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2.
J Happiness Stud ; : 1-23, 2023.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2174635

ABSTRACT

Social interaction is an important source of psychological and physical well-being during normal times. However, following the COVID-19 outbreak, which spreads rapidly from person to person, social interaction poses a fatal threat to one's health and life. Therefore, several countries including South Korea implemented an intense social distancing mandate to prevent the spread of the virus. During these unique times of pandemic, the current research investigated whether and how an individual's well-being varies as a function of their interaction with various relationship partners using experience sampling data (Study 1) and online longitudinal data (Study 2). The results indicated that being alone was more detrimental to well-being during the pandemic than before it. Specifically, interaction with close relationship partners (e.g., romantic partner, spouse, or friend) was positively related to well-being, whereas interaction with formal relationship partners (e.g., coworker, boss) was negatively linked to momentary well-being during the pandemic. Furthermore, our study showed that the association between social supports from close relationships and well-being was temporally strengthened during COVID-19 pandemic. In sum, the benefits of close relationships on well-being were stronger during the COVID-19 pandemic than before it.

3.
Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore ; 51(12):752-754, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2172084
4.
Brachytherapy ; 21(6):S92, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2149415

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Locally advanced cervical cancer was defined by an international consensus panel as a high priority malignancy during the COVID-19 pandemic, recommending prompt initiation of definitive treatment and completion of treatment (PMID 32563593). The objective of this study was to study the clinical outcomes of patients (pts) with cervical cancer treated with definitive chemoradiation (CRT) and brachytherapy (BT) at our institution in 2019 (pre-COVID) and in 2020 (peri-COVID). Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of pts with FIGO Stage IB2-IVA cervical cancer at our institutions from 1/1/2019 to 12/31/2020. Pts received CRT followed by intracavitary brachytherapy (IC) with two operative insertions one week apart, or interstitial (IS) BT with one operative insertion. BT treatment was planned using image-guided CT or MR delineation. Pre-COVID was defined by initiation of CRT in 1/2019-12/2019, and peri-COVID was defined by initiation in 1/2020-10/2020. Process changes peri-COVID included limited on-site staff (e.g., minimal OR staff, no trainees, remote physics team), universal implementation of COVID-19 testing prior to surgery, and CT instead of MR-delineation based treatment. Outcomes of interest were time to treatment initiation and completion and differences in treatment planning modality or dosimetry. Fisher's exact and Mann Whitney U tests were used with significance p<0.05. Results: Thirty-one pts were included, with 18 patients undergoing treatment pre-COVID and 13 peri-COVID. The median age at diagnosis pre-COVID was 57.7 (range 23-77) and for peri-COVID, 45.5 (range 28-62, p=0.06). There were no differences in non-English speaking pts (44% vs 59%, p=0.71) or uninsured pts (11% vs 33%, p=0.184) between the two cohorts. Median time to initiation of treatment from biopsy diagnosis was 52 days (range 13-209) in 2019 and for peri-COVID, 55.5 (range 20-173, p=0.71). During COVID, four pts had delayed initiation to treatment >100 days: two related to fertility, and one due to fear of COVID-19. For this pt, tumor size progressed from 2.3 cm to 4.2 cm maximal dimension. One pt treated in 2020 tested positive following treatment and did not require hospital admission. All pts except one completed CRT with RT: 25 pts pelvic RT (45 Gy), 3 pelvic and para-aortic RT (45 Gy with 57.5 Gy concomitant boost to nodes), 8 pts pelvic RT (45Gy) with sequential parametrial boost (50.4-59.4 Gy) using IMRT with no dose differences between pre and peri-COVID (Table 1). No pts required treatment breaks and the median overall treatment time was 50 days (range 31-85) in 2019 vs 50 days (range 43-63) in 2020 (p=0.710). Conclusions: Despite the significant burden of the COVID-19 pandemic on our health care system, all cervical cancer pts receiving CRT met standard of care including CRT and BT within the recommended time frame with no significant differences in dosimetric treatment parameters pre- and peri-COVID. Delays in treatment initiation of treatment initiation were seen in 30% of pts in the peri-COVID period, suggesting that patients may have had increased barriers to access care. More follow-up is needed to determine how the Covid pandemic impacted cervical cancer outcome measures.

