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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331581

ABSTRACT

Some patients retested positive for SARS-CoV-2 following negative testing results and discharge. However, the potential risk factors associated with redetectable positive test results in a large sample of patients who recovered from COVID-19 have not been well estimated. A total of 745 discharged COVID-19 patients were enrolled between January 30, 2020, and September 9, 2020, in Guangzhou, China. Data on the clinical characteristics, comorbidities, drug therapy, RT-PCR testing, and contact modes to close contacts were collected. Patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 after discharge (positive retest patients) were confirmed by guidelines issued by China. The repositive rate in different settings was calculated. Among 745 discharged patients, 157 (21.1%;95% CI, 18.2% to 24.0%) retested positive, of which 55 (35.0%) were asymptomatic, 15 (9.6%) had mild symptoms, 83 (52.9%) had moderate symptoms and 4 (2.6%) had severe symptoms at the first admission. The median time from discharge to repositivity was 8.0 days (IQR, 8.0 to 14.0 days). Most positive retest patients were without clinical symptoms, and lymphocyte cell counts were higher than before being discharged. The likelihood of repositive testing for SARS-CoV-2 RNA was significantly higher among patients who were younger age (OR, 3.88;95% CI, 1.74 to 8.66, 0 to 17 years old), had asymptomatic severity (OR, 4.36;95% CI, 1.47 to 12.95) and did not have clinical symptoms (OR, 1.89;95% CI, 1.32 to 2.70, without fever). We found that the positive retest rate of COVID-19 was relatively high, and these patients tested positive again with a median of 8.0 to 14.0 days after discharge. Positive retest results were mainly observed in young patients without severe clinical symptoms. These findings suggest that a significant proportion of patients could carry viral fragments for a long time, and effective management, such as a prolonged quarantine phase for discharged patients, is necessary.

2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318612

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has posed significant threats to both physical and psychological health of healthcare workers working in the front-line combating COVID-19. However, evidence regarding the long-term impact of COVID-19 is limited. Therefore, we conducted this cross-sectional survey to investigate the prevalence, factors and impact of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in healthcare workers exposed to COVID-19 eight months after end of outbreak in Wuhan, China. Methods: : A web-based questionnaire was delivered as a link via the communication application WeChat to those healthcare workers who worked at several COVID-19 units in Wuhan during the outbreak (from November 2019 to April 2020). The questionnaire included questions on social-demographic data, the post-traumatic stress disorder checklist-5, the family care index questionnaire, and the quality of life scale. The prevalence, risk and protective factors, and impact of post-traumatic stress disorder healthcare workers were then analyzed with logistic regression. Results: : Among the 659 participants, 90 healthcare workers were still suffering from PTSD eight months after the end of outbreak of COVID-19 in Wuhan, in which avoidance and negative impact were the most affected dimensions. Suffering from chronic disease, experiencing social isolation, and job dissatisfaction came up as independent risk factors of PTSD, while obtaining COVID-19 related information at an appropriate frequency, good family function, and working in well-prepared mobile cabin hospitals surfaced as protective factors. The impact of PTSD on COVID-19-exposed healthcare workers was apparent by shortened sleeping time, feeling of loneliness, poorer quality of life and intention to resign. Conclusions: : Eight months after the end of the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, the level of PTSD in healthcare workers exposed to COVID-19 was still high. Apart from the common recognized risk factors, comorbid of chronic disease was identified as the new independent risk factors of developing PTSD. For countries where the pandemic is still ongoing or in the case of future outbreaks of new communicable diseases, this research may contribute to preventing cases of PTSD in healthcare workers exposed to infectious diseases under such circumstances.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315590

