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1.
Metabolites ; 12(11)2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099659

ABSTRACT

Pneumonia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality and is most often caused by bacterial pathogens. COVID-19 is characterized by lung infection with potential progressive organ failure. The systemic consequences of both disease on the systemic blood metabolome are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to compare the blood metabolome of both diseases and we hypothesize that plasma metabolomics may help to identify the systemic effects of these diseases. Therefore, we profiled the plasma metabolome of 43 cases of COVID-19 pneumonia, 23 cases of non-COVID-19 pneumonia, and 26 controls using a non-targeted approach. Metabolic alterations differentiating the three groups were detected, with specific metabolic changes distinguishing the two types of pneumonia groups. A comparison of venous and arterial blood plasma samples from the same subjects revealed the distinct metabolic effects of pulmonary pneumonia. In addition, a machine learning signature of four metabolites was predictive of the disease outcome of COVID-19 subjects with an area under the curve (AUC) of 86 ± 10 %. Overall, the results of this study uncover systemic metabolic changes that could be linked to the etiology of COVID-19 pneumonia and non-COVID-19 pneumonia.

2.
J Clin Invest ; 2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098125

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Results of many randomized trials on COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) have been reported but information on long-term outcome after CCP treatment is limited. The objectives of this extended observation of the randomized CAPSID trial are to assess long-term outcome and disease burden in patients initially treated with or without CCP. METHODS: Of 105 randomized patients, 50 participated in the extended observation. Quality of life (QoL) was assessed by questionnaires and a structured interview. CCP-donors (n=113) with asymptomatic to moderate COVID-19 were included as a reference group. RESULTS: The median follow-up of patients was 396 days, the estimated 1-year survival was 78.7% in the CCP and 60.2% in the control group (p=0.08). The subgroup treated with a higher cumulative amount of neutralizing antibodies showed a better 1-year survival compared to the control group (91.5% versus 60.2%; p=0.01). Medical events and QoL assessments showed a consistent trend for better results in the CCP group without reaching statistical significance. There was no difference in the increase of neutralizing antibodies after vaccination between CCP and the control group. CONCLUSION: The trial demonstrated a trend towards better outcome in the CCP group without reaching statistical significance. A pre-defined subgroup analysis showed a significant better outcome (long-term survival; time to discharge from ICU and time to hospital discharge) among those who received a higher amount of neutralizing antibodies compared to the control group. A substantial long-term disease burden remains after severe COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT number 2020-001310-38FUNDING. Bundesministerium für Gesundheit (German Federal Ministry of Health): ZMVI1-2520COR802/ZMI1-2521COR802.

3.
J Clin Med ; 11(21)2022 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082052

ABSTRACT

Background: There is ongoing debate whether lung physiology of COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) differs from ARDS of other origin. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze and compare how critically ill patients with COVID-19 and Influenza A or B were ventilated in our tertiary care center with or without extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). We ask if acute lung failure due to COVID-19 requires different intensive care management compared to conventional ARDS. Methods: 25 patients with COVID-19-associated ARDS were matched to a cohort of 25 Influenza patients treated in our center from 2011 to 2021. Subgroup analysis addressed whether patients on ECMO received different mechanical ventilation than patients without extracorporeal support. Results: Compared to Influenza-associated ARDS, COVID-19 patients had higher ventilatory system compliance (40.7 mL/mbar [31.8-46.7 mL/mbar] vs. 31.4 mL/mbar [13.7-42.8 mL/mbar], p = 0.198), higher ventilatory ratio (1.57 [1.31-1.84] vs. 0.91 [0.44-1.38], p = 0.006) and higher minute ventilation at the time of intubation (mean minute ventilation 10.7 L/min [7.2-12.2 L/min] for COVID-19 vs. 6.0 L/min [2.5-10.1 L/min] for Influenza, p = 0.013). There were no measurable differences in P/F ratio, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and driving pressures (ΔP). Respiratory system compliance deteriorated considerably in COVID-19 patients on ECMO during 2 weeks of mechanical ventilation (Crs, mean decrease over 2 weeks -23.87 mL/mbar ± 32.94 mL/mbar, p = 0.037) but not in ventilated Influenza patients on ECMO and less so in ventilated COVID-19 patients without ECMO. For COVID-19 patients, low driving pressures on ECMO were strongly correlated to a decline in compliance after 2 weeks (Pearson's R 0.80, p = 0.058). Overall mortality was insignificantly lower for COVID-19 patients compared to Influenza patients (40% vs. 48%, p = 0.31). Outcome was insignificantly worse for patients requiring veno-venous ECMO in both groups (50% mortality for COVID-19 on ECMO vs. 27% without ECMO, p = 0.30/56% vs. 34% mortality for Influenza A/B with and without ECMO, p = 0.31). Conclusion: The pathophysiology of early COVID-19-associated ARDS differs from Influenza-associated acute lung failure by sustained respiratory mechanics during the early phase of ventilation. We question whether intubated COVID-19 patients on ECMO benefit from extremely low driving pressures, as this appears to accelerate derecruitment and consecutive loss of ventilatory system compliance.