5.
Mol Biotechnol ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2148952

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has a single-stranded RNA genome (+ssRNA), and synthesizes structural and non-structural proteins (nsps). All 16 nsp are synthesized from the ORF1a, and ORF1b regions associated with different life cycle preprocesses, including replication. The regions of ORF1a synthesizes nsp1 to 11, and ORF1b synthesizes nsp12 to 16. In this paper, we have predicted the secondary structure conformations, entropy & mountain plots, RNA secondary structure in a linear fashion, and 3D structure of nsp coding genes of the SARS-CoV-2 genome. We have also analyzed the A, T, G, C, A+T, and G+C contents, GC-profiling of these genes, showing the range of the GC content from 34.23 to 48.52%. We have observed that the GC-profile value of the nsp coding genomic regions was less (about 0.375) compared to the whole genome (about 0.38). Additionally, druggable pockets were identified from the secondary structure-guided 3D structural conformations. For secondary structure generation of all the nsp coding genes (nsp 1-16), we used a recent algorithm-based tool (deep learning-based) along with the conventional algorithms (centroid and MFE-based) to develop secondary structural conformations, and we found stem-loop, multi-branch loop, pseudoknot, and the bulge structural components, etc. The 3D model shows bound and unbound forms, branched structures, duplex structures, three-way junctions, four-way junctions, etc. Finally, we identified binding pockets of nsp coding genes which will help as a fundamental resource for future researchers to develop RNA-targeted therapeutics using the druggable genome.

6.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(16): 5991-6003, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2026361

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The recent monkeypox disease outbreak is another significant threat during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. This viral disease is zoonotic and contagious. The viral disease outbreak is considered the substantial infection possessed by the Orthopoxvirus family species after the smallpox virus' obliteration, a representative of the same family. It has potentially threatened the Republic of Congo's regions and certain African subcontinent zones. Although repeated outbreaks have been reported in several parts of the world, as conferred from the epidemiological data, very little is explored about the disease landscape. Thus, here we have reviewed the current status of the monkeypox virus along with therapeutic options available to humanity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have accessed and reviewed the available literature on the monkeypox virus to highlight its epidemiology, pathogenicity, virulence, and therapeutic options available. For the review, we have searched different literature and database such as PubMed, PubMed Central, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Scopus, etc., using different keywords such as "monkeypox", "Orthopox", "smallpox", "recent monkeypox outbreak", "therapeutic strategies", "monkeypox vaccines", etc. This review has included most of the significant references from 1983 to 2022. RESULTS: It has been reported that the monkeypox virus shows a remarkable similarity with smallpox during the ongoing outbreak. Sometimes, it creates considerable confusion due to misdiagnosis and similarity with smallpox. The misdiagnosis of the disease should be immediately corrected by rendering some cutting-edge techniques especially intended to isolate the monkeypox virus. The pathophysiology and the histopathological data imply the immediate need to design effective therapeutics to confer resistance against the monkeypox virus. Most importantly, the potential implications of the disease are not given importance due to the lack of awareness programs. Moreover, specific evolutionary evidence is crucial for designing effective therapeutic strategies that confer high resistance, particularly against this species. CONCLUSIONS: The review focuses on a brief overview of the recent monkeypox virus outbreak, infection biology, epidemiology, transmission, clinical symptoms, and therapeutic aspects. Such an attempt will support researchers, policymakers, and healthcare professionals for better treatment and containment of the infection caused by the monkeypox virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Monkeypox/diagnosis , Monkeypox/drug therapy , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox virus , Pandemics
7.
Canadian Liver Journal ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2005842

