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1.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 10(4): e606, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763240

ABSTRACT

A new variant named Omicron (B.1.1.529), first identified in South Africa, has become of considerable interest to the World Health Organization. This variant differs from the other known major variants, as it carries a large number of unusual mutations, particularly in the spinous process protein and receptor binding domains. Some specific mutation sites make it vaccine resistant, highly infectious, and highly pathogenic. The world fears that the Omicron variant could be even more harmful than the previous major variant, given that it has emerged amid fierce competition to trigger a new global pandemic peak as infections in South Africa rise. However, some epidemiological evidence has emerged that the Omicron variant may produce milder patient symptoms. We speculate if the virulence of the Omicron variant will diminish as transmissibility increases, thereby signaling the beginning of the end for the global COVID-19 pandemic. Based on this view, we make recommendations for COVID-19 mitigation in the present and future. However, it will take a few weeks to determine the true threat posed by the Omicron variant and we need to be fully prepared for future outbreaks, regardless of their severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Int J Soc Robot ; : 1-18, 2022 Jan 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661740

ABSTRACT

While telepresence robots have increasingly become accepted in diverse settings, the research on their acceptance in educational contexts has been underdeveloped. This study analyzed how the use intention of telepresence robots can be influenced by perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, subjective norm, and perceived risk for students, faculty, and staff in higher education. Survey data were collected from 60 participants with direct operator experience with a variety of telepresence robots deployed in a large research university in the Midwest region of the United States. Path analysis results indicated that perceived usefulness was the only significant direct predictor of use intention of telepresence robots. Both perceived ease of use and subjective norm had a significant positive effect on perceived usefulness. Subjective norm also had a significant positive indirect effect on use intention, mediated by perceived usefulness. Perceived risk had a negative effect on perceived ease of use. These findings indicated that the usefulness of robots was central to operators' decisions to use telepresence robots. Therefore, design choice for telepresence robots should prioritize usefulness. Secondly, the design of telepresence robots should minimize complexity for the end user and minimize cognitive demand. Having nominal difficulty of use would also facilitate multiple embodiments by combining telepresence robots with other technologies to support more rich social interactions.

3.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(20): 23459-23470, 2021 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498163

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since April 2021, the SARS-CoV-2 (B.1.167) Delta variant has been rampant worldwide. Recently, this variant has spread in Guangzhou, China. Our objective was to characterize the clinical features and risk factors of severe cases of the Delta variant in Guangzhou. METHODS: A total of 144 patients with the Delta variant were enrolled, and the data between the severe and non-severe groups were compared. Logistic regression methods and Cox multivariate regression analysis were used to investigate the risk factors of severe cases. RESULTS: The severity of the Delta variant was 11.1%. Each 1-year increase in age (OR, 1.089; 95% CI, 1.035-1.147; P = 0.001) and each 1-µmol/L increase in total bilirubin (OR, 1.198; 95% CI, 1.021-1.406; P = 0.039) were risk factors for severe cases. Moreover, the risk of progression to severe cases increased 13.444-fold and 3.922-fold when the age was greater than 58.5 years (HR, 13.444; 95% CI, 2.989-60.480; P = 0.001) or the total bilirubin level was greater than 7.23 µmol/L (HR, 3.922; 95% CI, 1.260-12.207; P = 0.018), respectively. CONCLUSION: Older age and elevated total bilirubin were independent risk factors for severe cases of the Delta variant in Guangzhou, especially if the age was greater than 58.5 years or the total bilirubin level was greater than 7.23 µmol/L.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cough/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index
4.
Front Neurol ; 12: 673703, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441124

