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Biomolecules ; 11(11)2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487417


The analysis of viral nucleic acids (NA), DNA or RNA, is a crucial issue in the diagnosis of infections and the treatment and prevention of related human diseases. Conventional nucleic acid tests (NATs) require multistep approaches starting from the purification of the pathogen genetic material in biological samples to the end of its detection, basically performed by the consolidated polymerase chain reaction (PCR), by the use of specialized instruments and dedicated laboratories. However, since the current NATs are too constraining and time and cost consuming, the research is evolving towards more integrated, decentralized, user-friendly, and low-cost methods. These will allow the implementation of massive diagnoses addressing the growing demand of fast and accurate viral analysis facing such global alerts as the pandemic of coronavirus disease of the recent period. Silicon-based technology and microfluidics, in this sense, brought an important step up, leading to the introduction of the genetic point-of-care (PoC) systems. This review goes through the evolution of the analytical methods for the viral NA diagnosis of infection diseases, highlighting both advantages and drawbacks of the innovative emerging technologies versus the conventional approaches.

Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices , Point-of-Care Systems , Animals , DNA, Viral , Genome, Viral , Humans , Oxidation-Reduction , Pandemics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 350, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186555


BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 infection has emerged as a rapidly spreading infection. Today it is relatively easy to isolate Covid-19 symptomatic cases, while remains problematic to control the disease spread by infected but symptom-free individuals. The control of this possible path of contagion requires drastic measures of social distancing, which imply the suspension of most activities and generate economic and social issues. This study is aimed at estimating the percentage of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in a geographic area with relatively low incidence of Covid-19. METHODS: Blood serum samples from 388 healthy volunteers were analyzed for the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG by using an ELISA assay based on recombinant viral nucleocapsid protein. RESULTS: We found that 7 out of 388 healthy volunteers, who declared no symptoms of Covid-19, like fever, cough, fatigue etc., in the preceding 5 months, have bona fide serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, that is 1.8% of the asymptomatic population (95% confidence interval: 0.69-2.91%). CONCLUSIONS: The estimated range of asymptomatic individuals with anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG should be between 26,565 and 112, 350. In the same geographic area, there are 4665 symptomatic diagnosed cases.

Antibodies, Viral/blood , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Young Adult