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection with chronic hepatitis C virus is a global public health concern. A recent study concluded that Canada is on track to achieve hepatitis C elimination goals set by the World Health Organization if treatment levels are maintained. However, recently a falling temporal trend in treatments in Canada was observed, with most provinces seeing a decrease before the global coronavirus pandemic. This study assesses the timing of elimination of hepatitis C in the 10 provinces of Canada. METHODS: Previously published disease and economic burden model of hepatitis C infection was populated with the latest epidemiological and cost data for each Canadian province. Five scenarios were modelled: maintaining the status quo, decreasing diagnosis and treatment levels by 10% annually, decreasing diagnosis and treatment levels by 20% annually, increasing them by 10% annually, and assuming a scenario with no post-coronavirus pandemic recovery in treatment levels. Year of achieving hepatitis C elimination, necessary annual treatments for elimination, and associated disease and economic burden were determined for each province. RESULTS: If status quo is maintained, Manitoba, Ontario, and Quebec are off track to achieve hepatitis C elimination by 2030 and would require 540, 7,700, and 2,800 annual treatments, respectively, to get on track. Timely elimination would save 170 lives and CAD$122.6 million in direct medical costs in these three provinces. CONCLUSIONS: Three of Canada's provinces-two of them most populous in the country-are off track to achieve the hepatitis C elimination goal. Building frameworks and innovative approaches to prevention, testing, and treatment will be necessary to achieve this goal.

8.
Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea ; 38(5):25-32, 2022.
Article in Korean | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1903785

ABSTRACT

Historically, the first-class infectious disease led to SARS in 2002, swine flu in 2009, MERS in 2015, and COVID-19 in 2019. This study aims to design and arrange an essential unit of a modular screening clinic for continuous use in the event of a future infectious disease outbreak, particularly focusing on laying the foundation to quickly respond to disasters. The research process involved specifying essential units based on previous studies that derived the essential and recommended facilities for screening clinics. The required unit module of the modular screening clinic was set as A, B, and C, and the combination was reviewed. As a result of the study, A+B(3)+C type was found to be the most appropriate in terms of function and movement. The results also indicated that a module unit with a size of 1800 × 3,000 mm was the most suitable for module assembly and transportation. A plan, elevation, and cross-sectional view were then designed by connecting the derived units into five combinations. The essential elements of the space consisted of a reception room, a treatment room, a medical staff space, a locker room, and a waste disposal room. The third, serial, parallel, and mixed layout scenarios were prepared in anticipation of site utilization by a public health center. © 2022 Architectural Institute of Korea.

9.
Singapore Medical Journal ; 62(1):S39-S42, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822609

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 significantly impacted the teaching-learning-assessment activities in many medical schools. In this article, we discuss the impact of COVID-19 on the Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, focusing on paediatric training and the adaptations of the system and the people. The school developed strategies to promptly disseminate information and safety measures to protect all its staff and students. By leveraging on the school’s infrastructure for technology-enabled learning, good-quality medical training and reliable assessments were able to be carried out swiftly. The paediatric curriculum was crafted based on these principles, and it provided distance-based learning with live and interactive sessions to teach core clinical skills. The faculty also tapped on standardised patients to provide consistent and life-like scenarios. Measures were implemented to minimise challenges with technology-enabled learning. Collectively, efforts from the staff, support from the leadership and students’ adaptations tremendously helped to ease the transition.

