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1.
Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2021 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815417

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It remains unknown whether coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with bipolar disorders (BDs) are at an increased risk of mortality. We aimed to establish whether health outcomes and care differed between patients infected with COVID-19 with BD and patients without a diagnosis of severe mental illness. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study of all patients with identified COVID-19 and respiratory symptoms who were hospitalized in France between February and June 2020. The outcomes were in-hospital mortality and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. We used propensity score matching to control for confounding factors. RESULTS: In total, 50 407 patients were included, of whom 480 were patients with BD. Patients with BD were 2 years older, more frequently women and had more comorbidities than controls without a diagnosis of severe mental illness. Patients with BD had an increased in-hospital mortality rate (26.6% v. 21.9%; p = 0.034) and similar ICU admission rate (27.9% v. 28.4%, p = 0.799), as confirmed by propensity analysis [odds ratio, 95% confidence interval (OR, 95% CI) for mortality: 1.30 (1.16-1.45), p < 0.0001]. Significant interactions between BD and age and between BD and social deprivation were found, highlighting that the most important inequalities in mortality were observed in the youngest [OR, 95% CI 2.28 (1.18-4.41), p = 0.0015] and most deprived patients with BD [OR, 95% CI 1.60 (1.33-1.92), p < 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients with BD were at an increased risk of mortality, which was exacerbated in the youngest and most deprived patients with BD. Patients with BD should thus be targeted as a high-risk population for severe forms of COVID-19, requiring enhanced preventive and disease management strategies.

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331574

ABSTRACT

Background: Lung ultrasound (LUS) is a validated tool for the management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related pneumonia. An awake prone positioning (PP) improves oxygenation and outcomes in COVID-19 non-intubated patients, but its tolerance remains an issue. A chair positioning (CP) may have beneficial effects on oxygenation and lung aeration. Thus, CP could be an easier alternative to PP. This study assessed the effects of a CP session on oxygenation (using SpO 2 FiO 2 ratio) and lung aeration (using lung reaeration score) changes in non-intubated COVID-19 patients. Methods: An observational multicenter study was conducted in three university hospital intensive care units (ICUs). We retrospectively analyzed prospectively collected data from LUS exams performed before and after a CP session in non-intubated COVID-19 patients. Patients were divided into groups of responders or non-responders in terms of oxygenation and lung aeration. Results: Of the 33 patients included in the study, 14 (44%) were oxygenation non-responders and 18 (56%) were oxygenation responders, and 13 (40.6%) and 19 (59.4%) patients were classified as lung aeration non-responders and responders, respectively. Changes in oxygenation and lung aeration before and after a CP session were not correlated (Pearson’s r = -0.19, p = 0.3, 95% CI: -0.5–0.17). The reaeration scores did not differ between oxygenation responders and non-responders (1 [-0.75–3.75] vs. 4, [-1–6], p = 0.41). The LUS score was significantly correlated with SpO 2 FiO 2 ratio before a CP session (Pearson’s r = 0.37, p = 0.04, 95% CI: 0.03–0.64) but not after (Pearson’s r = 0.17, p = 0.35, 95% CI: -0.19–0.50). Conclusion: A CP session was associated with improved oxygenation and lung aeration in more than half of the non-intubated COVID-19 patients. However, oxygenation and lung aeration changes were not associated, suggesting that a CP session induces a ventilation:perfusion matching alteration.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310583