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Thousands of designated COVID-19 hospitals have been set up in China to fight the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Anecdotal reports indicate a falling rate of acute stroke diagnoses in these hospitals during the COVID-19 period. We conducted an exploratory single-center analysis to estimate the change in acute stroke presentation at the designated COVID-19 hospitals. Methods: This retrospective observational study included all patients admitted to Yongchuan Hospital Affiliated to Chongqing Medical University with acute stroke between January 24 and March 10, 2020. Patient demographics, characteristics of the stroke, treatment details, and clinical outcomes were compared with those of patients admitted in the corresponding period in the year before (2019, "the pre-COVID-19 period"). Subgroup analysis was performed in the ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke groups. Results: A total of 110 patients presented with acute stroke symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic, compared with 173 patients in the pre-COVID-19 period. A higher proportion of stroke patients presented to the hospital via emergency medical services during the pandemic (48.2 vs. 31.8%, p = 0.006). There was a lower proportion of ischemic stroke patients (50.9 vs. 65.3%, p = 0.016) than in the preceding year. There were significantly fewer patients with 90-day modified Rankin Scale score ≥3 in the COVID-19 period compared with the pre-COVID-19 period (17.3 vs. 30.6%, p = 0.012). Among patients with ischemic stroke, the mean time from patient arrival to vessel puncture for emergency endovascular therapy in the COVID-19 period was shorter than that in the pre-COVID-19 period (109.18 ± 71.39 vs. 270.50 ± 161.51 min, p = 0.002). Among patients with hemorrhagic stroke, the rate of emergency surgical operation in the COVID-19 period was higher than that in the pre-COVID-19 period (48.1 vs. 30.0%, p = 0.047). The mean time from patient arrival to emergency surgical operation (15.31 ± 22.89 vs. 51.72 ± 40.47 min, p = 0.002) was shorter in the COVID-19 period than in the pre-COVID-19 period. Conclusions: Although fewer acute stroke patients sought medical care in this designated COVID-19 hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic, this type of hospital was more efficient for timely treatment of acute stroke. Recognizing how acute strokes presented in designated COVID-19 hospitals will contribute to appropriate adjustments in strategy for dealing with acute stroke during COVID-19 and future pandemics.

5.
ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci ; 4(5): 1639-1653, 2021 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1408221

ABSTRACT

Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), clinically established in antimalarial and autoimmune therapy, recently raised cardiac arrhythmogenic concerns when used alone or with azithromycin (HCQ+AZM) in Covid-19. We report complementary, experimental, studies of its electrophysiological effects. In patch clamped HEK293 cells expressing human cardiac ion channels, HCQ inhibited IKr and IK1 at a therapeutic concentrations (IC50s: 10 ± 0.6 and 34 ± 5.0 µM). INa and ICaL showed higher IC50s; Ito and IKs were unaffected. AZM slightly inhibited INa, ICaL, IKs, and IKr, sparing IK1 and Ito. (HCQ+AZM) inhibited IKr and IK1 (IC50s: 7.7 ± 0.8 and 30.4 ± 3.0 µM), sparing INa, ICaL, and Ito. Molecular induced-fit docking modeling confirmed potential HCQ-hERG but weak AZM-hERG binding. Effects of µM-HCQ were studied in isolated perfused guinea-pig hearts by multielectrode, optical RH237 voltage, and Rhod-2 mapping. These revealed reversibly reduced left atrial and ventricular action potential (AP) conduction velocities increasing their heterogeneities, increased AP durations (APDs), and increased durations and dispersions of intracellular [Ca2+] transients, respectively. Hearts also became bradycardic with increased electrocardiographic PR and QRS durations. The (HCQ+AZM) combination accentuated these effects. Contrastingly, (HCQ+AZM) and not HCQ alone disrupted AP propagation, inducing alternans and torsadogenic-like episodes on voltage mapping during forced pacing. O'Hara-Rudy modeling showed that the observed IKr and IK1 effects explained the APD alterations and the consequently prolonged Ca2+ transients. The latter might then downregulate INa, reducing AP conduction velocity through recently reported INa downregulation by cytosolic [Ca2+] in a novel scheme for drug action. The findings may thus prompt future investigations of HCQ's cardiac safety under particular, chronic and acute, clinical situations.