ABSTRACT

Background: The clinical and CT manifestations of COVID-19 pneumonia and non-COVID-19 pneumonia in the same period have not been compared in detail. The purpose of this study is to analyze the clinical and CT manifestations of COVID-19 pneumonia and perform a comparison of those isolated patients for presumed COVID-19 infection and of non-COVID-19 pneumonia in the same period. Methods: : 173 patients with pneumonia from January 1, 2020 to March 20, 2020 were retrospectively enrolled and classified into three groups: patients with COVID-19 pneumonia (Group I, N=4), patients in hospital-isolation for presumed COVID-19 pneumonia (Group Ⅱ, N=5), and patients with non-COVID-19 pneumonia (Group III, N=163). Clinical symptoms, laboratory test results and CT imaging features were compared among three groups. Results: : Fever and cough were the most common clinical symptoms in the three groups. 30/163 (18.4%) patients were asymptomatic in Group III. Leukopenia, lymphocytopenia, and elevated C-reactive protein was identified in 1 (25%), 1 (25%), and 1 (25%) patient in Group I;1 (20%), 1 (20%), and 2 (40%) patients in Group II;10/157 (6.4%), 33/157(21.0%), and 94/136 (69.1%) patients in Group III. Demarcated GGO/mixed GGO, ill-defined GGO/mixed GGO, consolidation, centrilobular nodule, tree-in bud opacity, bilateral involvement, peripheral distribution, posterior part/lower lobe predilection was observed in 3/4 (75%), 2/4 (50%), 4/4 (100%), 2/4 (50%), 0, 3/4 (75%), 3/4 (75%), and 2/4 (50%) patients, respectively in Group I;1/5 (20%), 5/5 (100%), 4/5 (80%), 4/5 (80%), 3/5 (60%), 4/5 (80%), 2/5 (40%), and 3/5 (60%) patients in Group Ⅱ;1/163 (0.6%), 87/163 (54.3%), 115/163 (70.6%), 117/163 (71.8%), 95/163 (58.3%), 52/163 (31.9%), 9/163 (5.5%), and 9/163 (5.5%) patients in Group III, respectively. Conclusions: : Demarcated GGO and consolidation prefer the diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia, whereas ill-defined GGO and consolidation, centrilobular nodule surrounded by GGO, and tree-in-bud opacity are preferred for non-COVID-19 pneumonia. chest CT has potential in early identification of COVID-19 and implementation of isolation for appropriate case.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315567

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in December 2019, led to the ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19), which has claimed more than a half million lives in a few months. Enormous efforts are being made in developing vaccines and therapeutic treatment to fight against COVID-19. Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 viruses are currently used as vaccine candidates;therefore, it is important to understand the architecture of SARS-CoV-2. We have propagated and purified a clinical strain of SARS-CoV-2 and genetically and structurally characterized β-propiolactone inactivated viruses. We observed that the virus particles are roughly spherical or moderately pleiomorphic. Although a small fraction of prefusion spikes are observed, the majority of viral spikes appear nail-shaped resembling a postfusion state, where S1 protein of the spike has disassociated. Cryo-electron tomography and subtomogram averaging of these spikes yielded a density map which closely matches the overall structure of SARS-CoV S2 spike and their corresponding glycosylation sites. Our findings have major implications in SARS-CoV-2 vaccine design owing to the critical importance of prefusion immunogens.Funding: This work was supported by the Science and Technology Innovation Committee of Shenzhen Municipality(202002073000002), the National Institutes of Health grant P50AI150481 (P.Z.), the UK Wellcome Trust Investigator Award 206422/Z/17/Z(P.Z.), and the UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council grant BB/S003339/1 (P.Z.). Conflict of Interest: The authors declare no competing financial or non-financial interests. Ethical Approval: The research received approval from the Research Ethics Committee of Shenzhen Third People's Hospital, China (approval number: 2020-038). The Research Ethics Committee waived the requirement informed consent before the study started because of the urgent need to collect epidemiological and clinical data. We analyzed the data anonymously.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311947