4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1008438, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080155

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To determine the profile of cytokines in patients with severe COVID-19 who were enrolled in a trial of COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP). Methods: Patients were randomized to receive standard treatment and 3 CCP units or standard treatment alone (CAPSID trial, ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04433910). The primary outcome was a dichotomous composite outcome (survival and no longer severe COVID-19 on day 21). Time to clinical improvement was a key secondary endpoint. The concentrations of 27 cytokines were measured (baseline, day 7). We analyzed the change and the correlation between serum cytokine levels over time in different subgroups and the prediction of outcome in receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses and in multivariate models. Results: The majority of cytokines showed significant changes from baseline to day 7. Some were strongly correlated amongst each other (at baseline the cluster IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, G-CSF, MIP-1α, the cluster PDGF-BB, RANTES or the cluster IL-4, IL-17, Eotaxin, bFGF, TNF-α). The correlation matrix substantially changed from baseline to day 7. The heatmaps of the absolute values of the correlation matrix indicated an association of CCP treatment and clinical outcome with the cytokine pattern. Low levels of IP-10, IFN-γ, MCP-1 and IL-1ß on day 0 were predictive of treatment success in a ROC analysis. In multivariate models, low levels of IL-1ß, IFN-γ and MCP-1 on day 0 were significantly associated with both treatment success and shorter time to clinical improvement. Low levels of IP-10, IL-1RA, IL-6, MCP-1 and IFN-γ on day 7 and high levels of IL-9, PDGF and RANTES on day 7 were predictive of treatment success in ROC analyses. Low levels of IP-10, MCP-1 and high levels of RANTES, on day 7 were associated with both treatment success and shorter time to clinical improvement in multivariate models. Conclusion: This analysis demonstrates a considerable dynamic of cytokines over time, which is influenced by both treatment and clinical course of COVID-19. Levels of IL-1ß and MCP-1 at baseline and MCP-1, IP-10 and RANTES on day 7 were associated with a favorable outcome across several endpoints. These cytokines should be included in future trials for further evaluation as predictive factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokines , Humans , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein , Interleukin-17 , Chemokine CCL3 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Interleukin-6 , Interleukin-4 , Capsid , COVID-19/therapy , Becaplermin , Chemokine CXCL10 , Interleukin-2 , Interleukin-8 , Interleukin-9 , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor
5.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275181, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079742

