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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320986

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected more than 10 million people worldwide with mortality exceeding 3 half a million patients. Risk factors associated with severe disease and mortality include advanced age, 4 hypertension, diabetes, and obesity.1 Clear mechanistic understanding of how these comorbidities 5 converge to enable severe infection is lacking. Notably each of these risk factors pathologically disrupts 6 the lipidome and this disruption may be a unifying feature of severe COVID-19. 1-7 Here we provide the first in depth interrogation of lipidomic changes, including structural-lipids as well as the eicosanoids and docosanoids lipid mediators (LMs), that mark COVID-19 disease severity. Our data reveal that progression from moderate to severe disease is marked by a loss of specific immune regulatory LMs and increased pro-inflammatory species. Given the important immune regulatory role of LMs, these data provide mechanistic insight into the immune balance in COVID-19 and potential targets for therapy with currently approved pharmaceuticals. 8

2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319258

ABSTRACT

Pre-existing comorbidities such as obesity or metabolic diseases can adversely affect the clinical outcome of COVID-19. Chronic metabolic disorders are globally on the rise and often a consequence of an unhealthy diet, referred to as a Western Diet. For the first time in the Syrian hamster model, we demonstrate the detrimental impact of a continuous high-fat high-sugar diet on COVID-19 outcome. We observed increased weight loss and lung pathology, such as exudate, vasculitis, hemorrhage, fibrin, and edema, delayed viral clearance and functional lung recovery, and prolonged viral shedding. This was accompanied by an increased trend of systemic IL-10 and IL-6, as well as a dysregulated serum lipid response dominated by polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing phosphatidylethanolamine, recapitulating cytokine and lipid responses associated with severe human COVID-19. Our data support the hamster model for testing restrictive or targeted diets and immunomodulatory therapies to mediate the adverse effects of metabolic disease on COVID-19.Funding Information: This research was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH).Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no competing financial interests.Ethics Approval Statement: Approval of animal experiments was obtained from the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of the Rocky Mountain Laboratories. Performance of experiments was done following the guidelines and basic principles in the United States Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Work with infectious SARS-CoV-2 strains under BSL3 conditions was approved by the Institutional Biosafety Committee (IBC). Inactivation and removal of samples from high containment was performed per IBC-approved standard operating procedures.

3.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572667

ABSTRACT

Pre-existing comorbidities such as obesity or metabolic diseases can adversely affect the clinical outcome of COVID-19. Chronic metabolic disorders are globally on the rise and often a consequence of an unhealthy diet, referred to as a Western Diet. For the first time in the Syrian hamster model, we demonstrate the detrimental impact of a continuous high-fat high-sugar diet on COVID-19 outcome. We observed increased weight loss and lung pathology, such as exudate, vasculitis, hemorrhage, fibrin, and edema, delayed viral clearance and functional lung recovery, and prolonged viral shedding. This was accompanied by an altered, but not significantly different, systemic IL-10 and IL-6 profile, as well as a dysregulated serum lipid response dominated by polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing phosphatidylethanolamine, partially recapitulating cytokine and lipid responses associated with severe human COVID-19. Our data support the hamster model for testing restrictive or targeted diets and immunomodulatory therapies to mediate the adverse effects of metabolic disease on COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Dietary Carbohydrates/adverse effects , Lipid Metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Cricetinae , Cytokines/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Edema , Fibrin , Hemorrhage , Humans , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6 , Lipidomics , Lipids/blood , Liver/pathology , Lung/pathology , Male , Mesocricetus , Obesity , SARS-CoV-2 , Sugars , Vasculitis/pathology , Virus Shedding
4.
Non-conventional in English | [Unspecified Source], Grey literature | ID: grc-750515

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected more than 10 million people worldwide with mortality exceeding half a million patients. Risk factors associated with severe disease and mortality include advanced age,hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Clear mechanistic understanding of how these comorbidities converge to enable severe infection is lacking. Notably each of these risk factors pathologically disrupts the lipidome and this disruption may be a unifying feature of severe COVID-19. Here we provide the first in depth interrogation of lipidomic changes, including structural-lipids as well as the eicosanoids and docosanoids lipid mediators (LMs), that mark COVID-19 disease severity. Our data reveal that progression from moderate to severe disease is marked by a loss of specific immune regulatory LMs and increased pro-inflammatory species. Given the important immune regulatory role of LMs, these data provide mechanistic insight into the immune balance in COVID-19 and potential targets for therapy with currently approved pharmaceuticals.