10.
Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea ; 37(12):329-338, 2021.
Article in Korean | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1776536

ABSTRACT

Recently, as non-face-to-face culture spreads to COVID-19, the time spent indoors is increasing. Accordingly, indoor air quality management has become an important factor. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the possibility that chitosan may exist as a building material for reducing air pollutants such as heavy metals and formaldehyde. As a result of the experiment, cement cured binder are better in terms of strength than non-cement cured binder, and as the chitosan substitution rate increases, flexural strength increases and compressive strength decreases. Chitosan has a similar structure to fiber, and chitosan powder has a dispersion-enhancing effect, which is considered to help increase flexural strength. The concentrations of heavy metals and formaldehyde tend to decrease. It is estimated that Chitosan adsorbed fine dust by attracting negative fine dust according to the principle of charge. In addition, it is estimated that heavy metals and formaldehyde were adsorbed due to its excellent chelate properties of chitosan. As a result of the board experiment mixed with chitosan, the durability of the board is excellent as the PVA fiber incorporation rate increases. Therefore, it is judged that this study can be used as basic data for the development of multifunctional building materials by utilizing Kitosan Mountain, which lacks research in the field of building materials. © 2021 Architectural Institute of Korea.

11.
European Heart Journal ; 42(SUPPL 1):833, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1554549

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID 19 is a global pandemic that has stretched healthcare resources. We explored the shift in patient demographics and clinical management of systolic heart failure (HF) patients during the COVID 19 outbreak. Purpose: To examine the impact of COVID 19 on the hospitalization rates of decompensated systolic HF patients in a tertiary hospital in Asia and delineate differences in the clinical characteristics and management of these patients. Methods: Data was extracted from the admission registry for systolic HF patients admitted to the tertiary hospital from January to June 2019 (pre- COVID) and the corresponding time period in 2020 during the COVID outbreak. We compared the demographics, clinical management and outcomes of these patients. Results: There was a significant reduction in patients admitted for systolic HF during the COVID period, 174 (6.3%) compared to 240 (8.5%) pre- COVID (p=0.001). The baseline demographics were similar except for the age of patients admitted during the COVID 19 period, which were younger at 66.1±13.5 compared to 69.9±13.9 pre-COVID (p=0.007). The mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was lower during the COVID period (22.9±10.1% vs 24.9±10.1%;p=0.032). More patients during the COVID period were placed on mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (p=0.001) and SGLT2 inhibitors (p<0.001). For those with recurrent admission for systolic HF, the number for HF admissions in the preceding one year was lower during COVID period compared to pre-COVID (0.2±0.5 vs 0.5±1.0 readmissions, p<0.001). There was no COVID 19 infection among those admitted for systolic HF. The 30-day all-cause mortality and readmission rates were comparable between both groups. Cardiac related mortalities were higher during the COVID 19 period compared to the pre-COVID period (77.8% vs 100.0%, p=1.000). No difference was observed in the length of stay nor proportion of patients who required a higher level of care in high dependency or intensive care unit during the COVID outbreak. Those who were admitted during the COVID period were more likely first presentation of decompensated systolic HF, 119 (68.4%) compared to 135 (56.3%) pre-COVID (p=0.014). Conclusion: Similar to the existing publications, there was a reduction in patients admitted for HF during the COVID period. However, for those who were admitted, these patients were younger and had lower LVEF. Most of them were first diagnosed with systolic HF during the hospitalizations. For those who had previous history of systolic HF, they had a lower number of HF admissions in the preceding one year compared to those who were admitted during the pre-COVID period. There was no difference in the 30-day mortality and utilization of high dependency or intensive care unit during the COVID outbreak.

12.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(21): 6719-6730, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524860

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 vaccines have developed quickly, and vaccination programs have started in most countries to fight the pandemic. The aging population is vulnerable to different diseases, also including the COVID-19. A high death rate of COVID-19 was noted from the vulnerable aging population. A present scenario regarding COVID-19 vaccines and vaccination program foraging adults had been discussed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This paper reviews the current status and future projections till 2050 of the aging population worldwide. It also discusses the immunosenescence and inflammaging issues facing elderly adults and how it affects the vaccinations such as influenza, pneumococcal, and herpes zoster. RESULTS: This paper recommends clinical trials for all approved COVID-19 vaccines targeting the elderly adult population and to project a plan to develop a next-generation COVID-19 vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: The review has mapped the COVID-19 vaccination status from the developed and developing countries for the elderly population. Finally, strategies to vaccinate all elderly adults globally against COVID-19 to enhance longevity has been suggested.


