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1.
J Diabetes Sci Technol ; 16(4): 852-857, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1986710

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Despite advances in and increased adoption of technology, glycemic outcomes for individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have not improved. Access to care is limited for many, in part due to a shortage of endocrinologists and their concentration in urban areas. Managing T1D via telehealth has potential to improve glycemic outcomes, as the barriers of travel-related time and cost are mitigated. METHODS: Our endocrine telehealth program started in 2013 and currently provides care to nine rural community hospitals in Nebraska and Iowa. A retrospective cohort study was performed to evaluate glycemic outcomes in people with T1D who received care at these telehealth clinics from 2013-2019. Data were collected on age, race, gender, prior diabetes provider, use of diabetes technology, and A1c values over time. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-nine individuals were followed for an average duration of 32 months (range 4-69 months). Sixty-six percent of people were previously under the care of an endocrinologist. The most common therapeutic action, in addition to insulin adjustment, was addition of a CGM (52%). Each year in telemedicine care was associated with a decline of 0.13% in A1c (95% CI: -0.20, -0.06). There was no association between A1c and age or gender. When stratifying by previous diabetes provider, all groups had a statistically significant decline in A1c, even those with a previous endocrine provider. There was no statistically significant decline in A1c based on addition of technology. CONCLUSION: We have shown that traditional telehealth visits are an effective way to provide care for people with T1D long-term and may provide distinct advantages to home telehealth visits.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Telemedicine , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Retrospective Studies
2.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 104(2): 115764, 2022 Jul 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982919

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the significance of readily available and easily performed viral testing for surveillance during future infectious pandemics. The objectives of this study were: to assess the performance of the Xpert Xpress Flu and/or RSV test, a multiplex PCR assay for detecting influenza A and B virus and respiratory syncytial virus nucleic acids in respiratory tract specimens, relative to the Quidel Lyra Influenza A+B assay and the Prodesse ProFlu+ assay, and the system's ease of use by minimally trained operators. Overall, the Xpert Xpress Flu/RSV test demonstrated a high positive and negative percent agreement with the comparator assays, and was easy to use and interpret results, based on the operators' feedback. We concluded that the Xpert Xpress Flu/RSV test is sensitive, specific, and easy to use for the diagnosis of influenza and RSV by minimally trained operators and can be a valuable tool in future infectious clusters or pandemics.

4.
AIDS Care ; : 1-5, 2022 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908507

ABSTRACT

Adolescents living with HIV (ALWH) are particularly susceptible to disruptions in care, which may lead to poor HIV-related health outcomes. Here, we report the results of a longitudinal phone-based study investigating impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on ALWH in New York City. Participants (N = 10, mean age 21.2 years, 50% female) demonstrated substantial COVID-19 knowledge and identified Instagram as their primary source of COVID-19 information. Nearly all participants reported loss of income, and 50% reported experiencing food insecurity as a result of the pandemic. These findings highlight existing vulnerabilities among ALWH that may threaten the continuum of care.

5.
Business and Society Review ; 127(Suppl 1):193-222, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1870806

ABSTRACT

The COVID‐19 crisis forced organizations to radically rethink how to lead their workforce. Facing an unprecedented drop in consumer demand, business leaders struggled to balance staying financially solvent with the responsibility of supporting their employees during the crisis. Early surveys found many employees did not perceive their organizations communicated a clear plan of action;others questioned whether their employers cared about workers' health and safety. While researchers have examined perceived organizational support, studies are only now starting to examine workers' perceived support during a pandemic. The study used a mixed method design to collect quantitative and qualitative data from 949 workers during the COVID‐19 crisis. Results revealed employees working outside the home and furloughed workers perceived lower quality support than employees working remotely. While some employees recommended changes to create a safer work environment, others suggested more frequent communication and/or reassurance about job security/pay. The findings suggest leaders should recognize the nature of support workers need varies. Leaders should customize support to meet the needs of specific groups, especially essential employees working outside the home and furloughed workers. Beyond the pandemic, the results suggest organizational leaders should reexamine their approach to employee support to better prepare for future crises.

