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2.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 2022 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735231

ABSTRACT

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) can capture and kill viruses, such as influenza viruses, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), thus contributing to host defense. Contrary to our expectation, we show here that the histones released by NETosis enhance the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2, as found by using live SARS-CoV-2 and two pseudovirus systems as well as a mouse model. The histone H3 or H4 selectively binds to subunit 2 of the spike (S) protein, as shown by a biochemical binding assay, surface plasmon resonance and binding energy calculation as well as the construction of a mutant S protein by replacing four acidic amino acids. Sialic acid on the host cell surface is the key molecule to which histones bridge subunit 2 of the S protein. Moreover, histones enhance cell-cell fusion. Finally, treatment with an inhibitor of NETosis, histone H3 or H4, or sialic acid notably affected the levels of sgRNA copies and the number of apoptotic cells in a mouse model. These findings suggest that SARS-CoV-2 could hijack histones from neutrophil NETosis to promote its host cell attachment and entry process and may be important in exploring pathogenesis and possible strategies to develop new effective therapies for COVID-19.

3.
Carbohydr Polym ; 283: 119160, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654130

ABSTRACT

With the forthcoming of the post-COVID-19 and the ageing era, the novel biomaterials and bioelectronic devices are attracting more and more attention and favor. Cellulose as one of the most globe-abundant natural macromolecules has multiple merits of biocompatibility, processability, carbon neutral feature and mechanical designability. Due to its progressive advancement of multi-scale design from macro to micro followed by new cognitions, cellulose shows a promising application prospect in developing bio-functional materials. In this review, we briefly discuss the role of cellulose from the "top-down" perspective of macro-scale fibers, micro-scale nanofibers, and molecular-scale macromolecular chains for the design of advanced cellulose-based functional materials. The focus then turns to the construction and development of emerging cellulose-based flexible bioelectronic devices including biosensors, biomimetic electronic skins, and biological detection devices. Finally, the dilemma and challenge of cellulose-based bioelectronic materials and their application prospects in basic biology and medical care have been prospected.


Subject(s)
Biocompatible Materials , Biosensing Techniques , Cellulose , Wearable Electronic Devices , Nanofibers/chemistry
4.
EBioMedicine ; 76: 103841, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649699

ABSTRACT

Currently licensed COVID-19 vaccines are all designed for intramuscular (IM) immunization. However, vaccination today failed to prevent the virus infection through the upper respiratory tract, which is partially due to the absence of mucosal immunity activation. Despite the emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants, the next generation of COVID-19 vaccine is in demand and intranasal (IN) vaccination method has been demonstrated to be potent in inducing both mucosal and systemic immune responses. Presently, although not licensed, various IN vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are under intensive investigation, with 12 candidates reaching clinical trials at different phases. In this review, we give a detailed description about current status of IN COVID-19 vaccines, including virus-vectored vaccines, recombinant subunit vaccines and live attenuated vaccines. The ongoing clinical trials for IN vaccines are highlighted. Additionally, the underlying mechanisms of mucosal immunity and potential mucosal adjuvants and nasal delivery devices are also summarized.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Administration, Intranasal , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Immunity, Mucosal , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/immunology
5.
Frontiers in public health ; 9, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564459

ABSTRACT

As Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) vaccines became available in December 2020, increasingly more surveys were organized to examine the acceptance of vaccination, while most of them were conducted online. This study aimed to explore the difference between online and traditional on-site surveys in terms of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. From November to December 2020, an online survey (n = 2013) and an on-site survey (n = 4,316) were conducted simultaneously in China. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify influencing factors of acceptance, and propensity score matching (PSM) was adopted to balance the outcomes. As a result, 90.0% of the online respondents accepted COVID-19 vaccination, while it was only 82.1% in the on-site survey. After applying PSM, the acceptance rate of the on-site survey was declined to 78.6%. The age structure, residence location, education, and health status were observed as important factors in addressing vaccination acceptance, which needed to be specifically considered when designing online surveys.