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) represent a vulnerable population who have been understudied in COVID-19 research. We aimed to establish whether health outcomes and care differed between patients with SCZ and patients without a diagnosis of severe mental illness.Methods: We conducted a population-based cohort study of all patients with identified COVID-19 and respiratory symptoms who were hospitalized in France between February and June 2020. Cases were patients who had a diagnosis of SCZ. Controls were patients who did not have a diagnosis of severe mental illness. The outcomes were in-hospital mortality and intensive care unit (ICU) admission.Findings: A total of 50,750 patients were included, of whom 823 were SCZ patients (1.6%). The SCZ patients had an increased in-hospital mortality (25.6% vs. 21.7%;adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.30 [95% CI 1.08-1.56], p=0.0093) and a decreased ICU admission rate (23.7% vs. 28.4%;aOR 0.75 [95% CI 0.62-0.91], p=0.0062) compared to controls. Significant interactions between SCZ and age for mortality and ICU admission were observed (p=0.0006 and p<0.0001). SCZ patients between 65 and 80 years had a significantly higher risk of death than controls of the same age (+7.89%). SCZ patients younger than 55 years had more ICU admissions (+13.93%) and SCZ patients between 65 and 80 years and older than 80 years had less ICU admissions than controls of the same age (-15.44% and-5.93%, respectively).Interpretation: Our findings report the existence of disparities in health and health care between SCZ patients and patients without a diagnosis of severe mental illness. These disparities differed according to the age and clinical profile of SCZ patients, suggesting the importance of personalized COVID-19 clinical management and health care strategies before, during and after hospitalization for reducing health disparities in this vulnerable population.Funding Statement: This work was funded by Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux Marseille (APHM) – Aix-Marseille University (AMU) and the PHRC National, Direction générale de l’offre de soins (DGOS), France.Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: The authors state that data from the PMSI database are anonymized and can be reused for research purposes.

5.
J Clin Med ; 10(23)2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542625

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe clinical characteristics and management of intensive care units (ICU) patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and to determine 90-day mortality after ICU admission and associated risk factors. METHODS: This observational retrospective study was conducted in six intensive care units (ICUs) in three university hospitals in Marseille, France. Between 10 March and 10 May 2020, all adult patients admitted in ICU with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 and respiratory failure were eligible for inclusion. The statistical analysis was focused on the mechanically ventilated patients. The primary outcome was the 90-day mortality after ICU admission. RESULTS: Included in the study were 172 patients with COVID-19 related respiratory failure, 117 of whom (67%) received invasive mechanical ventilation. 90-day mortality of the invasively ventilated patients was 27.4%. Median duration of ventilation and median length of stay in ICU for these patients were 20 (9-33) days and 29 (17-46) days. Mortality increased with the severity of ARDS at ICU admission. After multivariable analysis was carried out, risk factors associated with 90-day mortality were age, elevated Charlson comorbidity index, chronic statins intake and occurrence of an arterial thrombosis. CONCLUSION: In this cohort, age and number of comorbidities were the main predictors of mortality in invasively ventilated patients. The only modifiable factor associated with mortality in multivariate analysis was arterial thrombosis.

6.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 87(10): 1064-1066, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485660

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans
7.
IDCases ; 21: e00836, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385651
8.
Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2021 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370713

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It remains unknown whether coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with bipolar disorders (BDs) are at an increased risk of mortality. We aimed to establish whether health outcomes and care differed between patients infected with COVID-19 with BD and patients without a diagnosis of severe mental illness. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study of all patients with identified COVID-19 and respiratory symptoms who were hospitalized in France between February and June 2020. The outcomes were in-hospital mortality and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. We used propensity score matching to control for confounding factors. RESULTS: In total, 50 407 patients were included, of whom 480 were patients with BD. Patients with BD were 2 years older, more frequently women and had more comorbidities than controls without a diagnosis of severe mental illness. Patients with BD had an increased in-hospital mortality rate (26.6% v. 21.9%; p = 0.034) and similar ICU admission rate (27.9% v. 28.4%, p = 0.799), as confirmed by propensity analysis [odds ratio, 95% confidence interval (OR, 95% CI) for mortality: 1.30 (1.16-1.45), p < 0.0001]. Significant interactions between BD and age and between BD and social deprivation were found, highlighting that the most important inequalities in mortality were observed in the youngest [OR, 95% CI 2.28 (1.18-4.41), p = 0.0015] and most deprived patients with BD [OR, 95% CI 1.60 (1.33-1.92), p < 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients with BD were at an increased risk of mortality, which was exacerbated in the youngest and most deprived patients with BD. Patients with BD should thus be targeted as a high-risk population for severe forms of COVID-19, requiring enhanced preventive and disease management strategies.