6.
Psychol Res Behav Manag ; 14: 1371-1378, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405368

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic may increase the development of psychiatric disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among medical staff. A brief validated screening tool is essential for the early diagnosis of PTSD. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the validation of a Chinese version of the Primary Care-PTSD-5 (C-PC-PTSD-5) and determine an appropriate cutoff score with optimal sensitivity and specificity for medical staff in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: An online cross-sectional survey was conducted on medical staff (n = 1104) from 17 medical institutions in Shanghai. Questionnaires comprising general information, medical-related traumatic event experiences, the PTSD Checklist (PCL-5), and C-PC-PTSD-5 were distributed to participants using the online Questionnaire Star electronic system. Internal consistency, convergent validity, and test-retest reliability were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to determine diagnostic accuracy and the optimal cutoff score of the C-PC-PTSD-5 for medical staff. RESULTS: We included 1062 valid questionnaires for the analysis. Data of 838 traumatic experiences were analyzed. Internal consistency of the C-PC-PTSD-5 was satisfied (Cronbach's α = 0.756). The total score of the C-PC-PTSD-5 showed good test-retest reliability (r = 0.746). We found a strong correlation between the C-PC-PTSD-5 score and PCL-5 total score (r = 0.669, p < 0.001), which indicated good convergent validity. The ROC analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.81 ± 0.016. A cutoff score of 2 provided optimal sensitivity and specificity for the C-PC-PTSD-5 (sensitivity = 0.632, specificity = 0.871, Youden index = 0.503, and overall efficiency = 0.768). CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that the C-PC-PTSD-5 can be employed as a brief and efficient screening instrument for medical staff exposed to the COVID-19 pandemic. A score of 2 was identified as the optimal threshold for probable clinical PTSD symptoms.

8.
Radiol Cardiothorac Imaging ; 2(1): e200025, 2020 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155963
9.
J Diabetes Res ; 2020: 5237840, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978842

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Previous studies of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have focused on the general population. However, diabetes (DM) as one of the most common comorbidities is rarely studied in detail. This study is aimed at describing clinical characteristics and determining risk factors of ICU admission for COVID-19 patients with DM. METHODS: Data were extracted from 288 adult patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital. Demographic characteristics, laboratory results, radiographic findings, complications, and treatments were collected and compared between DM and non-DM groups. Binary logistic regression was used to identify the risk factors associated with ICU admission for COVID-19 patients with DM or non-DM. RESULTS: COVID-19 patients with DM showed as older ages, higher levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), myoglobin, alanine transaminase (ALT), and aspartate transaminase (AST). They were also more prone to transfer to the intensive care unit (ICU) for treatment. Multiple regression analysis showed that the following were the independent risk factors for COVID-19 patients with DM that received ICU admission: each 1-year increase in age (odds ratio (OR), 1.07; 95% CI, 1.02-1.13; P = 0.007), respiratory rate over 24 times per minute (OR, 5.22; 95% CI, 2.26-16.58; P = 0.016), HbA1c greater than 7% (OR, 4.58; 95% CI, 1.82-10.55; P = 0.012), and AST higher than 40 U/L (OR, 2.96; 95% CI, 1.58-8.85; P = 0.022). In addition, each 1-year increase in age (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01-1.10; P = 0.006), diarrhea (OR, 4.62; 95% CI, 2.01-9.36; P = 0.022), respiratory rate over 24 times per minute (OR, 5.13; 95% CI, 1.18-16.82; P = 0.035), CRP greater than 10 mg/L (OR, 5.19; 95% CI, 1.37-13.25, P = 0.009), and TnI higher than 0.03 µg/L (OR, 6.48; 95% CI, 1.17-21.38; P = 0.036) were risk factors for ICU admission of COVID-19 patients with non-DM. CONCLUSIONS: The older age, respiratory rate over 24 times per minute, HbA1c greater than 7%, and AST higher than 40 U/L were risk factors of ICU admission for COVID-19 patients with diabetes. Investigating and monitoring these factors could assist in the risk stratification of COVID-19 patients with DM at an early stage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Hospitalization , Intensive Care Units , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Symptom Assessment
10.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 9(10): e1192, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-856023