6.
The Black Experience and Navigating Higher Education Through a Virtual World ; : 73-96, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1810534

ABSTRACT

This chapter presents theoretical discussions about advancing the demarginalization of African American students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) by bringing in insights from Afrocentric and symbolic-interaction perspectives. Here, the authors discuss demarginalization related to certain intra-racial and intersecting class, gender, and mental health issues emerging since COVID-19 and online learning. The ideas presented here are equally viable in student face-to-face and virtual learning environments. It begins with discussing marginalization and Afrocentric and symbolic-interaction theories. It reviews relevant literature about the history of African American education since the American Civil War, including 19th and 20th century reconstructions, Jim Crow, the rise of Historically Black Colleges and Universities, the Black student campus union and Black power movements, and other relevant happenings in Black American education. © 2021, IGI Global.

7.
J Emerg Med ; 62(5): 685-689, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic significantly disrupted emergency medicine residents' education. Early in the pandemic, many facilities lacked adequate personal protective equipment (PPE), and intubation was considered particularly high risk for transmission to physicians, leading hospitals to limit the number of individuals present during the procedure. This posed difficulties for residents and academic faculty, as opportunities to perform endotracheal intubation during residency are limited, but patients with COVID-19 requiring intubation are unstable and have difficult airways. Case Scenario: When PPE is being rationed, who should be the one to perform an intubation on a patient with respiratory failure from severe COVID-19? DISCUSSION: We examined this case scenario using the ethical frameworks of bioethical principles and virtue ethics. Bioethical principles include justice, beneficence, nonmalfeasance, and autonomy, and virtue ethics emphasizes the provision of moral exemplars and opportunities to exercise practical wisdom. Arguments for an attending-only strategy include the role of the attending as a truly autonomous decision maker and the importance of providing residents with a moral exemplar. A resident-only strategy benefits a resident's future patients and provides opportunities for residents to exercise character. Strategies preserving the dyad of attending and resident maintain these advantages and mitigate some drawbacks, while intubation teams may provide the most parsimonious use of PPE, but may elide resident involvement. CONCLUSIONS: There exist compelling motivations for involving senior residents and attendings in high-risk intubations during the COVID-19 pandemic. A just strategy will preserve residents' role whenever possible, while maximizing supervision and providing alternative routes for intubation practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Medicine , Internship and Residency , Humans , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment
8.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e055948, 2022 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769914

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) may be vulnerable to widescale impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and to health system responses which impact HIV care. We assessed healthcare worker (HCW) perspectives on impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescent HIV care delivery and engagement in western Kenya. METHODS: We performed in-depth qualitative interviews with HCW at 10 clinical sites in the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare in Kenya, from January to March, 2021. Semistructured interviews ascertained pandemic-related impacts on adolescent HIV care delivery and retention. RESULTS: Interviews were conducted with 22 HCWs from 10 clinics. HCWs observed adolescent financial hardships, unmet basic needs and school dropouts during the pandemic, with some adolescents relocating to rural homes, to partners or to the street. Marked increases in adolescent pregnancies and pregnancy complications were described, as well as barriers to family planning and antenatal care. Transportation challenges and restrictions limited access to care and prompted provision of multi-month refills, refills at local dispensaries or transfer to local facilities. Adolescent-friendly services were compromised, resulting in care challenges and disengagement from care. Clinic capacities to respond to adolescent needs were limited by funding cuts to multidisciplinary staff and resources. HCW and youth peer mentors (YPMs) demonstrated resilience, by adapting services, taking on expanded roles and leveraging available resources to support adolescent retention and access to care. CONCLUSIONS: ALHIV are uniquely vulnerable, and adolescent-friendly services are essential to their treatment. The combined effects of the pandemic, health system changes and funding cuts compromised adolescent-friendly care and limited capacity to respond to adolescent needs. There is a need to reinforce adolescent-friendly services within programmes and funding structures. Support for expanded YPM roles may facilitate dedicated, scalable and effective adolescent-friendly services, which are resilient and sustainable in times of crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adolescent , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/therapy , Health Personnel , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pregnancy
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(3): e224822, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767286