5.
Res Sq ; 2020 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431218

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected more than 10 million people worldwide with mortality exceeding half a million patients. Risk factors associated with severe disease and mortality include advanced age, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity.1 Clear mechanistic understanding of how these comorbidities converge to enable severe infection is lacking. Notably each of these risk factors pathologically disrupts the lipidome and this disruption may be a unifying feature of severe COVID-19.1-7 Here we provide the first in depth interrogation of lipidomic changes, including structural-lipids as well as the eicosanoids and docosanoids lipid mediators (LMs), that mark COVID-19 disease severity. Our data reveal that progression from moderate to severe disease is marked by a loss of specific immune regulatory LMs and increased pro-inflammatory species. Given the important immune regulatory role of LMs, these data provide mechanistic insight into the immune balance in COVID-19 and potential targets for therapy with currently approved pharmaceuticals.8.

6.
iScience ; 24(9): 103025, 2021 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370208

ABSTRACT

Resolution of infection results in development of trained innate immunity which is typically beneficial for defense against unrelated secondary infection. Epigenetic changes including modification of histones via binding of various polar metabolites underlie the establishment of trained innate immunity. Therefore, host metabolism and this response are intimately linked. However, little is known regarding the influence of lipids on the development and function of trained immunity. Utilizing two models of pulmonary bacterial infection combined with multi-omic approaches, we identified persistent, pathogen-specific changes to the lung lipidome that correlated with differences in the trained immune response against a third unrelated pathogen. Further, we establish the specific cellular populations in the lung that contribute to this altered lipidome. Together these results expand our understanding of the pulmonary trained innate immune response and the contributions of host lipids in informing that response.

7.
J Immunol ; 206(2): 329-334, 2021 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-961742

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected more than 20 million people worldwide, with mortality exceeding 800,000 patients. Risk factors associated with severe disease and mortality include advanced age, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Each of these risk factors pathologically disrupts the lipidome, including immunomodulatory eicosanoid and docosanoid lipid mediators (LMs). We hypothesized that dysregulation of LMs may be a defining feature of the severity of COVID-19. By examining LMs and polyunsaturated fatty acid precursor lipids in serum from hospitalized COVID-19 patients, we demonstrate that moderate and severe disease are separated by specific differences in abundance of immune-regulatory and proinflammatory LMs. This difference in LM balance corresponded with decreased LM products of ALOX12 and COX2 and an increase LMs products of ALOX5 and cytochrome p450. Given the important immune-regulatory role of LMs, these data provide mechanistic insight into an immuno-lipidomic imbalance in severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eicosanoids , Lipidomics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase/immunology , Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase/metabolism , Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase/immunology , Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase/metabolism , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Cyclooxygenase 2/immunology , Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism , Eicosanoids/blood , Eicosanoids/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
8.
Nature ; 585(7824): 273-276, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-592386

ABSTRACT

Effective therapies to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are urgently needed. While many investigational, approved, and repurposed drugs have been suggested as potential treatments, preclinical data from animal models can guide the search for effective treatments by ruling out those that lack efficacy in vivo. Remdesivir (GS-5734) is a nucleotide analogue prodrug with broad antiviral activity1,2 that is currently being investigated in COVID-19 clinical trials and recently received Emergency Use Authorization from the US Food and Drug Administration3,4. In animal models, remdesivir was effective against infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)2,5,6. In vitro, remdesivir inhibited replication of SARS-CoV-27,8. Here we investigate the efficacy of remdesivir in a rhesus macaque model of SARS-CoV-2 infection9. Unlike vehicle-treated animals, macaques treated with remdesivir did not show signs of respiratory disease; they also showed reduced pulmonary infiltrates on radiographs and reduced virus titres in bronchoalveolar lavages twelve hours after the first dose. Virus shedding from the upper respiratory tract was not reduced by remdesivir treatment. At necropsy, remdesivir-treated animals had lower lung viral loads and reduced lung damage. Thus, treatment with remdesivir initiated early during infection had a clinical benefit in rhesus macaques infected with SARS-CoV-2. Although the rhesus macaque model does not represent the severe disease observed in some patients with COVID-19, our data support the early initiation of remdesivir treatment in patients with COVID-19 to prevent progression to pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Macaca mulatta/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , DNA Mutational Analysis , Disease Progression , Drug Resistance, Viral , Female , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/physiopathology , Lung/virology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Secondary Prevention , Time Factors , Viral Load/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Virus Shedding/drug effects
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