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is a major challenge all over the world, without acknowledged treatment. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been recommended to treat critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in a few reviews, but the clinical study evidence on its efficacy in COVID-19 patients was lacking. METHODS: 325 patients with laboratory-confirmed critical COVID-19 were enrolled from 4 government-designated COVID-19 treatment centres in southern China from December 2019 to March 2020. The primary outcomes were 28- and 60-day mortality, and the secondary outcomes were the total length of in-hospital and the total duration of the disease. Subgroup analysis was carried out according to clinical classification of COVID-19, IVIG dosage and timing. RESULTS: In the enrolled 325 patients, 174 cases used IVIG and 151 cases did not. The 28-day mortality was improved with IVIG after adjusting confounding in overall cohort (P = 0.0014), and the in-hospital and the total duration of disease were longer in the IVIG group (P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that only in patients with critical type, IVIG could significantly reduce the 28-day mortality, decrease the inflammatory response and improve some organ functions (all P < 0.05); the application of IVIG in the early stage (admission ≤ 7 days) with a high dose (> 15 g per day) exhibited significant reduction in 60-day mortality in the critical-type patients. CONCLUSION: Early administration of IVIG with high dose improves the prognosis of critical-type patients with COVID-19. This study provides important information on clinical application of IVIG in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection, including patient selection and administration dosage and timing.

11.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(15): 15730-15740, 2020 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721664

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 has raged around the world since March, 2020. We aim to describe the clinical characteristics and risk factors of severe patients with COVID-19 in Guangzhou. RESULTS: The severity and mortality of COVID-19 was 10.4% and 0.3% respectively. And each 1-year increase in age (OR, 1.057; 95% CI, 1.018-1.098; P=0.004), Wuhan exposure history greater than 2 weeks (OR, 2.765; 95% CI, 1.040-7.355; P=0.042), diarrhea (OR, 24.349; 95% CI, 3.580-165.609; P=0.001), chronic kidney disease (OR, 6.966; 95% CI, 1.310-37.058; P = 0.023), myoglobin higher than 106 µg/L (OR, 8.910; 95% CI, 1.225-64.816; P=0.031), white blood cell higher than 10×109/L (OR, 5.776; 95% CI, 1.052-31.722; P=0.044), and C-reactive protein higher than 10 mg/L (OR, 5.362; 95% CI, 1.631-17.626; P=0.006) were risk factors for severe cases. CONCLUSION: Older age, Wuhan exposure history, diarrhea, chronic kidney disease, elevated myoglobin, elevated white blood cell and C-reactive protein were independent risk factors for severe patients with COVID-19 in Guangzhou. METHODS: We included 288 adult patients with COVID-19 and compared the data between severe and non-severe group. We used univariate and multivariate logistic regression methods to explore risk factors of severe cases.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Coronavirus Infections , Diarrhea , Leukocyte Count/methods , Myoglobin/analysis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Age Factors , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/etiology , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
12.
J Clin Biochem Nutr ; 67(2): 126-130, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696117

ABSTRACT

Severe patients of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may progress rapidly to critical stage. This study aimed to identify factors useful for predicting the progress. 33 severe COVID-19 patients at the intensive care unit were included in this study. During treatment, 13 patients deteriorated and required further treatment for supporting organ function. The remaining 20 patients alleviated and were transferred to the general wards. The multivariate COX regression analyses showed that hypoproteinemia was an independent risk factor associated with deterioration of severe patients (HR, 0.763; 95% CI, 0.596 to 0.978; p = 0.033). The restricted cubic spline indicated that when HR = 1, the corresponding value of albumin is 29.6 g/L. We used the cutoff of 29.6 g/L to divide these patients. Kaplan-Meier curves showed that the survival rate of the high-albumin group was higher than that of the low-albumin group. Therefore, hypoalbuminemia may be an independent risk factor to evaluate poor prognosis of severely patients with COVID-19, especially when albumin levels were below 29.6 g/L.