ABSTRACT

Importance: American Indian and Alaska Native populations have some of the highest COVID-19 hospitalization and mortality rates in the US, with those in Mississippi being disparately affected. Higher COVID-19 mortality rates among Indigenous populations are often attributed to a higher comorbidity burden, although examinations of these associations are scarce, and none were believed to have included individuals hospitalized in Mississippi. Objective: To evaluate whether racial mortality differences among adults hospitalized with COVID-19 are associated with differential comorbidity experiences. Design, Setting, and Participants: The described cross-sectional study used retrospective hospital discharge data from the Mississippi Inpatient Outpatient Data System. All adult (aged ≥18 years) Mississippians of a known racial identity and who had been hospitalized with COVID-19 from March 1 to December 31, 2020, in any of the state's 103 nonfederal hospitals were included. Data were abstracted on June 17, 2021. Exposure: Racial identity. Main Outcomes and Measures: In-hospital mortality as indicated by discharge status. Results: A total of 18 731 adults hospitalized with a COVID-19 diagnosis and known racial identity were included (median age, 66 [IQR, 53-76] years; 10 109 [54.0%] female; 225 [1.2%] American Indian and Alaska Native; 9191 [49.1%] Black; and 9121 [48.7%] White). Pooling across comorbidity risk groups, odds of in-hospital mortality among Black patients were 75% lower than among American Indian and Alaska Native patients (odds ratio [OR], 0.25 [95% CI, 0.18-0.34]); odds of in-hospital death among White patients were 77% lower (OR, 0.23 [95% CI, 0.16-0.31]). Within comorbidity risk group analyses, Indigenous patients with the lowest risk (Elixhauser Comorbidity Index score ≤0) had an adjusted probability of in-hospital death of 0.10 compared with 0.03 for Black patients (OR, 0.29 [95% CI, 0.10-0.82]) and 0.04 for White patients (OR, 0.37 [95% CI, 0.13-1.07]). Probability of in-hospital death at the highest comorbidity risk levels (Elixhauser Comorbidity Index score ≥16) was 0.69 for American Indian and Alaska Native patients compared with 0.28 for Black patients (OR, 0.16 [95% CI, 0.08-0.32]) and 0.25 for White patients (OR, 0.14 [95% CI, 0.07-0.27]). Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study of US adults hospitalized with COVID-19 found that American Indian and Alaska Native patients had lower comorbidity risk scores than those observed among Black or White patients. Despite empirical associations between reduced comorbidity risk scores and reduced odds of inpatient mortality, American Indian and Alaska Native patients were significantly more likely to die in the hospital of COVID-19 than Black or White patients at every level of comorbidity risk. Alternative factors that may contribute to high mortality rates among Indigenous populations must be investigated.


Subject(s)
Alaskan Natives , COVID-19 , Indians, North American , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Retrospective Studies
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(3): e224304, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763163

ABSTRACT

Importance: Non-Hispanic Black individuals experience a higher burden of COVID-19 than the general population; hence, there is an urgent need to characterize the unique clinical course and outcomes of COVID-19 in Black patients with cancer. Objective: To investigate racial disparities in severity of COVID-19 presentation, clinical complications, and outcomes between Black patients and non-Hispanic White patients with cancer and COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study used data from the COVID-19 and Cancer Consortium registry from March 17, 2020, to November 18, 2020, to examine the clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 in Black patients with cancer. Data analysis was performed from December 2020 to February 2021. Exposures: Black and White race recorded in patient's electronic health record. Main Outcomes and Measures: An a priori 5-level ordinal scale including hospitalization intensive care unit admission, mechanical ventilation, and all-cause death. Results: Among 3506 included patients (1768 women [50%]; median [IQR] age, 67 [58-77] years), 1068 (30%) were Black and 2438 (70%) were White. Black patients had higher rates of preexisting comorbidities compared with White patients, including obesity (480 Black patients [45%] vs 925 White patients [38%]), diabetes (411 Black patients [38%] vs 574 White patients [24%]), and kidney disease (248 Black patients [23%] vs 392 White patients [16%]). Despite the similar distribution of cancer type, cancer status, and anticancer therapy at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis, Black patients presented with worse illness and had significantly worse COVID-19 severity (unweighted odds ratio, 1.34 [95% CI, 1.15-1.58]; weighted odds ratio, 1.21 [95% CI, 1.11-1.33]). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that Black patients with cancer experience worse COVID-19 outcomes compared with White patients. Understanding and addressing racial inequities within the causal framework of structural racism is essential to reduce the disproportionate burden of diseases, such as COVID-19 and cancer, in Black patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Aged , Blacks , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
11.
mBio ; : e0375121, 2022 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741580