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and has rapidly swept the globe. There is an urgent need to understand the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 in the host and to accelerate the development of antiviral drugs. In this study, we collected open access data to thoroughly analyze the mechanisms associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that apoptosis-related pathways were enriched in the cells after SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the results of differential expression analysis showed that biological functions related to endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and lipid metabolism were disordered. TMBIM6 was identified as a potential target for SARS-CoV-2 in host cells through weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) of the time course of expression of host and viral proteins. The expression and related functions of TMBIM6 were subsequently analyzed to illuminate how viral proteins interfere with the physiological function of host cells. The potential function of viral proteins was further analyzed by GEne Network Inference with Ensemble of trees (GENIE3). This study identified TMBIM6 as a target protein associated with the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2, which might provide a novel therapeutic approach for COVID-19 in the future.Finding Statement: This research was supported by grants from the NSFC‐Guangdong Joint Foundation of China (U1601225), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81971895), and the Key Scientific and Technological Program of Guangzhou City (201607020016). Declaration of Interests: All the authors declare that they have no competing interests.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325376

ABSTRACT

Understanding the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of fatal cases infected with SARS-CoV-2 is import to develop appropriate preventable intervention programs in hospitals. Demographic data, clinical symptoms, clinical course, co-morbidities, laboratory findings, CT scans, treatments and complications of 162 fatal cases were retrieved from electric medical records in 5 hospitals of Wuhan, China. The median age was 69.5 years old (IQR: 63.0-77.25;range: 29-96). 112 (69.1%) cases were men. Hypertension (45.1%) was the most common co-morbidity, but 59 (36.4%) cases had no co-morbidity. At admission, 131 (81.9%) cases were assessed as severe or critical. However, 39 (18.1%) were assessed as moderate. Moderate cases had a higher prevalence of hypertension and chronic lung disease comparing with severe or critical cases ( P <0.05, respectively). 126 (77.8%) and 132 (81.5%) cases received antiviral treatment and glucocorticoids, respectively. 116 (71.6%) cases were admitted to ICU and 137 (85.1%) cases received mechanical ventilation. Respiratory failure or acute respiratory distress syndrome (93.2%) was the most common complication. The young cases of COVID-19, without co-morbidity and in a moderate condition at admission could develop fatal outcome. We need to be more cautious in case management of COVID-19 for preventing the fatal outcomes.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324811

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aims to evaluate the relationships between viral clearance and blood biochemical index of 94 discharged patients with COVID-19 infection in Shenzhen Third People’s Hospital, enrolled from Jan 5 to Feb 13, 2020. Methods: The clinical, and laboratory findings were extracted from the electronic medical records of the patients. The data were analysed and reviewed by a trained team of physicians. Information on clinical symptoms and signs, medical treatment, virus clearance and laboratory parameters including interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were collected. Results: COVID-19 mRNA clearance ratio was identified significantly correlated with the decline of serum creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. Furthermore, COVID-19 mRNA clearance time was positively correlated with the length of hospital stay in patients treated with either IFN-α + lopinavir/ritonavir or IFN-α + lopinavir/ritonavir+ ribavirin. Conclusions: Therapeutic regimen of IFN-α+lopinavir/ritonavir and IFN-α + lopinavir/ritonavir + ribavirin regimens might be beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. Serum LDH or CK decline may predict a favorable response to treatment of COVID-19 infection.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324496