13.
Aging Dis ; 11(4): 763-769, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695804

ABSTRACT

Previous studies on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have focused on the general population. However, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a common comorbidity that has rarely been investigated in detail. This study aims to describe clinical characteristics and determine risk factors for intensive care unit (ICU) admission of COVID-19 patients with CVD. In this retrospective cohort study, we included 288 adult patients with COVID-19 in Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital from January 15, 2020 to March 10, 2020. Demographic characteristics, laboratory results, radiographic findings, complications, and treatments were recorded and compared between CVD and non-CVD groups. A binary logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors associated with ICU admission for infected patients with underlying CVD. COVID-19 patients in the CVD group were older and had higher levels of troponin I (TnI), C-reactive protein (CRP), and creatinine. They were also more prone to develop into severe or critically severe cases, receive ICU admission, and require respiratory support treatment. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the following were risk factors for ICU admission in COVID-19 patients with CVD: each 1-year increase in age (odds ratio (OR), 1.08; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.17; p = 0.018); respiratory rate over 24 times per min (OR, 25.52; 95% CI, 5.48-118.87; p < 0.0001); CRP higher than 10 mg/L (OR, 8.12; 95% CI, 1.63-40.49; p = 0.011); and TnI higher than 0.03 µg/L (OR, 9.14; 95% CI, 2.66-31.43; p < 0.0001). Older age, CRP greater than 10 mg/L, TnI higher than 0.03 µg/L, and respiratory rate over 24 times per minute were associated with increasing odds of ICU admission in COVID-19 patients with CVD. Investigating and monitoring these factors could assist in the risk stratification of COVID-19 patients with CVD at an early stage.

14.
Clin Rheumatol ; 39(9): 2803-2810, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-679748

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has become a global concern. A large number of reports have explained the clinical characteristics and treatment strategies of COVID-19, but the characteristics and treatment of COVID-19 patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are still unclear. Here, we report the clinical features and treatment of the first SLE patient with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. This was a 39-year-old woman, diagnosed with SLE 15 years ago, whose overall clinical characteristics (symptoms, laboratory tests, and chest CTs) were similar to those of the general COVID-19 patients. She continued to take the previous SLE drugs (doses of glucocorticoids, hydroxychloroquine, and immunosuppressive agents were not reduced) and was treated with strict antiviral and infection prevention treatment. After the first discharge, she got a recurrence of COVID-19 during her home isolation, and then returned to hospital and continued the previous therapy. Finally, this long-term immune suppressive patient's COVID-19 was successfully cured. The successful recovery of this case has significant reference value for the future treatment of COVID-19 patients with SLE. Key Points • COVID-19 patients with SLE is advocated to continue the medical treatment for SLE. • Hydroxychloroquine may have potential benefits for COVID-19 patients with SLE. • COVID-19 patients with SLE is prone to relapse, and multiple follow-ups are necessary.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , RNA, Viral , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Moxifloxacin/therapeutic use , Mycophenolic Acid/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Recurrence , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
15.
Transl Behav Med ; 10(4): 857-861, 2020 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-676637

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has been mitigated primarily using social and behavioral intervention strategies, and these strategies have social and economic impacts, as well as potential downstream health impacts that require further study. Digital and community-based interventions are being increasingly relied upon to address these health impacts and bridge the gap in health care access despite insufficient research of these interventions as a replacement for, not an adjunct to, in-person clinical care. As SARS-CoV-2 testing expands, research on encouraging uptake and appropriate interpretation of these test results is needed. All of these issues are disproportionately impacting underserved, vulnerable, and health disparities populations. This commentary describes the various initiatives of the National Institutes of Health to address these social, behavioral, economic, and health disparities impacts of the pandemic, the findings from which can improve our response to the current pandemic and prepare us better for future infectious disease outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Behavioral Research , Communicable Disease Control , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Public Health/trends , Social Sciences , Telemedicine , Behavior Control/methods , Behavioral Research/methods , Behavioral Research/trends , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/economics , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Health Status Disparities , Humans , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Pandemics/economics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Sciences/methods , Social Sciences/trends , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/trends , United States/epidemiology
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