ABSTRACT

The widespread coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by infection with the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Currently, we have limited understanding of which cells become infected with SARS-CoV-2 in human tissues and where viral RNA localizes on the subcellular level. Here, we present a platform for preparing autopsy tissue for visualizing SARS-CoV-2 RNA using RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with amplification by hybridization chain reaction. We developed probe sets that target different regions of SARS-CoV-2 (including ORF1a and N), as well as probe sets that specifically target SARS-CoV-2 subgenomic mRNAs. We validated these probe sets in cell culture and tissues (lung, lymph node, and placenta) from infected patients. Using this technology, we observe distinct subcellular localization patterns of the ORF1a and N regions. In human lung tissue, we performed multiplexed RNA FISH HCR for SARS-CoV-2 and cell-type-specific marker genes. We found viral RNA in cells containing the alveolar type 2 (AT2) cell marker gene (SFTPC) and the alveolar macrophage marker gene (MARCO) but did not identify viral RNA in cells containing the alveolar type 1 (AT1) cell marker gene (AGER). Moreover, we observed distinct subcellular localization patterns of viral RNA in AT2 cells and alveolar macrophages. In sum, we demonstrate the use of RNA FISH HCR for visualizing different RNA species from SARS-CoV-2 in cell lines and FFPE (formalin fixation and paraffin embedding) autopsy specimens. We anticipate that this platform could be broadly useful for studying SARS-CoV-2 pathology in tissues, as well as extended for other applications, including investigating the viral life cycle, viral diagnostics, and drug screening. IMPORTANCE Here, we developed an in situ RNA detection assay for RNA generated by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. We found viral RNA in lung, lymph node, and placenta samples from pathology specimens from COVID patients. Using high-magnification microscopy, we can visualize the subcellular distribution of these RNA in single cells.

12.
Soc Work Public Health ; 37(6): 499-509, 2022 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692372

ABSTRACT

Before the COVID-19 pandemic, questions about the increased use of telemedicine had become common in conversations among medical providers. With the onset of the pandemic, these questions became more pronounced, and quick implementation became the key. New and historic barriers to telemedicine began to emerge at a dramatically increased rate during its rapid mobilization. However, considering how quickly telemedicine has been implemented, the impact on frontline workers, such as social workers, has not been specifically explored. We wondered how the change from face-to-face care to using digital platforms for care delivery has affected social work. Could social work ensure the fluid rollout of digital treatment platforms for care management? Could social work balance the increased number of digital treatment platforms with self-care for social workers during the COVID-19 crisis? What were some history social- work-preparedness plans used for other pandemics, and would those plans work for the COVID-19 pandemic? What were some of the self-care techniques employed by social workers? What were the emerging best practices of social workers at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system in the U.S. South? We needed to explore these questions to formulate knowledge that could be beneficial for VA health care. This literature review assesses the current responses from the field of social work during the COVID-19 pandemic, leveraging telemedicine, social work self-care, and the fluidity of VA services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Care , Social Work , Telemedicine/methods
13.
Nurse Educ ; 47(2): 102-107, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672407