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Glycyrrhizin, an active component of liquorice root extract, exhibits antiviral and immunomodulatory properties by direct inhibition of the pro-inflammatory alarmin HMGB1 (High-mobility group box 1). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the role of liquorice intake on the viral entry receptor ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) and the immunoregulatory HMGB1 in healthy individuals and to explore HMGB1 expression in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) or non-COVID-19 in ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome patients). MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study enrolled 43 individuals, including hospitalised patients with i) acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to COVID-19 (n = 7) or other underlying causes (n = 12), ii) mild COVID-19 (n = 4) and iii) healthy volunteers (n = 20). Healthy individuals took 50 g of liquorice (containing 3% liquorice root extract) daily for 7 days, while blood samples were collected at baseline and on day 3 and 7. Changes in ACE2 and HMGB1 levels were determined by Western blot analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Additionally, HMGB1 levels were measured in hospitalised COVID-19 patients with mild disease or COVID-19 associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and compared with a non-COVID-19-ARDS group. RESULTS: Liquorice intake significantly reduced after 7 days both cellular membranous ACE2 expression (-51% compared to baseline levels, p = 0.008) and plasma HMGB1 levels (-17% compared to baseline levels, p<0.001) in healthy individuals. Half of the individuals had a reduction in ACE2 levels of at least 30%. HMGB1 levels in patients with mild COVID-19 and ARDS patients with and without COVID-19 were significantly higher compared with those of healthy individuals (+317%, p = 0.002), but they were not different between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 ARDS. CONCLUSIONS: Liquorice intake modulates ACE2 and HMGB1 levels in healthy individuals. HMGB1 is enhanced in mild COVID-19 and in ARDS with and without COVID-19, warranting evaluation of HMGB1 as a potential treatment target and glycyrrhizin, which is an active component of liquorice root extract, as a potential treatment in COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 respiratory disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Glycyrrhiza , HMGB1 Protein , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Alarmins , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glycyrrhiza/metabolism , Glycyrrhizic Acid/pharmacology , Glycyrrhizic Acid/therapeutic use , HMGB1 Protein/metabolism , Humans , Pilot Projects , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy
7.
Med Klin Intensivmed Notfmed ; 2022 Sep 08.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007119

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At the onset of the coronavirus pandemic, concerns were raised about sufficiency of available intensive care resources. In many places, routine interventions were postponed and criteria for the allocation of scarce resources were formulated. In Germany, some hospitals were at times seriously burdened during the course of the pandemic. Intensive care units in particular experienced a shortage of resources, which may have led to a restriction of services and a stricter indication setting for resource-intensive measures such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The aim of this work is to provide an overview of how these pressures were managed at large ECMO centers in Germany. METHODS: One representative of each major ECMO referral center in Germany was invited to participate in an online survey in spring 2021. RESULTS: Of 34 invitations that were sent out, the survey was answered by 23 participants. In all centers, routine procedures were postponed during the pandemic. Half of the centers increased the number of beds on which ECMO procedures could be offered. Nevertheless, in one-third of the centers, the start of at least one ECMO support was delayed because of a feared resource shortage. In 17% of centers, at least one patient was denied ECMO that he or she would have most likely received under prepandemic conditions. CONCLUSION: The results of this online survey indicate that the experienced pressures and resource constraints led some centers to be cautious about ECMO indications.

9.
Med Educ Online ; 27(1): 2101417, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937567

ABSTRACT

As a consequence of the continued Covid-19 lockdown in Germany, in-hospital teaching for medical students was impossible. While lectures and other theoretical training were relatively easily converted into online sessions using platforms such as Moodle, Zoom and Microsoft Teams, this was not the case for practical skills and clinical interventions, such as bronchoscopy or colonoscopy. This study describes a workaround that was implemented at the Saarland University Hospital utilizing virtual reality equipment to convey the impressions of shadowing clinical procedures to the students without physical presence. To achieve this, 3D 180° videos of key clinical interventions of various internal medicine specialities were recorded, cut, and censored. The videos were uploaded to the e-learning YouTube channel of our institution and shared with the students via the private share function. The students could choose whether to use a VR-viewer to watch the videos immersively or to watch them without a viewer on a screen non-immersively. At the end of the course after 1 week, the students completed a questionnaire anonymously focusing on learning-success regarding the presented topics, a self-assessment, and an evaluation of the course. A total of 27 students watched the videos with a VR-Viewer and 74 watched non-immersively. Although the VR-viewer group self-assessed their expertise higher, there was no significant difference between the two groups in the learning-success test score. However, students in the VR-viewer group rated the learning atmosphere, comprehensibility, and overall recommendation of the course significantly higher. They also agreed significantly more to the statement, that they gained a better conception of the presented procedures, and that virtual reality might be an appropriate tool for online teaching. Video-assisted teaching facilitates learning and might be a valuable add-on to conventional teaching.Abbreviations: Covid-19: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; 3D: three-dimensional; 2D: Two-dimensional; VR: virtual reality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Virtual Reality , Communicable Disease Control , Germany , Hospitals , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 190, 2022 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910342

