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1.
Applied Chemistry for Engineering ; 34(2):192-198, 2023.
Article in Korean | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20238044

ABSTRACT

In this study, the components of microwave-assisted extracts obtained from Thuja orientalis leaves were analyzed, and the cytotoxicity, antibacterial and antiviral activities were evaluated. The predominant components from microwave-assisted extraction were catechin, leucopelargonidin, arecatannin, quinolone, and kaempferol derivatives, which are classified in the fla-vonoid and tannin groups. We observed that the 0.11 mg/mL of extract concentration did not show cytotoxicity in HaCaT cells. The antibacterial activities were tested according to the guidelines of methods for determining the bactericidal activity of antimicrobial agents. The extracts showed 99.9% antibacterial efficiency against gram-positive S. aureus, while the anti-bacterial effect on gram-negative E. coli was insignificant. When the extract concentration and contact time with bacteria were increased, 99.9% antibacterial efficiency was observed for E. coli as well as S. aureus. Following the standard to assess the activity of microbicides against viruses in suspension (ASTM-E1052-20), the antiviral efficiency was more than 99.99% for influenza A (H1N1) and SARS-CoV-2. These results suggest its potential use in antiviral disinfectants, surface coatings, personal protective equipment, and textiles. © 2023 The Korean Society of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. All rights reserved.

2.
Sustainability ; 15(10), 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-20237924

ABSTRACT

Maritime education and training (MET) for seafarers who operate ships has struggled to flexibly adapt to technological and environmental changes. In particular, as social demand for online MET arose due to COVID-19, the need for sustainable MET beyond traditional teaching methods grew exponentially. In order to identify the most optimal MET methods among face-to-face and online methods, this study reviewed the concepts and applications of existing MET methods, grouped them using a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process, and supplemented this structure through a designed survey. The results showed that the online methods had the greatest weight, and the "XR (extended reality) within the metaverse" teaching method had the highest priority. This study identified which MET methods should be prepared for the post-COVID era through quantitative analysis. We confirmed the need for attention to XR within the metaverse as a field of online methods in the future. Furthermore, our findings reveal that online education platforms via metaverse-based "expansion" and "connection" are needed, and pave the way for future research to expand empirical studies on MET satisfaction regarding existing International Maritime Organization model courses.

3.
Respirol Case Rep ; 11(6): e01156, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235358

ABSTRACT

We presented the case of an adult patient with hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES) who was admitted acutely with a large hydropneumothorax from lung consolidation, a bronchopleural fistula and pleural infection. He has had recurrent pulmonary and skin infections since childhood and longstanding pneumatoceles. He was treated with systemic antibiotics and chest tube drainage. Administration of two doses of low-dose intrapleural therapy (1 mg tissue plasminogen activator and 5 mg deoxyribonuclease) allowed complete evacuation of his residual loculated pleural fluid, aided resolution of his infection without provoking a significant air leak and avoided the need for surgery.

4.
International Journal of Communication ; 17:3012-3032, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-20230720

ABSTRACT

Integrating the literature from public relations, community psychology, and minority stress theory, this study proposes and tests a model that describes the mechanism by which local governments' two-way symmetrical communication practices may affect local Asian Americans' experiences amid anti-Asian sentiment during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results of an online survey of 400 Asian Americans living in the United States indicated that local governments' two-way symmetrical communication practices with respect to diversity acceptance helped establish a community diversity climate. Such a perception lowered the target group's perceived stigma consciousness and fear of discrimination, which are the two main proximal stressors affecting minority members' emotions and wellbeing. Theoretical and practical implications on public relations and governmental communication are discussed.