6.
Mol Biomed ; 2(1): 1, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515457

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute respiratory disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2). COVID-19 can spread to the entire body and cause multiple organ failure. It is a daunting challenge to control the fast growing worldwide pandemic because effective prevention and treatment strategies are unavailable currently. Generally, the immune response of the human body triggered by viral infection is essential for the elimination of the virus. However, severe COVID-19 patients may manifest dysregulated immune responses, such as lymphopenia, lymphocyte exhaustion, exacerbated antibody response, cytokine release syndrome (CRS), etc. Understanding of these immunological characteristics may help identify better approaches for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of COVID-19 patients. As specific anti-viral agents are notoriously difficult to develop, strategies for modulating the immune responses by either developing novel vaccines or using immunotherapy hold great promise to improve the management of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

9.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(34): 720-724, 2021 Aug 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366007

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recently, developed vaccination vehicles were repurposed and deployed for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination in China. We described the vehicles and reported an evaluation of vaccination throughput of these vehicles for COVID-19 vaccination in China. METHODS: We obtained daily reports of COVID-19 vaccine doses administered in vehicles in Hubei Province between March 16 and 29 of 2021. We determined the rate of COVID-19 vaccines given and evaluated the applicability of vaccination vehicles for COVID-19 vaccination. RESULTS: Vehicles with 2 vaccination stations are suitable for several real-world scenarios. Vehicles administered an average of 72 COVID-19 vaccine doses per hour, with an upper limit of 145 doses per hour. CONCLUSION: Vaccination vehicles can save human and financial resources and provide high quality, effective, convenient, and rapid on-site vaccination services; they can increase the pace of COVID-19 vaccination.

10.
MedComm (2020) ; 2021 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222647

ABSTRACT

The emerging variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in pandemic call for the urgent development of universal corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines which could be effective for both wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and mutant strains. In the current study, we formulated protein subunit vaccines with AS03 adjuvant and recombinant proteins of S1 subunit of SARS-CoV-2 (S1-WT) and S1 variant (K417N, E484K, N501Y, and D614G) subunit (S1-Mut), and immunized transgenic mice that express human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2). The S1 protein-specific antibody production and the neutralization capability for SARS-CoV-2 and B.1.351 variant were measured after immunization in mice. The results revealed that the S1-Mut antigens were more effective in inhibiting the receptor-binding domain and ACE2 binding in B.1.351 variant than in wild-type SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, the development of a bivalent vaccine exhibited the ideal neutralization properties against wild-type and B.1.351 variant, as well as other variants. Our findings may provide a rationale for the development of a bivalent recombinant vaccine targeting the S1 protein that can induce the neutralizing antibodies against both SARS-CoV-2 variants and wild-type of the virus and may be of importance to explore the potential clinical use of bivalent recombinant vaccine in the future.

12.
Nature ; 586(7830): 572-577, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691301

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes a respiratory disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the spread of which has led to a pandemic. An effective preventive vaccine against this virus is urgently needed. As an essential step during infection, SARS-CoV-2 uses the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein to engage with the receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on host cells1,2. Here we show that a recombinant vaccine that comprises residues 319-545 of the RBD of the spike protein induces a potent functional antibody response in immunized mice, rabbits and non-human primates (Macaca mulatta) as early as 7 or 14 days after the injection of a single vaccine dose. The sera from the immunized animals blocked the binding of the RBD to ACE2, which is expressed on the cell surface, and neutralized infection with a SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus and live SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Notably, vaccination also provided protection in non-human primates to an in vivo challenge with SARS-CoV-2. We found increased levels of RBD-specific antibodies in the sera of patients with COVID-19. We show that several immune pathways and CD4 T lymphocytes are involved in the induction of the vaccine antibody response. Our findings highlight the importance of the RBD domain in the design of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and provide a rationale for the development of a protective vaccine through the induction of antibodies against the RBD domain.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Macaca mulatta/immunology , Macaca mulatta/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Models, Animal , Models, Molecular , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2 , Serum/immunology , Spleen/cytology , Spleen/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccination
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