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe COVID-19 induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) often requires extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Recent German health insurance data revealed low ICU survival rates. Patient characteristics and experience of the ECMO center may determine intensive care unit (ICU) survival. The current study aimed to identify factors affecting ICU survival of COVID-19 ECMO patients. METHODS: 673 COVID-19 ARDS ECMO patients treated in 26 centers between January 1st 2020 and March 22nd 2021 were included. Data on clinical characteristics, adjunct therapies, complications, and outcome were documented. Block wise logistic regression analysis was applied to identify variables associated with ICU-survival. RESULTS: Most patients were between 50 and 70 years of age. PaO2/FiO2 ratio prior to ECMO was 72 mmHg (IQR: 58-99). ICU survival was 31.4%. Survival was significantly lower during the 2nd wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. A subgroup of 284 (42%) patients fulfilling modified EOLIA criteria had a higher survival (38%) (p = 0.0014, OR 0.64 (CI 0.41-0.99)). Survival differed between low, intermediate, and high-volume centers with 20%, 30%, and 38%, respectively (p = 0.0024). Treatment in high volume centers resulted in an odds ratio of 0.55 (CI 0.28-1.02) compared to low volume centers. Additional factors associated with survival were younger age, shorter time between intubation and ECMO initiation, BMI > 35 (compared to < 25), absence of renal replacement therapy or major bleeding/thromboembolic events. CONCLUSIONS: Structural and patient-related factors, including age, comorbidities and ECMO case volume, determined the survival of COVID-19 ECMO. These factors combined with a more liberal ECMO indication during the 2nd wave may explain the reasonably overall low survival rate. Careful selection of patients and treatment in high volume ECMO centers was associated with higher odds of ICU survival. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered in the German Clinical Trials Register (study ID: DRKS00022964, retrospectively registered, September 7th 2020, https://www.drks.de/drks_web/navigate.do?navigationId=trial.HTML&TRIAL_ID=DRKS00022964 .


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Survival Analysis
11.
Int J Infect Dis ; 122: 178-187, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1889494

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early prognostication of COVID-19 severity will potentially improve patient care. Biomarkers, such as TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), and C-reactive protein (CRP), might represent possible tools for point-of-care testing and severity prediction. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, we analyzed serum levels of TRAIL, IP-10, and CRP in patients with COVID-19, compared them with control subjects, and investigated the association with disease severity. RESULTS: A total of 899 measurements were performed in 132 patients (mean age 64 years, 40.2% females). Among patients with COVID-19, TRAIL levels were lower (49.5 vs 87 pg/ml, P = 0.0142), whereas IP-10 and CRP showed higher levels (667.5 vs 127 pg/ml, P <0.001; 75.3 vs 1.6 mg/l, P <0.001) than healthy controls. TRAIL yielded an inverse correlation with length of hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) stay, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, and National Early Warning Score, and IP-10 showed a positive correlation with disease severity. Multivariable regression revealed that obesity (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 5.434, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.005-29.38), CRP (aOR 1.014, 95% CI 1.002-1.027), and peak IP-10 (aOR 1.001, 95% CI 1.00-1.002) were independent predictors of in-ICU mortality. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated a correlation between COVID-19 severity and TRAIL, IP-10, and CRP. Multivariable regression showed a role for IP-10 in predicting unfavourable outcomes, such as in-ICU mortality. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT04655521.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19 , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , Chemokine CXCL10 , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Interferon-gamma , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand
12.
ASAIO J ; 68(8): 1017-1023, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865005

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has drastically increased the number of patients requiring extracorporeal life support. We investigate the efficacy and safety of low-dose recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rtPA) injection into exhausted oxygenators to delay exchange in critically ill COVID-19 patients on veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-V ECMO). Small doses of rtPA were injected directly into the draining section of a V-V ECMO circuit. We compared transmembrane pressure gradient, pump head efficiency, membrane arterial partial oxygen pressure, and membrane arterial partial carbon dioxide pressure before and after the procedure. Bleeding was compared with a matched control group of 20 COVID-19 patients on V-V ECMO receiving standard anticoagulation. Four patients received 16 oxygenator instillations with rtPA at 5, 10, or 20 mg per dose. Administration of rtPA significantly reduced transmembrane pressure gradient (Δ pm = 54.8 ± 18.1 mmHg before vs . 38.3 ± 13.3 mmHg after, p < 0.001) in a dose-dependent manner (Pearson's R -0.63, p = 0.023), allowing to delay oxygenator exchange, thus reducing the overall number of consumed oxygenators. rtPA increased blood flow efficiency η (1.20 ± 0.28 ml/revolution before vs . 1.24 ± 0.27 ml/r, p = 0.002). Lysis did not affect membrane blood gases or systemic coagulation. Minor bleeding occurred in 2 of 4 patients (50%) receiving oxygenator lysis as well as 19 of 20 control patients (95%). Lysis of ECMO oxygenators effectively delays oxygenator exchange, if exchange is indicated by an increase in transmembrane pressure gradient. Application of lysis did not result in higher bleeding incidences compared with anticoagulated patients on V-V ECMO for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Oxygenators, Membrane , Tissue Plasminogen Activator , Blood Gas Analysis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/instrumentation , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Humans , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use
13.
Membranes (Basel) ; 12(5)2022 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820335