5.
J Hosp Infect ; 138: 52-59, 2023 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20230990

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has influenced hospital infection control practices. AIM: To evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in intensive care units (ICUs). METHODS: A retrospective analysis using data from the Korean National Healthcare-Associated Infections Surveillance System was conducted. Comparisons between incidence rates and micro-organism distributions of bloodstream infection (BSI), central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI), catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) before and during the COVID-19 pandemic were performed according to hospital size. FINDINGS: The incidence rate of BSI significantly decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the pre-COVID-19 period (1.38 vs 1.23 per 10,000 patient-days, relative change -11.5%; P < 0.001). The incidence rate of VAP (1.03 vs 0.81 per 1000 device-days, relative change -21.4%; P < 0.001) significantly decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the pre-COVID-19 period, whereas rates of CLABSI (2.30 vs 2.23 per 1000 device-days; P = 0.19) and CAUTI (1.26 vs 1.26 per 1000 device-days; P = 0.99) were similar between the two periods. The rates of BSI and CLABSI significantly increased during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the pre-COVID-19 period in large-sized hospitals, whereas these rates significantly decreased in small-to-medium-sized hospitals. The rates of CAUTI and VAP significantly decreased in small-sized hospitals. There were no significant changing trends in the rates of multidrug-resistant pathogens isolated from patients with HAI between the two periods. CONCLUSION: The incidence rates of BSI and VAP in ICUs decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the pre-COVID-19 period. This decrease was mainly seen in small-to-medium-sized hospitals.

7.
Applied Chemistry for Engineering ; 34(2):192-198, 2023.
Article in Korean | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2324150

ABSTRACT

In this study, the components of microwave-assisted extracts obtained from Thuja orientalis leaves were analyzed, and the cytotoxicity, antibacterial and antiviral activities were evaluated. The predominant components from microwave-assisted extraction were catechin, leucopelargonidin, arecatannin, quinolone, and kaempferol derivatives, which are classified in the fla-vonoid and tannin groups. We observed that the 0.11 mg/mL of extract concentration did not show cytotoxicity in HaCaT cells. The antibacterial activities were tested according to the guidelines of methods for determining the bactericidal activity of antimicrobial agents. The extracts showed 99.9% antibacterial efficiency against gram-positive S. aureus, while the anti-bacterial effect on gram-negative E. coli was insignificant. When the extract concentration and contact time with bacteria were increased, 99.9% antibacterial efficiency was observed for E. coli as well as S. aureus. Following the standard to assess the activity of microbicides against viruses in suspension (ASTM-E1052-20), the antiviral efficiency was more than 99.99% for influenza A (H1N1) and SARS-CoV-2. These results suggest its potential use in antiviral disinfectants, surface coatings, personal protective equipment, and textiles. © 2023 The Korean Society of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. All rights reserved.

8.
Applied Economics ; : 1-14, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2323682

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the impact of crises caused by pandemics on firms' R&D investments. We explore these associations by utilizing a comprehensive cross-country sample of 261,959 firm-year observations collected from 39 countries during five modern health crises (SARS in 2003, H1N1 in 2009, MERS in 2012, Ebola in 2012, and Zika in 2016). The results indicate that pandemics have a positive and significant impact on R&D investment. Furthermore, we show that private firms in civil-law countries were more likely to adopt conservative financial policies than those in common-law countries. We conclude that the difference between the legal origins of private firms influences the impact on R&D investment. Moreover, it promotes conservative policies to reduce private firms' R&D investment in countries with civil law.

9.
ERS Monograph ; 2021(94):232-243, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2316759

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented global public health crisis with respect to its effects on economic, physical and mental health. While early lockdown guidelines may have been effective for reducing viral transmission, prolonged quarantine and physical distancing measures may have augmented the disparities underlying the determinants of health. The aggregate effects of rapid and significant economic downturn, as well as physical and mental morbidity and mortality, are reported to increase the risk of suicide. Furthermore, students, females and individuals with pre-existing mental health illness(es) are at an increased risk for poor mental health outcomes as a result of decreased social support and gaps in healthcare access. Individuals with a mood disorder are at a greater risk for COVID-19 hospitalisation. Additionally, international collaboration addressing underlying social and economic inequities across high-, middle-and low-income countries is critical for managing infection rates. Taken together, public health policies should target upstream factors that affect the determinants of ill health.Copyright © ERS 2021.