9.
Adv Ther ; 38(10): 5165-5177, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1368532

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Concomitant experimental/compassionate drug administration has been all-pervasive in the treatment of COVID-19 patients. The objective of this study was to study the relationship between patient severity, the number of experimental/compassionate medications received (main outcome measure), and patient outcomes [survival to hospital discharge and length of hospital stay (LOS)]. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of data collected in real time during the first pandemic wave in a tertiary care hospital. Data included patient demographics, comorbidities, admission vital signs, laboratory values, most extreme respiratory intervention during hospitalization, and data regarding treatment with compassionate/experimental drugs during their stay. RESULTS: Overall, 292 PCR-confirmed patients with symptoms of COVID-19 were studied (March/April, 2020). Increasing respiratory support correlated with both LOS and mortality. Patients were more likely to receive more than 1 experimental/compassionate drugs as respiratory support escalated, ranging from 3% (n = 4/136) among patients on room air to 77.3% (n = 17/22) of mechanically ventilated/ECMO patients (P < 0.001, linear by linear association). The mean number of experimental/compassionate drugs received also increased with escalating respiratory support (P < 0.001, one-way ANOVA). After adjustment for severity of patient condition, administration of more experimental/compassionate drugs was unrelated to survival (P = 0.24), but was related to increased LOS (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Patients that were hospitalized in worse condition were more likely to receive more experimental/compassionate drugs. Treatment was unrelated to survival but may have been related to LOS. This finding raises questions regarding the results of studies on medication effects that adjusted for multiple drug administration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Front Immunol ; 12: 698121, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362325

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological studies and clinical observations show evidence of sexual dimorphism in infectious diseases. Women are at less risk than men when it comes to developing most infectious diseases. However, understanding these observations requires a gender approach that takes into account an analysis of both biological and social factors. The host's response to infection differs in males and females because sex differences have an impact on hormonal and chromosomal control of immunity. Estradiol appears to confer protective immunity, while progesterone and testosterone suppress anti-infectious responses. In addition, genetic factors, including those associated with sex chromosomes, also affect susceptibility to infections. Finally, differences in occupational activities, lifestyle, and comorbidities play major roles in exposure to pathogens and management of diseases. Hence, considering sexual dimorphism as a critical variable for infectious diseases should be one of the steps taken toward developing personalized therapeutic approaches.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Sex Characteristics , Female , Humans , Male
11.
Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med ; 40(4): 100931, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1306763

ABSTRACT

AIM: Describing acute respiratory distress syndrome patterns, therapeutics management, and outcomes of ICU COVID-19 patients and indentifying risk factors of 28-day mortality. METHODS: Prospective multicentre, cohort study conducted in 29 French ICUs. Baseline characteristics, comorbidities, adjunctive therapies, ventilatory support at ICU admission and survival data were collected. RESULTS: From March to July 2020, 966 patients were enrolled with a median age of 66 (interquartile range 58-73) years and a median SAPS II of 37 (29-48). During the first 24 h of ICU admission, COVID-19 patients received one of the following respiratory supports: mechanical ventilation for 559 (58%), standard oxygen therapy for 228 (24%) and high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) for 179 (19%) patients. Overall, 721 (75%) patients were mechanically ventilated during their ICU stay. Prone positioning and neuromuscular blocking agents were used in 494 (51%) and 460 (48%) patients, respectively. Bacterial co-infections and ventilator-associated pneumonia were diagnosed in 79 (3%) and 411 (43%) patients, respectively. The overall 28-day mortality was 18%. Age, pre-existing comorbidities, severity of respiratory failure and the absence of antiviral therapy on admission were identified as independent predictors of 28-day outcome. CONCLUSION: Severity of hypoxaemia on admission, older age (> 70 years), cardiovascular and renal comorbidities were associated with worse outcome in COVID-19 patients. Antiviral treatment on admission was identified as a protective factor for 28-day mortality. Ascertaining the outcomes of critically ill COVID-19 patients is crucial to optimise hospital and ICU resources and provide the appropriate intensity level of care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Cohort Studies , Critical Care , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial
12.
J Crit Care ; 65: 200-204, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284186

