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1.
Journal of Ophthalmology ; : 1-6, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1789051

ABSTRACT

Purpose. This study investigated the effect of interview format changes (in-person to virtual, one-to-one to multiple-to-one) necessitated by the COVID-19 travel restrictions on preliminary fellowship candidate ranking variabilities. Design. Cross-sectional observational study. Method. In 2018 and 2019, the glaucoma fellowship interviews were conducted in-person in a one-to-one format, whereas in 2020, interviews were virtual and in a multiple (interviewers)-to-one (candidate) format. We compared ranking ranges of interviewers within the same virtual room (WSR) and not within the same virtual room (NWSR) to assess the effect of WSR versus NWSR on ranking variabilities. We also compared ranking categories ("accept," "alternate," and "pass") agreements between 2018, 2019, and 2020 to assess the effect of virtual versus in-person interviews on ranking variabilities. Results. NWSR and WSR mean rankings differed by 1.33 (95% confidence interval difference 0.61 to 2.04, p = 0.0003), with WSR interviewers having less variability than NWSR pairs. The variability between 2018/2019 (in-person interviews) and 2020 (virtual interviews) showed no differences between in-person and virtual interviews (weighted Kappa statistic 0.086 for 2018, 0.158 for 2019, and 0.101 for 2020;p < 0.05 for all years). The overall least attractive candidate has the lowest variability;the most attractive candidate has the second lowest variability. Conclusion. Grouping interviewers WSR during the interview decreased ranking variabilities compared to NWSR, while a change from in-person to virtual interview format did not increase the ranking variabilities. This suggests that the decreased nonverbal interactions in virtual interviews do not decrease interviewers' perceptions as applied to preliminary rankings. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Ophthalmology is the property of Hindawi Limited and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776252

ABSTRACT

Entry inhibitors against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are urgently needed to control the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study developed a robust and straightforward assay that detected the molecular interaction between the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of viral spike protein and the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor in just 10 min. A drug library of 1068 approved compounds was used to screen for SARS-CoV2 entry inhibition, and 9 active drugs were identified as specific pseudovirus entry inhibitors. A plaque reduction neutralization test using authentic SARS-CoV-2 virus in Vero E6 cells confirmed that 2 of these drugs (Etravirine and Dolutegravir) significantly inhibited the infection of SARS-CoV-2. With molecular docking, we showed that both Etravirine and Dolutegravir are preferentially bound to primary ACE2-interacting residues on the RBD domain, implying that these two drug blocks may prohibit the viral attachment of SARS-CoV-2. We compared the neutralizing activities of these entry inhibitors against different pseudoviruses carrying spike proteins from alpha, beta, gamma, and delta variants. Both Etravirine and Dolutegravir showed similar neutralizing activities against different variants, with EC50 values between 4.5 to 5.8 nM for Etravirine and 10.2 to 22.9 nM for Dolutegravir. These data implied that Etravirine and Dolutegravir may serve as general spike inhibitors against dominant viral variants of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , RNA, Viral , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(6)2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742335

ABSTRACT

Improving the proportion of patients diagnosed with early-stage cancer is a key priority of the World Health Organisation. In many tumour groups, screening programmes have led to improvements in survival, but patient selection and risk stratification are key challenges. In addition, there are concerns about limited diagnostic workforces, particularly in light of the COVID-19 pandemic, placing a strain on pathology and radiology services. In this review, we discuss how artificial intelligence algorithms could assist clinicians in (1) screening asymptomatic patients at risk of cancer, (2) investigating and triaging symptomatic patients, and (3) more effectively diagnosing cancer recurrence. We provide an overview of the main artificial intelligence approaches, including historical models such as logistic regression, as well as deep learning and neural networks, and highlight their early diagnosis applications. Many data types are suitable for computational analysis, including electronic healthcare records, diagnostic images, pathology slides and peripheral blood, and we provide examples of how these data can be utilised to diagnose cancer. We also discuss the potential clinical implications for artificial intelligence algorithms, including an overview of models currently used in clinical practice. Finally, we discuss the potential limitations and pitfalls, including ethical concerns, resource demands, data security and reporting standards.