ABSTRACT

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has become an important therapeutic approach in the COVID-19 pandemic. The development and research in this field strongly relies on animal models; however, efforts are being made to find alternatives. In this work, we present a new mock circuit for ECMO that allows measurements of the oxygen transfer rate of a membrane lung at full ECMO blood flow. The mock utilizes a large reservoir of heparinized porcine blood to measure the oxygen transfer rate of the membrane lung in a single passage. The oxygen transfer rate is calculated from blood flow, hemoglobin value, venous saturation, and post-membrane arterial oxygen pressure. Before the next measuring sequence, the blood is regenerated to a venous condition with a sweep gas of nitrogen and carbon dioxide. The presented mock was applied to investigate the effect of a recirculation loop on the oxygen transfer rate of an ECMO setup. The recirculation loop caused a significant increase in post-membrane arterial oxygen pressure (paO2). The effect was strongest for the highest recirculation flow. This was attributed to a smaller boundary layer on gas fibers due to the increased blood velocity. However, the increase in paO2 did not translate to significant increases in the oxygen transfer rate because of the minor significance of physically dissolved oxygen for gas transfer. In conclusion, our results regarding a new ECMO mock setup demonstrate that recirculation loops can improve ECMO performance, but not enough to be clinically relevant.

14.
ASAIO J ; 68(8): 996-1001, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784415

ABSTRACT

In late 2020, during the second wave of COVID-19 in Germany, we started using the MobyBox, which is a novel fully pneumatically driven ECMO device, on a regular basis to meet the increasing demand for ECMO therapy. In this case series, we performed a retrospective chart review of seven patients with severe COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring veno-venous (vv)-ECMO support with the MobyBox. During ECMO treatments we have observed no disadvantages in comparison to conventional ECMO systems. There were no system failures or adverse events directly attributable to the MobyBox system. Our data support that providing vv-ECMO with the MobyBox device is safe and feasible. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the MobyBox device might represent an advantage in terms of biocompatibility. Therefore, more data on this issue is needed to better understand how the pneumatically driven pump affects cellular blood components.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies
15.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 41(4): 663-669, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777740

ABSTRACT

Clinical and laboratory data on newly described staphylococcal species is rare, which hampers decision-making when such pathogens are detected in clinical specimens. Here, we describe Staphylococcus massiliensis detected in three patients at a university hospital in southwest Germany. We report the discrepancy of microbiological findings between matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, 16S-rRNA polymerase chain reaction, and whole-genome sequencing for all three isolates. Our findings highlight the diagnostic pitfalls pertinent to novel and non-model organisms in daily microbiological practice, in whom the correct identification is dependent on database accuracy.


Subject(s)
Blood Culture , Staphylococcus , Humans , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization/methods
17.
J Clin Invest ; 131(20)2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470551