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created personal, financial, and academic challenges for prenursing students, which may hinder academic persistence. Understanding and supporting their well-being is important, as they prepare to apply to nursing programs. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore relationships among stress, resilience, and academic persistence in prenursing students intending to apply to either an on-campus or accelerated online nursing program. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive correlational research design was used. Online survey data (N = 364) were collected during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Campus-based prenursing students reported higher levels of stress and lower levels of resilience than their accelerated online counterparts. A significant negative relationship was noted between stress and scores on resilience and persistence measures in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Program-specific interventions promoting resilience and stress management techniques are needed to support prenursing student persistence, especially as they prepare for admission to nursing programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Resilience, Psychological , Students, Nursing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Nursing Education Research , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2142046, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605268

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a distinct spatiotemporal pattern in the United States. Patients with cancer are at higher risk of severe complications from COVID-19, but it is not well known whether COVID-19 outcomes in this patient population were associated with geography. Objective: To quantify spatiotemporal variation in COVID-19 outcomes among patients with cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This registry-based retrospective cohort study included patients with a historical diagnosis of invasive malignant neoplasm and laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between March and November 2020. Data were collected from cancer care delivery centers in the United States. Exposures: Patient residence was categorized into 9 US census divisions. Cancer center characteristics included academic or community classification, rural-urban continuum code (RUCC), and social vulnerability index. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was 30-day all-cause mortality. The secondary composite outcome consisted of receipt of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit admission, and all-cause death. Multilevel mixed-effects models estimated associations of center-level and census division-level exposures with outcomes after adjustment for patient-level risk factors and quantified variation in adjusted outcomes across centers, census divisions, and calendar time. Results: Data for 4749 patients (median [IQR] age, 66 [56-76] years; 2439 [51.4%] female individuals, 1079 [22.7%] non-Hispanic Black individuals, and 690 [14.5%] Hispanic individuals) were reported from 83 centers in the Northeast (1564 patients [32.9%]), Midwest (1638 [34.5%]), South (894 [18.8%]), and West (653 [13.8%]). After adjustment for patient characteristics, including month of COVID-19 diagnosis, estimated 30-day mortality rates ranged from 5.2% to 26.6% across centers. Patients from centers located in metropolitan areas with population less than 250 000 (RUCC 3) had lower odds of 30-day mortality compared with patients from centers in metropolitan areas with population at least 1 million (RUCC 1) (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.31; 95% CI, 0.11-0.84). The type of center was not significantly associated with primary or secondary outcomes. There were no statistically significant differences in outcome rates across the 9 census divisions, but adjusted mortality rates significantly improved over time (eg, September to November vs March to May: aOR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.17-0.58). Conclusions and Relevance: In this registry-based cohort study, significant differences in COVID-19 outcomes across US census divisions were not observed. However, substantial heterogeneity in COVID-19 outcomes across cancer care delivery centers was found. Attention to implementing standardized guidelines for the care of patients with cancer and COVID-19 could improve outcomes for these vulnerable patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Rural Population , Social Vulnerability , Urban Population , Aged , Cause of Death , Censuses , Female , Health Facilities , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Registries , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Spatial Analysis , United States/epidemiology
16.
Pediatr Neurol ; 128: 33-44, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586880

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Our objective was to characterize the frequency, early impact, and risk factors for neurological manifestations in hospitalized children with acute severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). METHODS: Multicenter, cross-sectional study of neurological manifestations in children aged <18 years hospitalized with positive SARS-CoV-2 test or clinical diagnosis of a SARS-CoV-2-related condition between January 2020 and April 2021. Multivariable logistic regression to identify risk factors for neurological manifestations was performed. RESULTS: Of 1493 children, 1278 (86%) were diagnosed with acute SARS-CoV-2 and 215 (14%) with MIS-C. Overall, 44% of the cohort (40% acute SARS-CoV-2 and 66% MIS-C) had at least one neurological manifestation. The most common neurological findings in children with acute SARS-CoV-2 and MIS-C diagnosis were headache (16% and 47%) and acute encephalopathy (15% and 22%), both P < 0.05. Children with neurological manifestations were more likely to require intensive care unit (ICU) care (51% vs 22%), P < 0.001. In multivariable logistic regression, children with neurological manifestations were older (odds ratio [OR] 1.1 and 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07 to 1.13) and more likely to have MIS-C versus acute SARS-CoV-2 (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.45 to 3.24), pre-existing neurological and metabolic conditions (OR 3.48, 95% CI 2.37 to 5.15; and OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.66, respectively), and pharyngeal (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.64) or abdominal pain (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.00); all P < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: In this multicenter study, 44% of children hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2-related conditions experienced neurological manifestations, which were associated with ICU admission and pre-existing neurological condition. Posthospital assessment for, and support of, functional impairment and neuroprotective strategies are vitally needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Acute Disease , Adolescent , Brain Diseases/epidemiology , Brain Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/etiology , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , South America/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
17.
J Technol Behav Sci ; 7(1): 33-44, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525641