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare the effects of two therapeutic bundles of management in SARS-CoV2 ICU patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our retrospective, observational study was performed in a university ICU from March to June 2020 (first wave) and from September 2020 to January 2021 (second wave). In first wave, patients received bundle 1 including early invasive ventilation, hydroxychloroquine, cefotaxime and azithromycin. In second wave, bundle 2 included non-invasive oxygenation support and dexamethasone. The main outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included ICU and hospital length of stay, ICU supportive therapies, viral clearance and antimicrobial resistance emergence. RESULTS: 129 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia were admitted to our ICU. Thirty-five were treated according to bundle 1 and 76 to bundle 2. In-hospital mortality was similar in the two groups (23%, p = 1). The hospital (p = 0.003) and ICU (p = 0.01) length of stay and ventilator-free days at 28 days (p = 0.03) were significantly reduced in bundle 2. Increasing age, vasopressor use and PaO2/FiO2 ratio < 125 were associated with in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSION: Within the limitations of our study, changes in therapeutic bundles for SARS-Cov-2 ICU patients might have no effect on in-hospital mortality but were associated with less exposure to mechanical ventilation and reduced hospital length of stay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Intensive Care Units , RNA, Viral , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies
13.
Microb Pathog ; 158: 105067, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281502

ABSTRACT

S. Ray and A. Reddy recently anticipated the implication of circadian rhythm in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is the causative agent of the coronavirus disease (Covid-19). In addition to its key role in the regulation of biological functions, the circadian rhythm has been suggested as a regulator of viral infections. Specifically, the time of day of infection was found critical for illness progression, as has been reported for influenza, respiratory syncytial and parainfluenza type 3 viruses. We analyzed circadian rhythm implication in SARS-CoV-2 virus infection of isolated human monocytes, key actor cells in Covid-19 disease, from healthy subjects. The circadian gene expression of BMAL1 and CLOCK genes was investigated with q-RTPCR. Monocytes were infected with SARS-CoV-2 virus strain and viral infection was investigated by One-Step qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence. Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1ß and IL-10 levels were also measured in supernatants of infected monocytes. Using Cosinor analysis, we showed that BMAL1 and CLOCK transcripts exhibited circadian rhythm in monocytes with an acrophase and a bathyphase at Circadian Time (CT)6 and CT17. After 48 h, the amount of SARS-CoV-2 virus increased in the monocyte infected at CT6 compared to CT17. The high virus amount at CT6 was associated with significant increased release in IL-6, IL-1ß and IL-10 compared to CT17. Our results suggest that time day of SARS-CoV-2 infection affects viral infection and host immune response. They support consideration of circadian rhythm in SARS-CoV-2 disease progression and we propose circadian rhythm as a novel target for managing viral progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Circadian Rhythm , Gene Expression , Humans , Interleukin-6
14.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 87, 2021 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247600

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dexamethasone decreases mortality in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and has become the standard of care during the second wave of pandemic. Dexamethasone is an immunosuppressive treatment potentially increasing the risk of secondary hospital acquired infections in critically ill patients. We conducted an observational retrospective study in three French intensive care units (ICUs) comparing the first and second waves of pandemic to investigate the role of dexamethasone in the occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and blood stream infections (BSI). Patients admitted from March to November 2020 with a documented COVID-19 and requiring mechanical ventilation (MV) for ≥ 48 h were included. The main study outcomes were the incidence of VAP and BSI according to the use of dexamethasone. Secondary outcomes were the ventilator-free days (VFD) at day-28 and day-60, ICU and hospital length of stay and mortality. RESULTS: Among the 151 patients included, 84 received dexamethasone, all but one during the second wave. VAP occurred in 63% of patients treated with dexamethasone (DEXA+) and 57% in those not receiving dexamethasone (DEXA-) (p = 0.43). The cumulative incidence of VAP, considering death, duration of MV and late immunosuppression as competing factors was not different between groups (p = 0.59). A multivariate analysis did not identify dexamethasone as an independent risk factor for VAP occurrence. The occurrence of BSI was not different between groups (29 vs. 30%; p = 0.86). DEXA+ patients had more VFD at day-28 (9 (0-21) vs. 0 (0-11) days; p = 0.009) and a reduced ICU length of stay (20 (11-44) vs. 32 (17-46) days; p = 0.01). Mortality did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of COVID-19 patients requiring invasive MV, dexamethasone was not associated with an increased incidence of VAP or BSI. Dexamethasone might not explain the high rates of VAP and BSI observed in critically ill COVID-19 patients.

16.
Adv Ther ; 38(5): 2599-2612, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1182322

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreaks have led to massive admissions to intensive care units (ICUs). An ultrasound examination of the thorax is widely performed on admission in these patients. The primary objective of our study was to assess the performance of the lung ultrasound score (LUS) on ICU admission to predict the 28-day mortality rate in patients with SARS-CoV-2. The secondary objective was to asses the performance of thoracic ultrasound and biological markers of cardiac injury to predict mortality. METHODS: This multicentre, retrospective, observational study was conducted in six ICUs of four university hospitals in France from 15 March to 3 May 2020. Patients admitted to ICUs because of SARS-CoV-2-related acute respiratory failure and those who received an LUS examination at admission were included. The area under the receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve was determined for the LUS score to predict the 28-day mortality rate. The same analysis was performed for the Simplified Acute Physiology Score, left ventricular ejection fraction, cardiac output, brain natriuretic peptide and ultra-sensitive troponin levels at admission. RESULTS: In 57 patients, the 28-day mortality rate was 21%. The area under the ROC curve of the LUS score value on ICU admission was 0.68 [95% CI 0.54-0.82; p = 0.05]. In non-intubated patients on ICU admission (n = 40), the area under the ROC curves was 0.84 [95% CI 0.70-0.97; p = 0.005]. The best cut-off of 22 corresponded to 85% specificity and 83% sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: LUS scores on ICU admission for SARS-CoV-2 did not efficiently predict the 28-day mortality rate. Performance was better for non-intubated patients at admission. Performance of biological cardiac markers may be equivalent to the LUS score.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Critical Illness , France , Humans , Intensive Care Units , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
17.
J Infect Dis ; 222(12): 1985-1996, 2020 11 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059699

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An unbiased approach to SARS-CoV-2-induced immune dysregulation has not been undertaken so far. We aimed to identify previously unreported immune markers able to discriminate COVID-19 patients from healthy controls and to predict mild and severe disease. METHODS: An observational, prospective, multicentric study was conducted in patients with confirmed mild/moderate (n = 7) and severe (n = 19) COVID-19. Immunophenotyping of whole-blood leukocytes was performed in patients upon hospital ward or intensive care unit admission and in healthy controls (n = 25). Clinically relevant associations were identified through unsupervised analysis. RESULTS: Granulocytic (neutrophil, eosinophil, and basophil) markers were enriched during COVID-19 and discriminated between patients with mild and severe disease. Increased counts of CD15+CD16+ neutrophils, decreased granulocytic expression of integrin CD11b, and Th2-related CRTH2 downregulation in eosinophils and basophils established a COVID-19 signature. Severity was associated with emergence of PD-L1 checkpoint expression in basophils and eosinophils. This granulocytic signature was accompanied by monocyte and lymphocyte immunoparalysis. Correlation with validated clinical scores supported pathophysiological relevance. CONCLUSIONS: Phenotypic markers of circulating granulocytes are strong discriminators between infected and uninfected individuals as well as between severity stages. COVID-19 alters the frequency and functional phenotypes of granulocyte subsets with emergence of CRTH2 as a disease biomarker.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Granulocytes/immunology , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism , Receptors, Prostaglandin/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/metabolism , CD11b Antigen/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , France , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocytes/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/immunology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
18.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 16(12): 1159-1184, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1032979

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 presents benign forms in young patients who frequently present with anosmia. Infants are rarely infected, while severe forms occur in patients over 65 years of age with comorbidities, including hypertension and diabetes. Lymphopenia, eosinopenia, thrombopenia, increased lactate dehydrogenase, troponin, C-reactive protein, D-dimers and low zinc levels are associated with severity.Areas covered: The authors review the literature and provide an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding the natural history of and therapeutic options for COVID-19. Expert opinion: Diagnosis should rely on PCR and not on clinical presumption. Because of discrepancies between clinical symptoms, oxygen saturation or radiological signs on CT scans, pulse oximetry, and radiological investigation should be systematic. The disease evolves in successive phases: an acute virological phase, and, in some patients, a cytokine storm phase; an uncontrolled coagulopathy; and an acute respiratory distress syndrome. Therapeutic options include antivirals, oxygen therapy, immunomodulators, anticoagulants and prolonged mechanical treatment. Early diagnosis, care, and implementation of an antiviral treatment; the use of immunomodulators at a later stage; and the quality of intensive care are critical regarding mortality rates. The higher mortality observed in Western countries remains unexplained. Pulmonary fibrosis may occur in some patients. Its future is unpredictable.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
19.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241827, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-902058

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological differences between men and women have been reported with regards to sepsis, influenza and severe coronavirus infections including SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. AIM: To systematically review the literature relating to men versus women on SARS-CoV-2 in order to seek differences in disease characteristics (e.g. infectivity, severity) and outcomes (e.g. mortality). METHODS: We searched 3 electronic databases up or observational studies reporting differences between men and women in the SARS-CoV-2 disease characteristics stated. We identified and included 47 studies, reporting data for 21,454 patients mainly from China. RESULTS: The unadjusted mortality rates of men were higher than those of women, with a mortality OR 0.51 [0.42, 0.61] (p<0.001) for women. The proportion of men presenting with severe disease and admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) was also higher than that of women (OR 0.75 [0.60-0.93] p<0.001 and OR 0.45 [0.40-0.52] p<0.001 respectively). Adjusted analyses could not be conducted due to lack of data. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 may be associated with worse outcomes in males than in females. However, until more detailed data are provided in further studies enabling adjusted analysis, this remains an unproven assumption.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors
20.
Schizophr Bull ; 47(3): 624-634, 2021 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889592

ABSTRACT

Patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) represent a vulnerable population who have been understudied in COVID-19 research. We aimed to establish whether health outcomes and care differed between patients with SCZ and patients without a diagnosis of severe mental illness. We conducted a population-based cohort study of all patients with identified COVID-19 and respiratory symptoms who were hospitalized in France between February and June 2020. Cases were patients who had a diagnosis of SCZ. Controls were patients who did not have a diagnosis of severe mental illness. The outcomes were in-hospital mortality and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. A total of 50 750 patients were included, of whom 823 were SCZ patients (1.6%). The SCZ patients had an increased in-hospital mortality (25.6% vs 21.7%; adjusted OR 1.30 [95% CI, 1.08-1.56], P = .0093) and a decreased ICU admission rate (23.7% vs 28.4%; adjusted OR, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.62-0.91], P = .0062) compared with controls. Significant interactions between SCZ and age for mortality and ICU admission were observed (P = .0006 and P < .0001). SCZ patients between 65 and 80 years had a significantly higher risk of death than controls of the same age (+7.89%). SCZ patients younger than 55 years had more ICU admissions (+13.93%) and SCZ patients between 65 and 80 years and older than 80 years had less ICU admissions than controls of the same age (-15.44% and -5.93%, respectively). Our findings report the existence of disparities in health and health care between SCZ patients and patients without a diagnosis of severe mental illness. These disparities differed according to the age and clinical profile of SCZ patients, suggesting the importance of personalized COVID-19 clinical management and health care strategies before, during, and after hospitalization for reducing health disparities in this vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Hospital Mortality , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Schizophrenia/epidemiology , Schizophrenia/therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Critical Care , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
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