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDCOVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) has been considered a treatment option for COVID-19. This trial assessed the efficacy of a neutralizing antibody containing high-dose CCP in hospitalized adults with COVID-19 requiring respiratory support or intensive care treatment.METHODSPatients (n = 105) were randomized 1:1 to either receive standard treatment and 3 units of CCP or standard treatment alone. Control group patients with progress on day 14 could cross over to the CCP group. The primary outcome was a dichotomous composite outcome of survival and no longer fulfilling criteria for severe COVID-19 on day 21.ResultsThe primary outcome occurred in 43.4% of patients in the CCP group and 32.7% in the control group (P = 0.32). The median time to clinical improvement was 26 days in the CCP group and 66 days in the control group (P = 0.27). The median time to discharge from the hospital was 31 days in the CCP group and 51 days in the control group (P = 0.24). In the subgroup that received a higher cumulative amount of neutralizing antibodies, the primary outcome occurred in 56.0% of the patients (vs. 32.1%), with significantly shorter intervals to clinical improvement (20 vs. 66 days, P < 0.05) and to hospital discharge (21 vs. 51 days, P = 0.03) and better survival (day-60 probability of survival 91.6% vs. 68.1%, P = 0.02) in comparison with the control group.ConclusionCCP added to standard treatment was not associated with a significant improvement in the primary and secondary outcomes. A predefined subgroup analysis showed a significant benefit of CCP among patients who received a larger amount of neutralizing antibodies.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov NCT04433910.FundingBundesministerium für Gesundheit (German Federal Ministry of Health): ZMVI1-2520COR802.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Combined Modality Therapy , Cross-Over Studies , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/adverse effects , Immunization, Passive/methods , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
18.
J Inflamm Res ; 14: 4651-4667, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1417004

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 comprises several severity stages ranging from oligosymptomatic disease to multi-organ failure and fatal outcomes. The mechanisms why COVID-19 is a mild disease in some patients and progresses to a severe multi-organ and often fatal disease with respiratory failure are not known. Biomarkers that predict the course of disease are urgently needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate a large spectrum of established laboratory measurements. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients from the prospective PULMPOHOM and CORSAAR studies were recruited and comprised 35 patients with COVID-19, 23 with conventional pneumonia, and 28 control patients undergoing elective non-pulmonary surgery. Venous blood was used to measure the serum concentrations of 79 proteins by Luminex multiplex immunoassay technology. Distribution of biomarkers between groups and association with disease severity and outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: The biomarker profiles between the three groups differed significantly with elevation of specific proteins specific for the respective conditions. Several biomarkers correlated significantly with disease severity and death. Uniform manifold approximation and projection (UMAP) analysis revealed a significant separation of the three disease groups and separated between survivors and deceased patients. Different models were developed to predict mortality based on the baseline measurements of several protein markers. A score combining IL-1ra, IL-8, IL-10, MCP-1, SCF and CA-9 was associated with significantly higher mortality (AUC 0.929). DISCUSSION: Several newly identified blood markers were significantly increased in patients with severe COVID-19 (AAT, EN-RAGE, myoglobin, SAP, TIMP-1, vWF, decorin) or in patients that died (IL-1ra, IL-8, IL-10, MCP-1, SCF, CA-9). The use of established assay technologies allows for rapid translation into clinical practice.

19.
Intensive Care Med Exp ; 9(1): 45, 2021 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394470

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite numerous advances in the identification of risk factors for the development of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), factors that promote recovery from COVID-19 remain unknown. Natural killer (NK) cells provide innate immune defense against viral infections and are known to be activated during moderate and severe COVID-19. Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) mediate NK cell cytotoxicity through recognition of an altered MHC-I expression on infected target cells. However, the influence of KIR genotype on outcome of patients with COVID-19 has not been investigated so far. We retrospectively analyzed the outcome associations of NK cell count and KIR genotype of patients with COVID-19 related severe ARDS treated on our tertiary intensive care unit (ICU) between February and June 2020 and validated our findings in an independent validation cohort of patients with moderate COVID-19 admitted to our tertiary medical center. RESULTS: Median age of all patients in the discovery cohort (n = 16) was 61 years (range 50-71 years). All patients received invasive mechanical ventilation; 11 patients (68%) required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Patients who recovered from COVID-19 had significantly higher median NK cell counts during the whole observational period compared to patients who died (121 cells/µL, range 16-602 cells/µL vs 81 cells/µL, range 6-227 cells/µL, p-value = 0.01). KIR2DS5 positivity was significantly associated with shorter time to recovery (21.6 ± 2.8 days vs. 44.6 ± 2.2 days, p-value = 0.01). KIR2DS5 positivity was significantly associated with freedom from transfer to ICU (0% vs 9%, p-value = 0.04) in the validation cohort which consisted of 65 patients with moderate COVID-19. CONCLUSION: NK cells and KIR genotype might have an impact on recovery from COVID-19.

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