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Int J Mol Sci ; 23(11)2022 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869639


The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has created a global public crisis and heavily affected personal lives, healthcare systems, and global economies. Virus variants are continuously emerging, and, thus, the pandemic has been ongoing for over two years. Vaccines were rapidly developed based on the original SARS-CoV-2 (Wuhan-Hu-1) to build immunity against the coronavirus disease. However, they had a very low effect on the virus' variants due to their low cross-reactivity. In this study, a multivalent SARS-CoV-2 vaccine was developed using ferritin nanocages, which display the spike protein from the Wuhan-Hu-1, B.1.351, or B.1.429 SARS-CoV-2 on their surfaces. We show that the mixture of three SARS-CoV-2 spike-protein-displaying nanocages elicits CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and B-cell immunity successfully in vivo. Furthermore, they generate a more consistent antibody response against the B.1.351 and B.1.429 variants than a monovalent vaccine. This leads us to believe that the proposed ferritin-nanocage-based multivalent vaccine platform will provide strong protection against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs).

COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Ferritins/genetics , Humans , Immunity , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Combined
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085072


Since it was first reported in Wuhan, China, in 2019, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a pandemic outbreak resulting in a tremendous global threat due to its unprecedented rapid spread and an absence of a prophylactic vaccine or therapeutic drugs treating the virus. The receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is a key player in the viral entry into cells through its interaction with the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor protein, and the RBD has therefore been crucial as a drug target. In this study, we used phage display to develop human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that neutralize SARS-CoV-2. A human synthetic Fab phage display library was panned against the RBD of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (SARS-2 RBD), yielding ten unique Fabs with moderate apparent affinities (EC50 = 19-663 nM) for the SARS-2 RBD. All of the Fabs showed no cross-reactivity to the MERS-CoV spike protein, while three Fabs cross-reacted with the SARS-CoV spike protein. Five Fabs showed neutralizing activities in in vitro assays based on the Fabs' activities antagonizing the interaction between the SARS-2 RBD and ACE2. Reformatting the five Fabs into immunoglobulin Gs (IgGs) greatly increased their apparent affinities (KD = 0.08-1.0 nM), presumably due to the effects of avidity, without compromising their non-aggregating properties and thermal stability. Furthermore, two of the mAbs (D12 and C2) significantly showed neutralizing activities on pseudo-typed and authentic SARS-CoV-2. Given their desirable properties and neutralizing activities, we anticipate that these human anti-SARS-CoV-2 mAbs would be suitable reagents to be further developed as antibody therapeutics to treat COVID-19, as well as for diagnostics and research tools.

Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Binding Sites , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Peptide Library , Protein Domains , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry