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1.
Front Psychol ; 13: 852218, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903144

ABSTRACT

Recent studies reported the development of psychological distress symptoms in patients who recovered from COVID-19. However, evidence is still scarce and new data are needed to define the exact risk and protective factors that can explain the variability in symptoms manifestation. In this study, we enrolled 257 patients who recovered from COVID-19 and we evaluated the levels of psychological distress through the Symptoms Checklist-90-R scale. Data concerning illness-related variables were collected from medical records, while the presence of subjective cognitive difficulties, both before and after the illness, as well as the level of the cognitive reserve (CR), were assessed over a clinical interview. Results revealed that being female and reporting the presence of subjective cognitive difficulties after COVID-19 were associated with higher levels of psychological distress. At the same time, being admitted to the hospital and having a high CR were protective factors. Adding new information to this emerging research field, our results highlight the importance of a complete psychological and cognitive assessment in patients with COVID-19.

2.
J Pers Med ; 12(4)2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776272

ABSTRACT

A large spectrum of neurological manifestations has been associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and recently, the involvement of small fibers has been suggested. This study aims to investigate the involvement of small peripheral nervous fibers in recovered COVID-19 patients using in-vivo corneal confocal microscopy (CCM). Patients recovered from COVID-19 and a control group of healthy subjects underwent in-vivo CCM. Corneal nerve fiber density (CNFD), corneal nerve branch density (CNBD), corneal nerve fiber length (CNFL), corneal nerve fiber total branch density (CTBD), corneal nerve fiber area (CNFA), corneal nerve fiber width (CNFW), fiber tortuosity (FT), number of beadings (NBe), and dendritic cells (DC) density were quantified. We enrolled 302 eyes of 151 patients. CNBD and FT were significantly higher (p = 0.0131, p < 0.0001), whereas CNFW and NBe were significantly lower (p = 0.0056, p = 0.0045) in the COVID-19 group compared to controls. Only CNBD and FT resulted significantly correlated to antiviral drugs (increased) and corticosteroids (decreased). No significant relationship with disease severity parameters was found. COVID-19 may induce peripheral neuropathy in small fibers even months after recovery, regardless of systemic conditions and therapy, and CCM may be a useful tool to identify and monitor these morphological changes.

3.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715778

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 can produce both severe clinical conditions and long-term sequelae, but data describing post-acute COVID-19 syndrome (PACS) are lacking for people living with HIV (PLWH). We aimed at assessing the prevalence and factors associated with severe COVID-19 and PACS in our cohort. We included all unvaccinated adult PLWH on antiretroviral treatment and plasma HIV-RNA < 40 cp/mL since at least six months before SARS-CoV-2 infection at the Infectious and Tropical Diseases Unit of Padua (Italy), from 20 February 2020 to 31 March 2021. COVID-19 severity was defined by WHO criteria; PACS was defined as the persistence of symptoms or development of sequelae beyond four weeks from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Demographic and clinical variables were collected, and data were analyzed by non-parametric tests. 123 subjects meeting the inclusion criteria among 1800 (6.8%) PLWH in care at the Infectious and Tropical diseases Unit in Padua were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection/COVID-19 during the study period. The median age was 51 years (40-58), 79.7% were males, and 77.2% of Caucasian ethnicity. The median CD4+ T-cell count and length of HIV infection were 560 cells/mmc (444-780) and 11 years, respectively. Of the patients, 35.0% had asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, 48% developed mild COVID-19, 17.1% presented moderate or severe COVID-19 requiring hospitalization and 4.1% died. Polypharmacy was the single independent factor associated with severe COVID-19. As for PACS, among 75 patients who survived SARS-CoV-2 symptomatic infection, 20 (26.7%) reported PACS at a median follow-up of six months: asthenia (80.0%), shortness of breath (50.0%) and recurrent headache (25.0%) were the three most common complaints. Only the severity of the COVID-19 episode predicted PACS after adjusting for relevant demographic and clinical variables. In our study, PLWH with sustained viral suppression and good immunological response showed that the risk of hospital admission for COVID-19 was low, even though the severity of the disease was associated with high mortality. In addition, the likelihood of developing severe COVID-19 and PACS was mainly driven by similar risk factors to those faced by the general population, such as polypharmacy and the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 823600, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707730

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few is known about the long-term pulmonary sequelae after COVID-19 infection. Hence, the aim of this study is to characterize patients with persisting pulmonary sequelae at follow-up after hospitalization. We also aimed to explore clinical and radiological predictors of pulmonary fibrosis following COVID-19. METHODS: Two hundred and 20 consecutive patients were evaluated at 3-6 months after discharge with high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and categorized as recovered (REC) or not recovered (NOT-REC). Both HRCTs at hospitalization (HRCT0), when available, and HRCT1 during follow-up were analyzed semiquantitatively as follows: ground-glass opacities (alveolar score, AS), consolidations (CONS), and reticulations (interstitial score, IS). RESULTS: A total of 175/220 (80%) patients showed disease resolution at their initial radiological evaluation following discharge. NOT-REC patients (45/220; 20%) were mostly older men [66 (35-85) years vs. 56 (19-87); p = 0.03] with a longer in-hospital stay [16 (0-75) vs. 8 (1-52) days; p < 0.0001], and lower P/F at admission [233 (40-424) vs. 318 (33-543); p = 0.04]. Moreover, NOT-REC patients presented, at hospital admission, higher ALV [14 (0.0-62.0) vs. 4.4 (0.0-44.0); p = 0.0005], CONS [1.9 (0.0-26.0) vs. 0.4 (0.0-18.0); p = 0.0064], and IS [11.5 (0.0- 29.0) vs. 0.0 (0.0-22.0); p < 0.0001] compared to REC patients. On multivariate analysis, the presence of CONS and IS at HRCT0 was independent predictors of radiological sequelae at follow-up [OR 14.87 (95% CI: 1.25-175.8; p = 0.03) and 28.9 (95% CI: 2.17-386.6; p = 0.01, respectively)]. CONCLUSIONS: In our population, only twenty percent of patients showed persistent lung abnormalities at 6 months after hospitalization for COVID-19 pneumonia. These patients are predominantly older men with longer hospital stay. The presence of reticulations and consolidation on HRCT at hospital admission predicts the persistence of radiological abnormalities during follow-up.

5.
Frontiers in medicine ; 8, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1678732

ABSTRACT

Background Few is known about the long-term pulmonary sequelae after COVID-19 infection. Hence, the aim of this study is to characterize patients with persisting pulmonary sequelae at follow-up after hospitalization. We also aimed to explore clinical and radiological predictors of pulmonary fibrosis following COVID-19. Methods Two hundred and 20 consecutive patients were evaluated at 3–6 months after discharge with high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and categorized as recovered (REC) or not recovered (NOT-REC). Both HRCTs at hospitalization (HRCT0), when available, and HRCT1 during follow-up were analyzed semiquantitatively as follows: ground-glass opacities (alveolar score, AS), consolidations (CONS), and reticulations (interstitial score, IS). Results A total of 175/220 (80%) patients showed disease resolution at their initial radiological evaluation following discharge. NOT-REC patients (45/220;20%) were mostly older men [66 (35–85) years vs. 56 (19–87);p = 0.03] with a longer in-hospital stay [16 (0–75) vs. 8 (1–52) days;p < 0.0001], and lower P/F at admission [233 (40–424) vs. 318 (33–543);p = 0.04]. Moreover, NOT-REC patients presented, at hospital admission, higher ALV [14 (0.0–62.0) vs. 4.4 (0.0–44.0);p = 0.0005], CONS [1.9 (0.0–26.0) vs. 0.4 (0.0–18.0);p = 0.0064], and IS [11.5 (0.0– 29.0) vs. 0.0 (0.0–22.0);p < 0.0001] compared to REC patients. On multivariate analysis, the presence of CONS and IS at HRCT0 was independent predictors of radiological sequelae at follow-up [OR 14.87 (95% CI: 1.25–175.8;p = 0.03) and 28.9 (95% CI: 2.17–386.6;p = 0.01, respectively)]. Conclusions In our population, only twenty percent of patients showed persistent lung abnormalities at 6 months after hospitalization for COVID-19 pneumonia. These patients are predominantly older men with longer hospital stay. The presence of reticulations and consolidation on HRCT at hospital admission predicts the persistence of radiological abnormalities during follow-up.

6.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 711461, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450842

ABSTRACT

Literature about the novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) is currently focusing on the potential cognitive and neuropsychiatric sequelae observed in individuals receiving intensive care unit (ICU) treatments. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the differences in cognitive and psychological sequelae of COVID-19 between younger and older adults, regardless of being admitted to the ICU or not. The study involved 299 recovered individuals (from 18 to 90 years old), who underwent a comprehensive cognitive and psychological assessment. Linear regression models were conducted separately for Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL) scores to investigate the effect of socio-demographic and clinical characteristics on them. Separate linear regression models were then applied sorting participants by age: younger adults (<65 years) and older adults (≥65 years). In the whole sample, PCL scores were predicted by the intensity of care received, by being intubated, and by the persistence of cough after 1 month after hospitalization. Only age had instead an effect on cognition. In younger adults, PCL scores were predicted by the presence of neurological symptoms, by the intensity of care received, and by being intubated; MoCA scores were only predicted by the intensity of care received. No significant associations were found in older adults. Psychological negative effects of the COVID-19 pandemic particularly affect individuals under 65 years old, who also subjectively report cognitive sequelae associated with the infection. Individuals over 65 years old, instead, seem to be free from psychological and cognitive difficulties due to COVID-19.

7.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 714221, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441117

ABSTRACT

Background: The impact of viral burden on severity and prognosis of patients hospitalized for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still a matter of debate due to controversial results. Herein, we sought to assess viral load in the nasopharyngeal swab and its association with severity score indexes and prognostic parameters. Methods: We included 127 symptomatic patients and 21 asymptomatic subjects with a diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection obtained by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and presence of cycle threshold. According to the level of care needed during hospitalization, the population was categorized as high-intensity (HIMC, n = 76) or low intensity medical care setting (LIMC, n = 51). Results: Viral load did not differ among asymptomatic, LIMC, and HIMC SARS-CoV-2 positive patients [4.4 (2.9-5.3) vs. 4.8 (3.6-6.1) vs. 4.6 (3.9-5.7) log10 copies/ml, respectively; p = 0.31]. Similar results were observed when asymptomatic individuals were compared to hospitalized patients [4.4 (2.9-5.3) vs. 4.68 (3.8-5.9) log10 copies/ml; p = 0.13]. When the study population was divided in High (HVL, n = 64) and Low Viral Load (LVL, n = 63) group no differences were observed in disease severity at diagnosis. Furthermore, LVL and HVL groups did not differ with regard to duration of hospital stay, number of bacterial co-infections, need for high-intensity medical care and number of deaths. The viral load was not an independent risk factor for HIMC in an adjusted multivariate regression model (OR: 1.59; 95% CI: 0.46-5.55, p = 0.46). Conclusions: Viral load at diagnosis is similar in asymptomatic and hospitalized patients and is not associated with either worse outcomes during hospitalization. SARS CoV-2 viral load might not be the right tool to assist clinicians in risk-stratifying hospitalized patients.

9.
Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol ; 5(6): 1019-1028, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-954943

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of olfactory and taste dysfunction (OD; TD) among COVID-19 positive health care workers (HCWs), their associated risk factors and prognosis. METHODS: Between May and June 2020, a longitudinal multicenter study was conducted on symptomatic COVID-19 PCR confirmed HCWs (COVID-19 positive) in London and Padua. RESULTS: Hundred and fourteen COVID-19 positive HCWs were surveyed with a response rate of 70.6% over a median follow-up period of 52 days. UK prevalence of OD and TD was 73.1% and 69.2%, respectively. There was a male to female ratio of 1:3 with 81.6% being white, 43.7% being nurses/health care assistants (HCAs), and 39.3% being doctors. In addition, 53.2% of them worked on COVID-19 wards. Complete recovery was reported in 31.8% for OD and 47.1% for TD with a 52 days follow-up. The job role of doctors and nurses negatively influenced smell (P = .04 and P = .02) and taste recovery (P = .02 and P = .01). Ethnicity (being white) showed to positively influence only taste recovery (P = .04). Sex (being female) negatively influenced OD and TD recovery only in Paduan HCWs (P = .02 and P = .011, respectively). Working on a COVID-19 ward did not influence prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of OD and TD was considerably higher in HCWs. The prognosis for OD and TD recovery was worse for nurses/HCAs and doctors but working on a COVID-19 ward did not influence prognosis. Sixty-eight percent of surveyed HCWs at 52 days continued to experience OD or TD requiring additional future medical management capacity. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4.

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