Subject(s)
Aging , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Immunization Programs , Immunosenescence , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome
13.
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents ; 58:N.PAG-N.PAG, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1440078
14.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 94:41-43, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1409649

ABSTRACT

Failure of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine may occur despite perfect adherence, although this is uncommon. Failure results in breakthrough HIV infection. Delayed seroconversion associated with antiretroviral use may complicate the picture, causing uncertainties in interpreting adherence patterns for establishing the true cause of PrEP failure.

15.
Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore ; 50(8):638-642, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1391248

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly disrupted medical education, particularly affecting clinical-year students. Educational institutions often had to halt, shorten or impose significant restrictions on their hospital rotations due to strict infection control and social-distancing guidelines implemented in tertiary healthcare institutions, as well as manpower and logistical constraints amid the pandemic. Thus, distance-based learning platforms such as online lectures and case-based teaching were increasingly adopted in place of bedside and face-to-face tutorials. While interactive virtual case-based discussions are generally useful in imparting clinical reasoning skills to medical students, they are unfortunately not able to fully replicate the experience of clerking, examining and managing real patients in the wards, which is a quintessential process towards building clinical acumen and attaining core clinical competencies. Therefore, for final year medical students who are preparing for their Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) examinations, many are naturally concerned by how learning in this "new normal" may affect their ability to make the transition to become competent junior doctors. As such, we seek to share our learning experiences as the first batch of medical students to have completed our entire final year of clinical education amid the COVID-19 pandemic, and offer 4 practical suggestions to future batches of students on how to adapt and optimise clinical learning under these circumstances: actively engaging in virtual learning, making the most of every clinical encounter, learning how to construct peer teaching/practice sessions, and maintaining physical and psychological well-being.

18.
Infezioni in Medicina ; 29(1):165-166, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1148493
19.
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; 224(2):S649-S649, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1141083
20.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(3): 1708-1723, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102757

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Recent pandemic virus SARS-CoV-2 is a global warning for the healthcare system. The spike protein of virus SARS-CoV-2 is significant because of two reasons. Firstly, the spike protein of this virus binds with the human ACE2 (hACE2) receptor. Secondly, it has several antigenic regions that might be targeted for vaccine development. However, the structural analytical data for the spike protein of this virus is not available. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Here, we performed an analysis to understand the structural two subunits of S glycoprotein (S gp) of SARS-CoV-2. Further, an analysis of secondary structure components and the tertiary structure analysis of RBD was carried out. We also performed molecular interaction analysis between S gp of this virus and hACE2 as well as between SARS-CoV S gp and hACE2 to compare the binding properties of these two viruses. RESULTS: We noted that the molecular interaction of SARS-CoV-2 S gp and hACE2 form eleven hydrogen bonds, while the molecular interaction of SARS-CoV S gp and hACE2 receptor form seven hydrogen bonds, indicating that the molecular interaction of SARS-CoV-2 S gp and hACE2 receptor is more stable than SARS-CoV S gp and hACE2 receptor. The pairwise sequence alignment of S gp SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 shows several conserved residues of these two proteins. Besides, conserved pattern analysis of SARS-CoV-2 S gp and hACE2 revealed the presence of several highly conserved regions for these two proteins. The molecular dynamics simulation shows a stable interplay between SARS-CoV-2 S gp with the hACE2 receptor. CONCLUSIONS: The present study might help determine the SARS-CoV-2 virus entrance mechanism into the human cell. Moreover, the understanding of the conserved regions may help in the process of therapeutic development from the infection of the deadly virus.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Computer Simulation , Conserved Sequence , Glycosylation , Humans , Hydrogen Bonding , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Protein Structure, Secondary , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Protein Subunits
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