronaviruses, the decline was not statistically significant after adjustment (-22.3%; 95% CI, -49.3 to +19%, P=.246). CONCLUSION: The implementation of COVID-19 public health measures likely resulted in reduced transmission of common RVs. Although drastic lockdowns are unlikely to be required given widespread COVID-19 vaccination, targeted implementation of such measures can lower RV disease burden. Studies to evaluate relative contributions of individual interventions are warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Viruses , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Alberta/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Epidemiological Monitoring , Humans , Incidence , Infant, Newborn , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Interrupted Time Series Analysis/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/methods , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Virus Diseases/classification , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Viruses/classification , Viruses/isolation & purification
4.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(1): e0029121, 2021 09 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361970

ABSTRACT

We systematically evaluated SARS-CoV-2 IgG positivity in a provincial cohort to understand the local epidemiology of COVID-19 and support evidence-based public health decisions. Residual blood samples were collected for serology testing over 5-day periods monthly from June 2020 to January 2021 from six clinical laboratories across the province of Alberta, Canada. A total of 93,993 individual patient samples were tested with a SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antibody assay with positives confirmed using a spike antibody assay. Population-adjusted SARS-CoV-2 IgG seropositivity was 0.92% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.91 to 0.93%) shortly after the first COVID-19 wave in June 2020, increasing to 4.63% (95% CI: 4.61 to 4.65%) amid the second wave in January 2021. There was no significant difference in seropositivity between males and females (1.39% versus 1.27%; P = 0.11). Ages with highest seropositivity were 0 to 9 years (2.71%, 95% CI: 1.64 to 3.78%) followed by 20 to 29 years (1.58%, 95% CI: 1.12 to 2.04%), with the lowest rates seen in those aged 70 to 79 (0.79%, 95% CI: 0.65 to 0.93%) and >80 (0.78%, 95% CI: 0.60 to 0.97%). Compared to the seronegative group, seropositive patients inhabited geographic areas with lower household income ($87,500 versus $97,500; P < 0.001), larger household sizes, and higher proportions of people with education levels of secondary school or lower, as well as immigrants and visible minority groups (all P < 0.05). A total of 53.7% of seropositive individuals were potentially undetected cases with no prior positive COVID-19 nucleic acid test (NAAT). Antibodies were detectable in some patients up to 9 months post positive NAAT result. This seroprevalence study will continue to inform public health decisions by identifying at-risk demographics and geographical areas. IMPORTANCE Using SARS-CoV-2 serology testing, we assessed the proportion of people in Alberta, Canada (population 4.4 million) positive for COVID-19 antibodies, indicating previous infection, during the first two waves of the COVID-19 pandemic (prior to vaccination programs). Linking these results with sociodemographic population data provides valuable information as to which groups of the population are more likely to have been infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus to help facilitate public health decision-making and interventions. We also compared seropositivity data with previous COVID-19 molecular testing results. Absence of antibody and molecular testing were highly correlated (95% negative concordance). Positive antibody correlation with a previous positive molecular test was low, suggesting the possibility of mild/asymptomatic infection or other reasons leading individuals from seeking medical attention. Our data highlight that the true estimate of population prevalence of COVID-19 is likely best informed by combining data from both serology and molecular testing.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alberta , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Social Class , Young Adult
6.
JAMMI ; 2(5): 98-103, 2020.
Article in English | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-682444

ABSTRACT

As the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to evolve globally and within our Canadian borders, hospitals will begin to see an increasing number of confirmed or suspected cases at their doors. Although many patients can be managed at home, a reasonable proportion will experience progression of disease requiring hospitalization and potentially mechanical ventilation and intensive care. Herein, we report the presentation of the first case of COVID-19 admitted to hospital in Alberta. While The patient's course was mild, this case highlights a number of key points—namely the importance of widespread testing in the community to help inform emergency services (ambulance) workers and receiving front-line health care staff. Other important points include in-hospital monitoring and pharmacologic treatment.

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