4.
Mater Today Adv ; 14: 100228, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730007

ABSTRACT

The application of antiviral coatings to masks and respirators is a potential mitigating step toward reducing viral transmission during the SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) pandemic. The use of appropriate masks, social distancing, and vaccines is the immediate solution for limiting the viral spread and protecting people from this virus. N95 respirator masks are effective in filtering the virus particles, but they cannot kill or deactivate the virus. We report a possible approach to deactivating SARS-CoV-2 by applying an antimicrobial coating (Goldshield 75) to masks and respirators, rendering them suitable for repeated use. Masks coated with Goldshield 75 demonstrated continuous inactivation of the Alpha and Beta variants of the SARS-CoV-2 over a 3-day period and no loss of inactivation when stored at temperatures at 50 °C.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324749

ABSTRACT

Background: Respiratory failure is a lethal complication of COVID-19 that has remained resistant to drug therapy. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) has been granted Emergency Use Authorization and or Compassionate Care Authorization in multiple countries and is shown to upregulate surfactant production, inhibit cytokine synthesis, prevent cytopathy, and blocks replication of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in pulmonary cells. The aim of this study is to determine whether aviptadil (synthetic VIP) can improve survival and recovery in patients with COVID-19 respiratory failure compared to placebo.Methods: A multicenter, placebo-controlled trial in 196 patients with COVID-19 respiratory failure randomized 2:1 to receive 3 days of intravenous aviptadil (synthetic VIP) or placebo. The primary endpoint was “alive and free from respiratory failure at day 60.” We additionally studied the mechanistic effect of aviptadil on blocking cytokine production and its linkage to survival and recovery from respiratory failure. Analysis was by modified intent to treat using a prespecified regression model. Findings: When controlling for baseline severity and site of care, patients treated with aviptadil were significantly more likely to be alive and free from respiratory failure at 60 days, compared to those treated with placebo (P=.02) and demonstrated significance on numerous other clinical endpoints. Without controlling for site of care, a two-fold increased odds of survival was seen at 60 days (95% CI 1.0 – 3.9;P=.035). Biomarker analysis demonstrates that aviptadil significantly decreased the probability of an IL-6 increase relative to placebo (50% vs. 71%;p=.04) and that preventing this cytokine rise was highly correlated with survival and recovery (P<.0001) regardless of baseline severity or treatment site.Interpretation: Treatment with aviptadil improves the likelihood of recovery from respiratory failure and survival at 60 days post treatment in critically ill patients with respiratory failure caused by COVID-19. This efficacy is supported by biomarker evidence that aviptadil prevents the rise in cytokines that are widely believed to predispose to morbidity and mortality in COVID-19.

6.
J Clin Psychol ; 2022 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669497

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the United States has exacerbated a number of mental health conditions and problems related to prolonged social isolation. While COVID-19 has led to greater loneliness and a lack of social connectedness, little is known about who are the most affected and how they are impacted. Therefore, we performed a Latent Class Analysis using items from two scales - the UCLA Loneliness Scale and the Social Connectedness Scale - to characterize different experiences of loneliness and connectedness, examine their relationship with mental health and substance use symptoms, including depression, anxiety, drinking, and drug use. METHODS: Data were drawn from an anonymous one-time online survey examining the mental health of 1008 young adults (18-35 years old) during COVID-19. A latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted to observe and identify classes based on responses to loneliness and connectedness scale items, and to examine the existence of subgroups among this young adult population. RESULTS: We identified a 4-class model of loneliness and connectedness: (1) Lonely and Disconnected - highest probabilities in items of loneliness and disconnectedness, (2) Moderately Lonely and Disconnected - adaptive levels of some isolation and disconnection during COVID-19, (3) Ambivalent Feelings - displaying negative responses in particular to negatively-worded items while simultaneously affirming positively worded items, and (4) Connected and Not Lonely - lowest probabilities in items of loneliness and disconnectedness. CONCLUSION: Key findings include (1) the delineation of classes by levels of loneliness and connectedness showcasing differential mental health and substance use symptoms, (2) the utility of item-level evaluation with LCA in determining specific classes of people in need of outreach and intervention, and (3) the promise of social connection to bolster resilience in young adults.