10.
Computers, Materials and Continua ; 75(2):4231-4253, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2315719

ABSTRACT

Recently, with the normalization of non-face-to-face online environments in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the possibility of cyberattacks through endpoints has increased. Numerous endpoint devices are managed meticulously to prevent cyberattacks and ensure timely responses to potential security threats. In particular, because telecommuting, telemedicine, and tele-education are implemented in uncontrolled environments, attackers typically target vulnerable endpoints to acquire administrator rights or steal authentication information, and reports of endpoint attacks have been increasing considerably. Advanced persistent threats (APTs) using various novel variant malicious codes are a form of a sophisticated attack. However, conventional commercial antivirus and anti-malware systems that use signature-based attack detection methods cannot satisfactorily respond to such attacks. In this paper, we propose a method that expands the detection coverage in APT attack environments. In this model, an open-source threat detector and log collector are used synergistically to improve threat detection performance. Extending the scope of attack log collection through interworking between highly accessible open-source tools can efficiently increase the detection coverage of tactics and techniques used to deal with APT attacks, as defined by MITRE Adversarial Tactics, Techniques, and Common Knowledge (ATT&CK). We implemented an attack environment using an APT attack scenario emulator called Carbanak and analyzed the detection coverage of Google Rapid Response (GRR), an open-source threat detection tool, and Graylog, an open-source log collector. The proposed method expanded the detection coverage against MITRE ATT&CK by approximately 11% compared with that conventional methods. © 2023 Tech Science Press. All rights reserved.

11.
EWHA Medical Journal ; 46(1) (no pagination), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2313731

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The Panbio COVID-19 Ag Rapid Test Device (Panbio COVID-19 Ag, Abbott Rapid Diagnostics) is a lateral flow immunochromatographic assay targeting the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleoprotein in nasopharyngeal specimens for the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to verify the performance of the Panbio COVID-19 Ag for implementation in clinical laboratories. Method(s): Sixty nasopharyngeal swab specimens (30 positive and 30 negative) dipped in transport medium, and COVID-19 was confirmed using real-time RT-PCR using Allplex SARS-CoV-2 assay (Seegene), were tested using the Panbio COVID-19 Ag. Reproducibility was evaluated using positive and negative control materials. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated based on the results of realtime RT-PCR as the standard test method. Result(s): Reproducibility was confirmed by the consistent results of repeated tests of the quality control materials. The overall sensitivity and specificity of Panbio COVID-19 Ag were 50.0% and 100.0%, respectively. Panbio COVID-19 Ag demonstrated high sensitivity (88.2%) in analyzing the detection limit cycle threshold (Ct) value of 26.67 provided by the manufacturer as a positive criterion, and the sensitivity was 100.0% for the positive criterion of Ct values <25, although it was less sensitive for Ct > 25. Conclusion(s): Considering the high sensitivity for positive samples with Ct values <25 and the rapid turnaround of results, Panbio COVID-19 Ag can be used in clinical laboratories to diagnose COVID-19 in limited settings. Copyright © 2023 Ewha Womans University College of Medicine and Ewha Medical Research Institute.

12.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Health ; 13(2):190-198, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2313678

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Healthcare workers, including physical therapists, have some of the most important roles in the healthcare system, as observed during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Physical therapists encounter emotionally and physically vulnerable patients, experience emotional labor, and are exposed to conditions that can lead to job stress and musculoskeletal disorders. We aimed to examine the relationships between physical therapists' emotional labor, its effect on perceived job stress, and the risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders. Methods: We conducted a 30-day survey among 230 physical therapists working in various settings from October 2 to November 1, 2019. Questionnaires, including questions on musculoskeletal symptoms, perceived job stress, and emotional labor, were administered to the participants. Results: The emotional labor sub-factors "overload and conflict in customer service" (β=0.201, p>0.001), "emotional inconsistency and impairment" (β=0.199, p>0.001), and "organizational support and protection system" (β=0.298, p>0.001) affected the job stress sub-factors "physical environment" (β=0.105, p>0.020), "insufficient compensation" (β=0.072, p<0.05), and "relational conflict" (β=-0.083, p>0.024). These job stress sub-factors affected musculoskeletal disorders. Conclusion: To prevent the long-term consequences of work-related strain, physical therapists should receive support for maintaining a healthy lifestyle and developing effective methods of communication with patients. Encouragement of activities for psychological rejuvenation and sharing emotional difficulties with colleagues is also desirable. Moreover, it is necessary to establish a direct line of grievance communication between physical therapists to hospitals. © 2023 The Author(s).

13.
14.
Singapore Economic Review ; : 1-23, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2309501

ABSTRACT

This study uses the golden cross and death cross formed by the gap between the narrow and broad money growth rates as threshold variables to estimate the threshold model and test the causal relationship between money supply and stock prices in eight emerging market economies (EMEs) in Asia;the sample periods are from January 2000 to December 2020. The results show a high-positive, bi-directional relationship between the money supply and stock prices in the golden cross regime. On the other hand, the money supply has a negative, one-way causality on stock prices in the death cross regime. We also conducted a robustness test during the COVID-19 spread, and the result shows that the mechanism still applies, but the effectiveness is reduced. Thus, our contribution is discovering the golden cross and death cross information formed by narrow and broad money, informing stock market investment.