ABSTRACT

Background: Following the emergence of a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, and its spread outside of Wuhan, China, the human society has experienced a pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). While the development of vaccine and pharmaceutical treatment have been undergoing, government authorities in China implemented unprecedented non-pharmaceutical interventions as primary barriers to curb the spread of the deadly SARS-CoV-2. Although the decline of COVID-19 cases coincided with this implementation of interventions, evidence is needed to demonstrate the efficacy of these interventions since artifactual factors, such as the environment, the pathogen itself, and the phases of epidemic, may also alter the pattern of case development.Methods: We surveyed common viral respiratory infections that have a similar pattern of transmission, tropism, and clinical manifestation as COVID-19 under such interventions during this season with pandemic, and compared it with historical data in previous seasons without the interventions.Finding: Our survey shows that the rates for common respiratory infections, such as influenza and respiratory syncytial virus infections, decreased dramatically from previous 13.7% and 4.64% to 0.73% and 0.00%, respectively, in this season.Interpretation: This surveillance provides compelling evidence that the interventions are cost-effective ways to curb the spread of contagious agents, and may be the only practical approach to limiting the evolving of epidemic until vaccine and pharmaceutical treatment are available.Funding Statement: This study was supported by West China Hospital (HX-2019-nCoV-17), Sichuan Science and Technology Program (2020YFS0008), and National Natural Science Foundation (81671551). Declaration of Interests: CapitalBio Technology is the manufacture of Respiratory Virus Nucleic Acid Detection Kit and RTisochip™ –W Isothermal Microfluidic Chip Analyzer. XX and DL are employees of CapitalBio Technology. All others declare no competing interest.Ethics Approval Statement: Clinical trial (device) 2020, No. 4;Clinical Trial Committee, West China Hospital of Sichuan University. The Institutional Review Board of the West China Hospitalapproved the study.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324276

ABSTRACT

Background: A cluster of acute respiratory illness, now known as Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), has become a global pandemic. Aged population with cardiovascular diseases are more likely be to infected with SARS-CoV-2 and result in more severe outcomes and elevated case-fatality rate. Meanwhile, cardiovascular diseases have a high prevalence in the middle-aged and elderly population. However, despite of several researches in COVID-19, cardiovascular implications related to it still remains largely unclear. Therefore, a specific analysis in regard to cardiovascular implications of COVID-19 patients is in great need.Methods In this single-centered, retrospective, observational study, 116 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were enrolled, who admitted to the General Hospital of Central Theater Command (Wuhan, China) from January 20 to March 8, 2020. The demographic data, underlying comorbidities, clinical symptoms and signs, laboratory findings, chest computed tomography, treatment measures, and outcome data were collected from electronic medical records. Data were compared between non-severe and severe cases.ResultsOf 116 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, the median age was 58.5 years (IQR, 47.0-69.0), and 36 (31.0%) were female. Hypertension (45 [38.8%]), diabetes (19 [16.4%]), and coronary heart disease (17 [14.7%]) were the most common coexisting conditions. Common symptoms included fever [99 (85.3%)], dry cough (61 [52.6%]), fatigue (60 [51.7%]), dyspnea (52 [44.8%]), anorexia (50 [43.1%]), and chest discomfort (50 [43.1%]). Local and/or bilateral patchy shadowing were the typical radiological findings on chest computed tomography. Lymphopenia (lymphocyte count, 1.0 × 10 9 /L [IQR, 0.7-1.3]) was observed in 66 patients (56.9%), and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (245.5 U/L [IQR, 194.3-319.8]) in 69 patients (59.5%). Hypokalemia occurred in 24 (20.7%) patients. Compared with non-severe cases, severe cases were older (64.0 years [IQR, 53.0-76.0] vs 56.0 years [IQR, 37.0-64.0]), more likely to have comorbidities (35 [63.6%] vs 24 [39.3%]), and more likely to develop acute cardiac injury (19 [34.5%] vs 4 [6.6%]), acute heart failure (18 [32.7%] vs 3 [4.9%]), and ARDS (20 [36.4%] vs 0 [0%]). During hospitalization, the prevalence of new onset hypertension was significantly higher in severe patients (55.2% vs 19.0%) than in non-severe ones.Conclusions In this single-centered, retrospective, observational study, we found that the infection of SARS-CoV-2 was more likely to occur in middle and aged population with cardiovascular comorbidities. Cardiovascular complications, including new onset hypertension and heart injury were common in severe patients with COVID-19. More detailed researches in cardiovascular involvement in COVID-19 are urgently needed to further understand the disease.