7.
Lung Cancer ; 165: 34-42, 2022 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654901

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The diagnostic pathway for lung cancer can be long. Availability of front-line targeted therapies for NSCLC demands access to good quality tissue for genomic sequencing and rapid reporting of results. Diagnosis of lung cancer and availability of tissue was delayed during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A pilot study assessing Guardant360™ cfDNA-NGS in patients with radiological-suspected advanced-stage lung cancer was performed at an academic cancer centre during COVID-19. Variants were tiered using AMP/ASCO/CAP guidelines and discussed at a tumour molecular board. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who commenced targeted treatment based on cfDNA-NGS results without tissue molecular results, predicted to be ≥ 10%. RESULTS: Between April 2020-May 2021, 51 patients were enrolled; 49 were evaluable. The median age was 71 years, 43% were never-smokers, 86% had stage IV disease. 80% of evaluable cfDNA-NGS were informative (tumour-derived cfDNA detected). cfDNA-NGS detected 30 (61%) AMP/ASCO/CAP tier 1 variants, including 20 additional tier 1 variants compared to tissue testing. Three patients with non-informative cfDNA-NGS had tier 1 variants identified on tissue testing. Eleven (22%; 95%CI 12%-27%) patients commenced targeted therapy based on cfDNA-NGS results without tissue molecular results, meeting the primary endpoint. Median time to results was shorter for cfDNA-NGS compared to standard-of-care tissue tests (9 versus 25 days, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Blood-first cfDNA-NGS in NSCLC patients increased the breadth and rapidity of detection of actionable variants with high tissue concordance and led to timely treatment decisions. A blood-first approach should be considered to improve the speed and accuracy of therapeutic decision-making.

8.
EClinicalMedicine ; 42: 101207, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520861

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has caused a worldwide pandemic, making the early detection of the virus crucial. We present an approach for the determination of COVID-19 infection based on breath analysis. METHODS: A high sensitivity mass spectrometer was combined with artificial intelligence and used to develop a method for the identification of COVID-19 in human breath within seconds. A set of 1137 positive and negative subjects from different age groups, collected in two periods from two hospitals in the USA, from 26 August, 2020 until 15 September, 2020 and from 11 September, 2020 until 11 November, 2020, was used for the method development. The subjects exhaled in a Tedlar bag, and the exhaled breath samples were subsequently analyzed using a Proton Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS). The produced mass spectra were introduced to a series of machine learning models. 70% of the data was used for these sub-models' training and 30% was used for testing. FINDINGS: A set of 340 samples, 95 positives and 245 negatives, was used for the testing. The combined models successfully predicted 77 out of the 95 samples as positives and 199 out of the 245 samples as negatives. The overall accuracy of the model was 81.2%. Since over 50% of the total positive samples belonged to the age group of over 55 years old, the performance of the model in this category was also separately evaluated on 339 subjects (170 negative and 169 positive). The model correctly identified 166 out of the 170 negatives and 164 out of the 169 positives. The model accuracy in this case was 97.3%. INTERPRETATION: The results showed that this method for the identification of COVID-19 infection is a promising tool, which can give fast and accurate results.

9.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-11, 2021 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439762

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has substantially induced worries and affected individual mental health and subjective well-being. Nonetheless, a high level of social capital could potentially protect individuals who suffer from mental health problems and thus promote their subjective well-being, especially under the social distancing policies during the pandemic. To this end, based on a random sample of 1053 Hong Kong adults, structural equation modeling was applied to study the path relationships between the worries of COVID-19, social capital, mental health problems, and subjective well-being. The study found that worries during the pandemic were associated with mental health and subjective well-being, through social capital as a mediator. Moreover, social capital exhibited a stronger influence on mental health and subjective well-being in the economically inactive group than in the economically active group. This study highlights the important role of social capital during the COVID-19 pandemic. While Hong Kong's COVID-19 response has primarily focused on disease prevention, it must be noted that social services and mutual-help activities are also crucial for people to withstand the crisis.