15.
International Journal of Fashion Design Technology and Education ; 15(2):245-255, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2309499

ABSTRACT

The 2019 Coronavirus Infectious Disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic has maximized interest in the need for and the effectiveness of e-learning classes as an alternative to face-to-face classes in schools. This study aimed to identify the factors that determine the successful implementation of e-learning classes. In this study, 99 fashion majors who attended the computer-aided design (CAD) programming classes held in the spring semesters of 2019 and 2020 participated. This study analyzed and evaluated the students' achievement process to see how self-motivated learning and interactive learning affected the process in face-to-face classes and real-time online Zoom classes. The results demonstrated the potential of creating an efficient e-learning environment for fashion CAD education where students could learn concepts and achieve academic competence even in the absence of face-to-face introduction.

16.
Annals of Child Neurology ; 30(2):53-60, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2298864

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on children and adolescents with migraine. Method(s): This longitudinal cohort study enrolled children and adolescents with migraine from the Department of Pediatric Neurology at our hospital from January 2017 to June 2021. Self-re-ported data from individual headache diaries were used. The patients were questioned about their headache frequency and intensity, stress, physical activity, changes in mood and sleep, and their school and home lives during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Pediatric Migraine Disability Assessment (Ped-MIDAS) scoring system was applied to assess headache-related disability. Result(s): In total, 325 pediatric migraine patients (mean age 12.8+/-5.6 years, 62.5% female) were included in this study. The average monthly frequency of migraine headaches was 2.17+/-1.32 and 4.62+/-3.29 before and during the COVID-19 pandemic (P<0.001), respectively. The Ped-MIDAS score was obtained for 207 patients both before and during the pandemic, and the total score slightly increased from 13.8 to 14.7 points (P=0.295). Sixty patients (18.5%) showed significantly worsening migraine headaches. Younger age (P=0.017), mood deterioration (P<0.001), sleep problems (P<0.001), increased acute medication use (P=0.010), and larger changes in the Ped-MIDAS score (P=0.002) were significantly associated with worsening headache in the logis-tic regression analysis. Conclusion(s): Headache attacks in children and adolescents with migraine were more frequent during the COVID-19 pandemic than before it. Worsening headaches could be independently at-tributed to younger age, mood deterioration, and poor sleep during the COVID-19 pandemic.Copyright © 2022 Korean Child Neurology Society.

17.
Entrepreneurship Research Journal ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2298619

ABSTRACT

Despite an increased interest in crises within the field of entrepreneurship, there is still a lack of understanding about the interplay between different types of crises and entrepreneurship. In addition, the specific circumstances surrounding each type of crisis may also cause the conclusions of these studies to diverge or converge. To enhance our theoretical understanding of entrepreneurship during times of crisis, our review seeks to answer the following research questions: (1) How are the different types of crises addressed in entrepreneurship literature, and what similarities and differences exist? (2) How can we broaden our understanding and deepen our insights into the relationship between a crisis and entrepreneurship? In an effort to review the largest possible variety of crises that extends beyond political crises, natural disasters, and financial crises, we have also included a number of recent studies that examined COVID-19 from an entrepreneurial perspective. Following this, our study identifies six types of crises along with corresponding research themes, key findings, and critical shortcomings. This review also identifies multiple research gaps and suggests several future research directions, as well as theoretical approaches that researchers can take to build upon existing discussions surrounding entrepreneurship in times of crisis. © 2023 the author(s), published by De Gruyter, Berlin/Boston.

18.
Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology ; 78(Supplement 111):302, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2298036