10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322274

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 has spread rapidly around the world, affecting a large percentage of the population. When lifting certain mandatory measures for an economic restart, robust surveillance must be established and implemented, with nucleic acid detection for SARS-CoV-2 as an essential component. Methods: : We tried to develop a o ne-tube detection platform based on R T- R PA (Reverse Transcription and Recombinase Polymerase Isothermal Amplification) and D NA E ndonuclease- T arg e ted C RISPR T rans R eporter ( DETECTR ) technology, termed OR-DETECTR, to detect SARS-CoV-2. We designed RT-RPA primers of the RdRp and N genes following the SARS-CoV-2 gene sequence. We optimized reaction components so that the detection process could be carried out in one tube. Specificity was demonstrated by detecting nucleic acid samples from pseudoviruses from seven human coronaviruses and Influenza A (H1N1). Clinical samples were used to validate the platform and all results were compared to rRT-PCR. RNA standards and pseudoviruses diluted by different gradients were used to demonstrate the detection limit. Additionally, we have developed a lateral flow assay based on OR-DETECTR for detecting COVID-19. Results: : The OR-DETECTR detection process can be completed in one tube, which takes approximately 50 min. This method can specifically detect SARS-CoV-2 from seven human coronaviruses and Influenza A (H1N1), with a low detection limit of 2.5 copies/µl input (RNA standard) and 1 copy/µl input (pseudovirus). Results of six samples from SARS-CoV-2 patients, eight samples from patients with fever but no SARS-CoV-2 infection, and one mixed sample from 40 negative controls showed that OR-DETECTR is 100% consistent with rRT-PCR. The lateral flow assay based on OR-DETECTR can be used for the detection of COVID-19, and the detection limit is 2.5 copies/µl input. Conclusions: : The OR-DETECTR platform for the detection of COVID-19 is rapid, accurate, tube closed, easy-to-operate, and free of large instruments.

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322242

ABSTRACT

Background: To investigate the correlations between serum calcium and clinical severity and outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: In this clinical retrospective study, the levels of serum calcium, hormone levels and clinical laboratory parameters of admission were recorded. The clinical severity and outcome variables were also recorded. Results: From February 10 to February 28 2020, 241 patients were enrolled in this study. Of these patients, 180 (74.7%) had hypocalcemia on admission. The median serum calcium levels were 2.12 (IQR, 2.04-2.20) mmol/L, median parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were 55.27 (IQR, 42.73-73.15) pg/mL, median 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (VD) levels were 10.20 (IQR, 8.20-12.65) ng/mL. The serum calcium levels were significantly positive correlated with VD levels (P =0.004), whereas negative correlated with PTH levels (P = 0.048). Patients with lower serum calcium levels (especially ≤2.0 mmol/L) had worse clinical parameters, higher incidence of organ injury septic shock and higher 28-day mortality. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, septic shock, and 28-day mortality were 0.923 (P <0.001), 0.905 (P =0.001), and 0.929 (P <0.001), respectively. The overall mortality of COVID-19 was 4.1% (10/241), whereas the mortality of critical patients was up to 40.0% (10/25). Conclusions: Serum calcium was associated with clinical severity and prognosis of patients with COVID-19. Hypocalcemia may be associated with imbalanced VD and PTH.