10.
Am Psychol ; 76(4): 693-700, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428767

ABSTRACT

In the midst of a global pandemic and movements for racial justice, there is an opportunity to (re)imagine an Asian Americanist psychology that can bring about a more just society. The authors describe the contours of an Asian Americanist psychology that is grounded in historical context, an intersectional analysis, and representational ethics while focusing on community strengths and structural change. The article concludes with calls to action for Asian American psychologists, other psychologists of color, and White psychologists to envision a new era that centers Asian Americans in the multiracial pursuit of social justice. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Asian Americans/psychology , Psychology , Social Justice/trends , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Racism , Xenophobia
11.
Clin Nephrol Case Stud ; 9: 93-104, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369881

ABSTRACT

Kidney allograft infarction is rare, but an urgent condition that requires prompt intervention to avoid allograft loss. Renal artery thrombosis is the leading cause of infarction. Apart from traditional risk factors for thrombosis, emerging SARS-CoV-2 predisposes patients to thrombotic diseases both in arterial and venous vasculatures. We report a case of kidney transplant recipient with known transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS) status post angioplasty with severe COVID-19, complicated by oliguric acute kidney injury requiring continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). She did not have a history of thromboembolic disease. The hospital course was complicated by new-onset atrial and ventricular fibrillation and cardiac arrest requiring multiple rounds of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. She had no signs of renal recovery, and an abdominal CT scan showed evidence of allograft infarcts. She underwent an allograft nephrectomy. Pathology revealed diffuse thrombotic microangiopathy involving glomeruli, arterioles, and arteries associated with diffuse cortical infarction with negative SARS-CoV-2 immunostain and in situ hybridization. This is the first case of kidney allograft infarct with a history of TRAS in a COVID-19 patient. Underlying TRAS and COVID-19-associated thrombosis in this patient are unique and likely play a key role in allograft infarction from arterial thrombosis. Recognizing risk factors and early therapy for allograft infarction may improve transplant outcomes.

12.
J Card Surg ; 36(9): 3040-3051, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266339

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had an unprecedented impact on health care and cardiac surgery. We report cardiac surgeons' concerns, perceptions, and responses during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A detailed survey was sent to recruit participating adult cardiac surgery centers in North America. Data regarding cardiac surgeons' perceptions and changes in practice were analyzed. RESULTS: Our study comprises 67 institutions with diverse geographic distribution across North America. Nurses were most likely to be redeployed (88%), followed by advanced care practitioners (69%), trainees (28%), and surgeons (25%). Examining surgeon concerns in regard to COVID-19, they were most worried with exposing their family to COVID-19 (81%), followed by contracting COVID-19 (68%), running out of personal protective equipment (PPE) (28%), and hospital resources (28%). In terms of PPE conservation strategies among users of N95 respirators, nearly half were recycling via decontamination with ultraviolet light (49%), followed by sterilization with heat (13%) and at home or with other modalities (13%). Reuse of N95 respirators for 1 day (22%), 1 week (21%) or 1 month (6%) was reported. There were differences in adoption of methods to conserve N95 respirators based on institutional pandemic phase and COVID-19 burden, with higher COVID-19 burden institutions more likely to resort to PPE conservation strategies. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrates the impact of COVID-19 on North American cardiac surgeons. Our study should stimulate further discussions to identify optimal solutions to improve workforce preparedness for subsequent surges, as well as facilitate the navigation of future healthcare crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Surgeons , Adult , Decontamination , Humans , Pandemics , Perception , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Res Sq ; 2021 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237033

ABSTRACT

Objective : To investigate the effect of interview format changes (in-person to virtual, one-to-one to multiple-to-one) necessitated by the COVID-19 travel restrictions on candidate ranking variabilities. Method : In 2018/2019, the glaucoma fellowship interviews were conducted in-person and one-to-one, whereas in 2020, interviews were virtual and multiple (interviewers)-to-one (candidate). We compared ranking ranges of interviewers within the same virtual room (WSR) and not within the same virtual room (NWSR) to assess the effect of this change on ranking variabilities. We also compared ranking categories ("accept," "alternate," and "pass") agreements between in-person and virtual interviews to assess the effect of this change on ranking variabilities. Results : NWSR and WSR mean rankings differed by 1.33 (95% confidence interval difference 0.61 to 2.04, p = 0.0003), with WSR interviewers having less variability than NWSR pairs. The variability of in-person interviews and later virtual interviews showed no differences (weighted Kappa statistic 0.086 for 2018, 0.158 for 2019, and 0.101 for 2020; p < 0.05 for all years). The overall least attractive candidate has the lowest variability; the most attractive candidate has the second lowest variability. Conclusion: Grouping interviewers decreased ranking variabilities, while a change from in-person to virtual interview format did not increase the ranking variabilities.

