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1.
Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1891387

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic have been devastating to countries around the world. Much of the problem has been the need to contain the infection via harsh social movement restrictions while having the necessary policies to cushion the ensuing economic blows that follow them. This study aims to look at The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries and assess the good practices that are associated with those which performed relatively better than the rest. Design/methodology/approach: The authors use data envelopment analysis (DEA) to identify the most efficient country among the ASEAN nations in dealing with the pandemic and observe their practices with regard to the movement control metrics. Findings: One particular country stood out in this regard, which is Singapore. The authors observed that its social restrictions were less stringent than many others yet its management of the pandemic has been highly successful despite having had the highest number of cases at one stage in 2020. This suggests massive lockdowns may not necessarily be the solution. However, the nation did place a high priority in having a high-income support, effective public campaigning and very restrictive policy on public events. In terms of originality and value, this paper uses DEA in identifying the best practice among ASEAN countries in dealing with the pandemic, both from an economic and medical perspectives. Originality/value: To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no other papers have used this approach. The authors hope the findings can be of some value to policymakers in designing better (public) policies when it comes to dealing with pandemics in the future. © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.

2.
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine ; 29(1):37-45, 2022.
Article in Korean | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1887351

ABSTRACT

Purpose: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, we conducted a Delphi survey that included the experts from the field of COVID-19 immunization in children aged 5–11 years. The aim was to organize collective expert opinions on COVID-19 vaccination in young children in the Republic of Korea, and so thus assist the vaccination policy. Methods: The panels included pediatric infectious disease specialists, preventive medicine experts, infectious disease physicians, and COVID-19 vaccine experts consulting the Ministry of Health and Welfare. The Delphi survey was conducted online using a questionnaire from February 14 to February 27, 2022. Results: The Delphi panels agreed that children were vulnerable to COVID-19, and the severity of illness was modest. Furthermore the panels reported that children with chronic illness were more susceptible to a worsening clinical course. There were generally positive opinions on the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccination in children aged 5–11 years, and experts gathered a slightly positive opinion that the adverse events of pediatric COVID-19 were not numerous. The benefits of COVID-19 vaccination were evaluated at a level similar to the potential risks in children. Currently, the only approved mRNA platform vaccine in children seemed to be sustainable;however, the recombinant protein platform COVID-19 vaccines were evaluated as better options. Conclusions: Due to the surge of the Omicron variant and an increase in pediatric cases, the COVID-19 vaccination in young children may have to be considered. Panels had neutral opinions regarding the COVID-19 vaccination in children aged 5–11 years. Thus monitoring of the epidemiology and the data about the safety of COVID-19 vaccination should be continued.

3.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-330487

ABSTRACT

Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic has coincided with an increase in depressive symptoms as well as a growing awareness of health inequities and structural racism in the United States. Here, we examine the mental health impact of everyday discrimination during the pandemic in a large and diverse cohort of the All of Us Research Program. Methods: Using repeated assessments of 62,651 participants in May to July of 2020, we fitted mixed-effects models to assess the effect of everyday discrimination on moderate to severe depression (Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9 ≥ 10) and suicidal ideation (PHQ-9 item 9 > 0), and applied inverse probability weights to account for non-random probabilities of completing the voluntary survey. Results: Everyday discrimination was associated with increased odds of depression (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) [95% CI]: 1.21 [1.20 -1.22]) and suicidal ideation (1.17 [1.16-1.18]). For depression, the effects were larger in earlier phases of the pandemic (interaction p=8.2×10-5), which varied by main reason for discrimination and self-reported race and ethnicity. Among those who identified race or ancestry/national origin(s) as a primary reason for discrimination, Asian and Black or African American participants had 24% and 17% increase in the odds of depression in May of 2020 (1.24 [1.17-1.31] and 1.17 [1.12-1.22]), respectively, versus a 3% and 7% increase in July (1.03 [0.96-1.10] and 1.07 [1.02-1.12]). Conclusion: In this large and diverse sample, increased levels of everyday discrimination were associated with higher odds of depression, particularly during the early phase of the pandemic among participants self-identifying as Asian or Black.