12.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22270937

ABSTRACT

BackgroundRecent applications of wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) have demonstrated its ability to track the spread and dynamics of COVID-19 at the community level. Despite the growing body of research, quantitative synthesis of SARS-CoV-2 titers in wastewater generated from studies across space and time using diverse methods has not been performed. ObjectiveThe objective of this study is to examine the correlations between SARS-CoV-2 viral titers in wastewater across studies, stratified by key covariates in study methodologies. In addition, we examined the associations of proportions of positive detections (PPD) in wastewater samples and methodological covariates. MethodsWe systematically searched the Web of Science for studies published by February 16th, 2021, performed a reproducible screen, and employed mixed-effects models to estimate the levels of SARS-CoV-2 viral titers in wastewater samples and their correlations to case prevalence, sampling mode (grab or composite sampling), and the fraction of analysis (FOA, i.e., solids, solid-supernatant mixtures, or supernatants/filtrates) ResultsA hundred and one studies were found; twenty studies (1,877 observations) were retained following a reproducible screen. The mean of PPD across all studies was 0.67 (95%-CI, [0.56, 0.79]). The mean titer was 5,244.37 copies/mL (95%-CI, [0; 16,432.65]). The Pearson Correlation coefficients (PCC) between viral titers and case prevalences were 0.28 (95%-CI, [0.01; 0.51) for daily new cases or 0.29 (95%-CI, [-0.15; 0.73]) for cumulative cases. FOA accounted for 12.4% of the variability in PPD, followed by case prevalence (9.3% by daily new cases and 5.9% by cumulative cases) and sampling mode (0.6%). Among observations with positive detections, FOA accounted for 56.0% of the variability in titers, followed by sampling mode (6.9%) and case prevalence (0.9% by daily new cases and 0.8% by cumulative cases). While sampling mode and FOA both significantly correlated with SARS-CoV-2 titers, the magnitudes of increase in PPD associated with FOA were larger. Mixed-effects model treating studies as random effects and case prevalence as fixed effects accounted for over 90% of the variability in SARS-CoV-2 PPD and titers. InterpretationsPositive pooled means and confidence intervals in PCC between SARS-CoV-2 titers and case prevalence indicators provide quantitative evidence reinforcing the value of wastewater-based monitoring of COVID-19. Large heterogeneities among studies in proportions of positive detections, titers, and PCC suggest a strong demand in methods to generate data accounting for cross-study heterogeneities and more detailed metadata reporting. Large variance explained by FOA suggesting FOA as a direction that needs to be prioritized in method standardization. Mixed-effects models accounting for study level variations provide a new perspective to synthesize data from multiple studies.

13.
Applied Intelligence ; : 1-24, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1615233

ABSTRACT

Nonoverlapping sequential pattern mining, as a kind of repetitive sequential pattern mining with gap constraints, can find more valuable patterns. Traditional algorithms focused on finding all frequent patterns and found lots of redundant short patterns. However, it not only reduces the mining efficiency, but also increases the difficulty in obtaining the demand information. To reduce the frequent patterns and retain its expression ability, this paper focuses on the Nonoverlapping Maximal Sequential Pattern (NMSP) mining which refers to finding frequent patterns whose super-patterns are infrequent. In this paper, we propose an effective mining algorithm, Nettree for NMSP mining (NetNMSP), which has three key steps: calculating the support, generating the candidate patterns, and determining NMSPs. To efficiently calculate the support, NetNMSP employs the backtracking strategy to obtain a nonoverlapping occurrence from the leftmost leaf to its root with the leftmost parent node method in a Nettree. To reduce the candidate patterns, NetNMSP generates candidate patterns by the pattern join strategy. Furthermore, to determine NMSPs, NetNMSP adopts the screening method. Experiments on biological sequence datasets verify that not only does NetNMSP outperform the state-of-the-arts algorithms, but also NMSP mining has better compression performance than closed pattern mining. On sales datasets, we validate that our algorithm guarantees the best scalability on large scale datasets. Moreover, we mine NMSPs and frequent patterns in SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV. The results show that the three viruses are similar in the short patterns but different in the long patterns. More importantly, NMSP mining is easier to find the differences between the virus sequences.

14.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; 42(5):697-701, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1502919

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the characteristics and relationship between physical activity and self-efficacy of college students during the COVID-19 epidemic, so as to provide evidence for the orderly development of physical education and curriculum reform of college students after their return to school.

