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1.
Front Vet Sci ; 9: 867266, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997487

ABSTRACT

Deeply embedded in local social, cultural, and religious settings, traditional healing is part of dog bite and rabies management in many rabies endemic countries. Faith healing, which usually encompasses a more holistic approach to health including physical, mental and social dimensions, is rare in the context of rabies. In Gujarat, Western India, the Hindu goddess Hadkai Mata is worshiped by low-caste communities as the Mother of Rabies in the event of a dog bite to a person or their livestock. This belief might influence people's attitudes and behaviors toward rabies prevention but has never been investigated. Through 31 in-depth interviews with healers and staff of Hadkai Mata temples, this paper explores the system of knowledge around dog and human rabies that is built and shared in these places of worship and healing. Qualitative and quantitative data were analyzed looking for convergences and divergences with the recently launched National Action Plan for dog-mediated Rabies Elimination. Results suggest that while the etiology of human rabies as a social illness is usually explained as the goddess's wish to correct misbehaving people and restore positive interpersonal relations, there is some appreciation for the biological processes of infection that lead to rabies as a physical disease. Hadkai Mata is believed to cure rabies if her patients undergo the necessary process of moral growth. Although conventional post-exposure prophylaxis is not opposed per se, it is often delayed by patients who seek traditional treatment first. Some reluctance was expressed toward mass dog vaccination because it is seen as an interference in how the goddess controls dogs, by enraging them-hence infecting them with rabies-and sending them to bite wrongdoers. Addressing these cultural perceptions is likely to be critical in achieving effective control of dog rabies in this region. The study highlights the value of multidisciplinary approaches in the control and elimination of rabies, as well as other zoonoses. This includes the importance of understanding different culturally- and religiously- mediated ways in which humans relate to animals; and looking for points of convergence and mutual understanding, upon which context-tailored, linguistically-accurate, locally acceptable, feasible and effective strategies can be designed.

2.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 34, 2022 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1679967

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current Coronavirus disease pandemic reveals political and structural inequities of the world's poorest people who have little or no access to health care and yet the largest burdens of poor health. This is in parallel to a more persistent but silent global health crisis, antimicrobial resistance (AMR). We explore the fundamental challenges of health care in humans and animals in relation to AMR in Tanzania. METHODS: We conducted 57 individual interviews and focus groups with providers and patients in high, middle and lower tier health care facilities and communities across three regions of Tanzania between April 2019 and February 2020. We covered topics from health infrastructure and prescribing practices to health communication and patient experiences. RESULTS: Three interconnected themes emerged about systemic issues impacting health. First, there are challenges around infrastructure and availability of vital resources such as healthcare staff and supplies. Second, health outcomes are predicated on patient and provider access to services as well as social determinants of health. Third, health communication is critical in defining trusted sources of information, and narratives of blame emerge around health outcomes with the onus of responsibility for action falling on individuals. CONCLUSION: Entanglements between infrastructure, access and communication exist while constraints in the health system lead to poor health outcomes even in 'normal' circumstances. These are likely to be relevant across the globe and highly topical for addressing pressing global health challenges. Redressing structural health inequities can better equip countries and their citizens to not only face pandemics but also day-to-day health challenges.


Subject(s)
Health Services Accessibility/standards , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/standards , Social Determinants of Health/standards , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Global Health/standards , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility/economics , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Social Determinants of Health/economics , Social Determinants of Health/statistics & numerical data , Tanzania/epidemiology
3.
Frontiers in medicine ; 8, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1563885