4.
China Finance Review International ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print):34, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1276314

ABSTRACT

Purpose - It is quite possible that financial institutions including life insurance companies would encounter turbulent situations such as the COVID-19 pandemic before policies mature. Constructing models that can generate scenarios for major assets to cover abrupt changes in financial markets is thus essential for the financial institution's risk management. Design/methodology/approach - The key issues in such modeling include how to manage the large number of risk factors involved, how to model the dynamics of chosen or derived factors and how to incorporate relations among these factors. The authors propose the orthogonal ARMA-GARCH (autoregressive movingaverage-generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity) approach to tackle these issues. The constructed economic scenario generation (ESG) models pass the backtests covering the period from the beginning of 2018 to the end of May 2020, which includes the turbulent situations caused by COVID-19. Findings - The backtesting covering the turbulent period of COVID-19, along with fan charts and comparisons on simulated and historical statistics, validates our approach. Originality/value - This paper is the first one that attempts to generate complex long-term economic scenarios for a large-scale portfolio from its large dimensional covariance matrix estimated by the orthogonal ARMA-GARCH model.

7.
J Imaging ; 7(2)2021 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079666

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared COVID-19 a pandemic. We review and reduce the clinical literature on diagnosis of COVID-19 through symptoms that might be remotely detected as of early May 2020. Vital signs associated with respiratory distress and fever, coughing, and visible infections have been reported. Fever screening by temperature monitoring is currently popular. However, improved noncontact detection is sought. Vital signs including heart rate and respiratory rate are affected by the condition. Cough, fatigue, and visible infections are also reported as common symptoms. There are non-contact methods for measuring vital signs remotely that have been shown to have acceptable accuracy, reliability, and practicality in some settings. Each has its pros and cons and may perform well in some challenges but be inadequate in others. Our review shows that visible spectrum and thermal spectrum cameras offer the best options for truly noncontact sensing of those studied to date, thermal cameras due to their potential to measure all likely symptoms on a single camera, especially temperature, and video cameras due to their availability, cost, adaptability, and compatibility. Substantial supply chain disruptions during the pandemic and the widespread nature of the problem means that cost-effectiveness and availability are important considerations.

8.
Infection & Chemotherapy ; (2093-2340 (Print))2020.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-854256

ABSTRACT

Background: From May to July 2015, the Republic of Korea experienced the largest outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outside the Arabian Peninsula. A total of 186 patients, including 36 deaths, had been diagnosed with MERS-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection as of September 30th, 2015. Materials and Methods: We obtained information of patients who were confirmed to have MERS-CoV infection. MERS-CoV infection was diagnosed using real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay. Results: The median age of the patients was 55 years (range, 16 to 86). A total of 55.4% of the patients had one or more coexisting medical conditions. The most common symptom was fever (95.2%). At admission, leukopenia (42.6%), thrombocytopenia (46.6%), and elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (42.7%) were observed. Pneumonia was detected in 68.3% of patients at admission and developed in 80.8% during the disease course. Antiviral agents were used for 74.7% of patients. Mechanical ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and convalescent serum were employed for 24.5%, 7.1%, and 3.8% of patients, respectively. Older age, presence of coexisting medical conditions including diabetes or chronic lung disease, presence of dyspnea, hypotension, and leukocytosis at admission, and the use of mechanical ventilation were revealed to be independent predictors of death. Conclusion: The clinical features of MERS-CoV infection in the Republic of Korea were similar to those of previous outbreaks in the Middle East. However, the overall mortality rate (20.4%) was lower than that in previous reports. Enhanced surveillance and active management of patients during the outbreak may have resulted in improved outcomes. FAU - Choi, Won Suk

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