ABSTRACT

Background: Chronic urticaria (CU) is a common chronic inflammatory disease. Vaccination against viral infections including COVID-19 can induce increased CU disease activity. As of now, it is unclear how often CU exacerbations occur after COVID-19 vaccination. Method(s): COVAC-CU is an international, multicenter, observational, cross-sectional study of the global network of urticaria centers of reference and excellence (UCAREs). COVAC-CU evaluates the effects of COVID-19 vaccination in patients with CU including rates and risk factors of CU exacerbation. Here, we analyzed 1857 patients with CU who had received at least one COVID-19 vaccination. Data were collected via a questionnaire and retrieved from patient charts. Result(s): Of 1857 patients with CU (median age: 42 years;range: 18-91 years), 72.1% were female and 71.2%, 14.4% and 14.4% had chronic spontaneous urticaria, chronic inducible urticaria, or both, respectively. Most patients had received two doses of COVID-19 vaccine (79.1%), compared to one (9.7%), three (11%), or four (0.3%). Vaccine type included: BTN162b2 (58.4%;BioNTech/Pfizer), ChAdOx1 nCOV-19 (13.8%;AstraZeneca), BBIBP-CorV (8.2%;Sinopharm), Gam-COVID- Vac (8%;Sputnik), mRNA-1273 (5.3%;Moderna), and Ad26.COV 2.5 (4.7%;Janssen/J&J). Less than 10% of patients used premedication, and less than half of patients (44.4%) reported one or more adverse reactions after vaccination. The most common adverse reactions were local injection site reactions (29.6%), fatigue (19.7%), fever (19%), muscle pain (17.9%), headache (14%), and exacerbation of CU (15%). Severe allergic reactions/anaphylaxis were reported by 0.4% of CU patients. In almost all patients who experienced exacerbation of their CU, this occurred within one week after receiving the vaccine, i.e. after 1 to 12 hours (25.8 %), after 12 hours to 48 hours (31.1%) or after 2-7 days (37.9%). Conclusion(s): Most CU patients tolerate COVID-19 vaccination well;severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) rates were similar or lower than the self-reported rates reported in the general population. Exacerbation of urticaria was reported in one in five patients, mostly in a week after receiving the vaccine.

19.
FASEB J ; 37(5): e22919, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306604

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection causes injury to multiple organ systems, including the brain. SARS-CoV-2's neuropathological mechanisms may include systemic inflammation and hypoxia, as well as direct cell damage resulting from viral infections of neurons and glia. How the virus directly causes injury to brain cells, acutely and over the long term, is not well understood. In order to gain insight into this process, we studied the neuropathological effects of open reading frame 3a (ORF3a), a SARS-CoV-2 accessory protein that is a key pathological factor of the virus. Forced ORF3a brain expression in mice caused the rapid onset of neurological impairment, neurodegeneration, and neuroinflammation-key neuropathological features found in coronavirus disease (COVID-19, which is caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection). Furthermore, ORF3a expression blocked autophagy progression in the brain and caused the neuronal accumulation of α-synuclein and glycosphingolipids, all of which are linked to neurodegenerative disease. Studies with ORF3-expressing HeLa cells confirmed that ORF3a disrupted the autophagy-lysosomal pathway and blocked glycosphingolipid degradation, resulting in their accumulation. These findings indicate that, in the event of neuroinvasion by SARS-CoV-2, ORF3a expression in brain cells may drive neuropathogenesis and be an important mediator of both short- and long-term neurological manifestations of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Humans , Animals , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/pathology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/pathology , HeLa Cells , Open Reading Frames , Sphingolipids , Brain/pathology , Homeostasis , Lysosomes , Autophagy
20.
Korean Journal of Adult Nursing ; 35(1):35-46, 2023.
Article in En ko | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2268364

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to identify factors related to nurses' preparedness to care for patients with highly infectious diseases in long-term care hospitals based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Methods: The participants were 226 nurses from 10 long-term care hospitals located in a metropolitan city in Korea. Core components of the TPB, organizational culture for infection control, nursing practice environment, and preparedness to care for patients with highly infectious diseases were measured using a structured online self-report questionnaire. Data were collected from October 25 to December 26, 2021 and were analyzed using descriptive statistics, independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson's correlation coefficients, and multiple regression. Results: The mean score of preparedness to care for patients with highly infectious diseases was 4.99±1.90 out of 10. The perceived behavioral control (β=.37, p<.001), control beliefs (β=.24, p<.001), attitude toward behavior (β=.18, p=.001), behavioral belief (β=.12, p=.035), and nursing practice environment (β=.12, p=.023) significantly predicted the nursing staff's preparedness to care for these patients (Adj. R2=.62). Conclusion: Theory-based interventions are needed to enhance the confidence of nurses in caring for the patients with highly infectious diseases and to improve their attitude and beliefs regarding positive outcomes in caring for these patients. High quality teamwork and support of resources are necessary to increase the preparedness to care for patients with highly infectious diseases in the nursing practice environment in long-term care hospitals. © 2023 Korean Society of Adult Nursing

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