ABSTRACT

Music is a powerful approach to engage communities and disseminate information. Specifically, health campaigns employing music have been used to promote behaviors that can prevent emerging infectious diseases (EIDs). For example, hip hop artists supported campaigns to prevent acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the 70s in the United States, while Brazilian funk promoted vaccination to mitigate the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Similarly, we broadcast musical messages in local languages to increase community awareness and support prevention measures in Guinea and Liberia in response to the recent Ebola outbreak in 2021. Given the potential of music to promote both individual and population-level behavioral changes to prevent transmission, there is a need to consolidate information on music-based health interventions, and on how we can measure their effectiveness. In this perspective, we provide examples of relevant initiatives, discussing challenges and solutions associated with implementing interventions based on our experience with the 2021 Ebola outbreak. We recommend four steps for a successful music-based health intervention including (1) establishing a task force, (2) compose a “catchy” song including critical preventive measures, (3) deliver the song to the target audience, and (4) evaluate the campaign effectiveness. We argue that close interactions between scientists and musicians can produce rapid musical content for disease prevention. We also identify and discuss several methodological frameworks for testing the effectiveness of such interventions. We conclude that support from public health authorities, government media departments, and international agencies, is necessary to deliver wide outreach and long-term sustainability of musical messaging toward effective EID prevention.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-291273

ABSTRACT

Background: The Coronavirus disease pandemic reveals political and structural inequities of the world’s poorest people who have little or no access to health care and with the largest burdens of poor health. This is in parallel to a more persistent but global health crisis, antimicrobial resistance (AMR). We explore the fundamental challenges of health care in humans and animals in relation to AMR in Tanzania. Methods: We conducted 57 individual interviews and focus groups with providers and patients in high, middle and lower tier health care facilities and communities across three regions of Tanzania between April 2019 and February 2020. We covered topics from health infrastructure and prescribing practices to health communication and patient experiences. Findings: Three interconnected themes emerged about systemic issues impacting health. First, there are challenges around infrastructure and availability of vital resources such as healthcare staff and supplies. Second, health outcomes are predicated on patient and provider access to services as well as social determinants of health. Third, health communication is critical in defining trusted sources of information, and narratives of blame emerge around health outcomes with the onus of responsibility for action falling on individuals. Interpretation: Entanglements between infrastructure, access and communication exist while constraints in the health system lead to poor health outcomes even in ‘normal’ circumstances. These are likely to be relevant across the globe and highly topical for addressing pressing global health challenges. Redressing structural health inequities can better equip countries and their citizens to not only face pandemics but also day-to-day health challenges. Funding Statement: This research was funded by the Antimicrobial Resistance Cross-Council Initiative through a grant from the Medical Research Council, a Council of UK Research and Innovation and the National Institute for Health Research (MRC/AMR/ MR/S004815/1). Hilton’s time was also funded by a core grant for the Medical Research Council/Chief Scientist Office (MRC/CSO) Social and Public Health Sciences Unit (MC_UU_12017/14;SPHSU14;MC_UU_12017/15;SPHSU15). This publication was supported by the University of Edinburgh and the University of Glasgow Jointly Funded PhD studentships (Loosli).Declaration of Interests: There are no conflicts of interests between the authors and/or institutions.Ethics Approval Statement: The study received approval from the Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College Ethics Review committee with certificate n. 2408 and the Catholic University Health and Allied Sciences committee with certificate n. CREC/318/2018;National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR), Tanzania, with Reference Number NIMR/HQ/R.8a/Vol. IX/3017;Tanzanian Commission for Science and Technology (Davis, permit n. 2020-335-NA-2019-205;Lembo, permit n. 2020-333-NA-2019-205;Laurie, permit n. 2020-332-NA-2019-205;Mutua, permit n. 2020-334-NA-2019-205;Nthambi, permit n. 2020-336-NA-2019-205;Matthews, permit n. 2019-482-NA-2019-205;and Hilton, permit n.2019-476-NA-2019-205);and College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences ethics committee at the University of Glasgow (project application number 200180046). Permission for research in communities was obtained from relevant local and district authorities. All participants were explained study objectives and written and/or verbal informed consent was obtained. Verbal consent was utilised instead of written consent with participants who were unable to write. Informed consent forms and participant information sheets were approved by all ethics panels.

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