16.
Cancer Treat Res Commun ; 25: 100261, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-956074

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: UK COVID-19 mortality rates are amongst the highest globally. Controversy exists on the vulnerability of thoracic cancer patients. We describe the characteristics and sequelae of patients with thoracic cancer treated at a UK cancer centre infected with COVID-19. METHODS: Patients undergoing care for thoracic cancer diagnosed with COVID-19 (RT-PCR/radiology/clinically) between March-June 2020 were included. Data were extracted from patient records. RESULTS: Thirty-two patients were included: 14 (43%) diagnosed by RT-PCR, 18 (57%) by radiology and/or convincing symptoms. 88% had advanced thoracic malignancies. Eleven of 14 (79%) patients diagnosed by RT-PCR and 12 of 18 (56%) patients diagnosed by radiology/clinically were hospitalised, of which four (29%) and 2 (11%) patients required high-dependency/intensive care respectively. Three (21%) patients diagnosed by RT-PCR and 2 (11%) patients diagnosed by radiology/clinically required non-invasive ventilation; none were intubated. Complications included pneumonia and sepsis (43% and 14% respectively in patients diagnosed by RT-PCR; 17% and 11% respectively in patients diagnosed by radiology/clinically). In patients receiving active cancer treatment, therapy was delayed/ceased in 10/12 (83%) and 7/11 (64%) patients diagnosed by RT-PCR and radiology/clinically respectively. Nine (28%) patients died; all were smokers. Median time from symptom onset to death was 7 days (range 3-37). CONCLUSIONS: The immediate morbidity from COVID-19 is high in thoracic cancer patients. Hospitalisation and treatment interruption rates were high. Improved risk-stratification models for UK cancer patients are urgently needed to guide safe cancer-care delivery without compromising efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Thoracic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Critical Care , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Thoracic Neoplasms/complications , Thoracic Neoplasms/virology , United Kingdom/epidemiology
17.
Age Ageing ; 50(1): 7-10, 2021 01 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684454

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is disproportionately affecting older people and those with underlying comorbidities. Guidelines are needed to help clinicians make decisions regarding appropriate use of limited NHS critical care resources. In response to the pandemic, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence published guidance that employs the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) in a decision-making flowchart to assist clinicians in assessing older individuals' suitability for critical care. This commentary raises some important limitations to this use of the CFS and cautions against the potential for unintended impacts. The COVID-19 pandemic has allowed the widespread implementation of the CFS with limited training or expert oversight. The CFS is primarily being used to assess older individuals' risk of adverse outcome in critical care, and to ration access to care on this basis. While some form of resource allocation strategy is necessary for emergencies, the implementation of this guideline in the absence of significant pressure on resources may reduce the likelihood of older people with frailty, who wish to be considered for critical care, being appropriately considered, and has the potential to reinforce the socio-economic gradient in health. Our incomplete understanding of this novel disease means that there is a need for research investigating the short-term predictive abilities of the CFS on critical care outcomes in COVID-19. Additionally, a review of the impact of stratifying older people by CFS score as a rationing strategy is necessary in order to assess its acceptability to older people as well as its potential for disparate impacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Care , Eligibility Determination/ethics , Frailty/diagnosis , Geriatric Assessment/methods , Health Care Rationing/trends , Patient Selection/ethics , Risk Assessment , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Clinical Decision-Making/ethics , Clinical Decision-Making/methods , Critical Care/methods , Critical Care/organization & administration , Health Resources , Humans , Prognosis , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Assessment/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom
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