15.
European Journal of Inflammation (Sage Publications, Ltd.) ; : 1-11, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1231230

ABSTRACT

To explore the correlation between T lymphocytes and clinical severity in patients of COVID-19. A total of 183 COVID-19 patients were recruited in Shenzhen Third People's Hospital from January 11 to February 16, 2020. According to the clinical classification criteria, they were divided into severe group (46 cases) and non-severe (137cases). T lymphocyte counts, lymphocyte subpopulation, IL-6 levels, and clinical outcomes were compared between the two groups. Compared with the non-severe group, the lymphocyte count, T lymphocyte count, T lymphocyte percentage, CD4+ T lymphocyte count, CD4+ T lymphocyte percentage, CD8+ T lymphocyte count, and CD8+ T lymphocyte percentage were lower in the severe group (p < 0.05). Compared with the non-severe group, IL-6 were higher in the severe group (p < 0.05). Compared with admission, the T lymphocyte count, CD4+ T lymphocyte count, and CD8+ T lymphocyte count were significantly increased upon discharge in severe patients, non-severe patients and all patients. Multivariate Logsitic regression analysis showed CD4+ T lymphocyte count (OR −0.011;95% CI −0.041 to −0.001;p = 0.011), CD8+ T lymphocyte count (OR −0.14;95% CI −0.048 to −0.003;p = 0.013) were closely correlated with the clinical severity in patients of COVID-19. Multivariate Logsitic regression analysis also showed CD4+ T lymphocyte count (OR −0.012;95% CI −3.177 to 0.261;p = 0.021), CD8+ T lymphocyte count (OR −0.019;95% CI −5.852 to 0.115;p = 0.004) were independent predictors of disease progressing to the composite endpoint. Subgroup analysis for critically ill patients: The T lymphocyte count, CD4+ T lymphocyte count, and CD8+ T lymphocyte count remained low in the death patients. The T lymphocyte count, CD4+ T lymphocyte count, and CD8+ T lymphocyte count recovered soon in the discharged patients. In the event of COVID-19 infection, the T-lymphoid system is the primary activated immune system. The T lymphocytes, CD4+ T lymphocytes, CD8+ T lymphocytes continued to be low may be significantly related to the deterioration of the disease, and may indicate a poor prognosis. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of European Journal of Inflammation (Sage Publications, Ltd.) is the property of Sage Publications, Ltd. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

16.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-5279

ABSTRACT

A review. Novel coronavirus has seriously threatened people′s health and lives, however, there is no effective drug for treatment. As the main active ingredient of Rhubarb and Polygonum cuspidatum, emodin has various pharmacol. effects and can inhibit the replication and infection of many viruses,such as SARS-CoV,HIV,HBV and influenza virus. It has been widely used in clin. treatments. We reviewed the recent studies on the antiviral effects of emodin,and discussed the clin. possibility of emodin for treating the COVID-19.

18.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-350348

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been suggested as a receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) entry to cause coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, no ACE2 inhibitors have shown definite beneficiaries for COVID-19 patients, applying the presence of another receptor for SARS-CoV-2 entry. Here we show that ACE2 knockout dose not completely block virus entry, while TfR directly interacts with virus Spike protein to mediate virus entry and SARS-CoV-2 can infect mice with over-expressed humanized transferrin receptor (TfR) and without humanized ACE2. TfR-virus co-localization is found both on the membranes and in the cytoplasma, suggesting SARS-CoV-2 transporting by TfR, the iron-transporting receptor shuttling between cell membranes and cytoplasma. Interfering TfR-Spike interaction blocks virus entry to exert significant anti-viral effects. Anti-TfR antibody (EC50 ~16.6 nM) shows promising anti-viral effects in mouse model. Collectively, this report indicates that TfR is another receptor for SARS-CoV-2 entry and a promising anti-COVID-19 target.

20.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-1952

ABSTRACT

Background: Our study aims to determine the dynamic changes in viral load and intrapulmonary inflammation on imaging and to discern their relative relationship

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