ABSTRACT

Dementia-related behavioral and psychology symptoms (BPSD) are undertreated and have negative consequences. However, families do not have access to disease information, tailored problem-solving  and effective management strategies, and with COVID-19, are more socially isolated and distressed. To address this dementia care gap, we describe a Phase III efficacy trial testing an online platform, WeCareAdvisor, and design modifications necessitated by COVID-19. WeCareAdvisor provides caregivers with disease information, daily tips, and a systematic approach for describing behaviors, investigating underlying causes, creating tailored strategies, and evaluating their effectiveness (DICE). The trial will enroll 326 caregivers nationwide, randomly assign them to immediately receive WeCareAdvisor (treatment), or a 3-month waitlist (control) and evaluate short (1- and 3-month) and long-term (6-month) outcomes for caregiver distress with and confidence managing BPSD, and BPSD occurrences. We will also evaluate utilization patterns with different prompting conditions: high-intensity (telephone and email reminders), low-intensity (email reminders), or no reminders to use WeCareAdvisor. COVID-19 necessitated design modifications resulting in greater inclusivity of caregivers from diverse races, ethnicities, and geographic areas. Key modifications include shifting from in-home, in-person interviewing to telephone; adjusting tool functionality from operating on a grant-funded iPad to caregivers' personal internet-capable devices; and expanding recruitment from one metropolitan area to nationwide. Study modifications necessitated by COVID-19 facilitate national outreach, easier tool adoption, and enable more diverse caregivers to participate. This study addresses a critical dementia care need, and design modifications may shorten timeline from efficacy testing to commercialization.

18.
J Clin Virol Plus ; 1(4): 100047, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509983

ABSTRACT

Serologic testing of residual blood samples from 812 children from a hospital in New Orleans, LA, between March and May 2020, demonstrated a SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence of 6.8% based on S and N protein IgG; Black and Hispanic children, and children living in zip codes with lower household incomes were over-represented.

19.
J Infect Dis ; 224(8): 1316-1324, 2021 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493825

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic spread to >200 countries in <6 months. To understand coronavirus spread, determining transmission rate and defining factors that increase transmission risk are essential. Most cases are asymptomatic, but people with asymptomatic infection have viral loads indistinguishable from those in symptomatic people, and they do transmit severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, asymptomatic cases are often undetected. METHODS: Given high residence hall student density, the University of Colorado Boulder established a mandatory weekly screening test program. We analyzed longitudinal data from 6408 students and identified 116 likely transmission events in which a second roommate tested positive within 14 days of the index roommate. RESULTS: Although the infection rate was lower in single-occupancy rooms (10%) than in multiple-occupancy rooms (19%), interroommate transmission occurred only about 20% of the time. Cases were usually asymptomatic at the time of detection. Notably, individuals who likely transmitted had an average viral load approximately 6.5-fold higher than individuals who did not (mean quantification cycle [Cq], 26.2 vs 28.9). Although students with diagnosed SARS-CoV-2 infection moved to isolation rooms, there was no difference in time to isolation between cases with or without interroommate transmission. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis argues that interroommate transmission occurs infrequently in residence halls and provides strong correlative evidence that viral load is proportional to transmission probability.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Load , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Students , Young Adult
20.
Disaster Prev Manag ; 30(4-5): 447-461, 2021 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480028

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Disaster management agencies are mandated to reduce risk for the populations that they serve. Yet, inequities in how they function may result in their activities creating disaster risk, particularly for already vulnerable and marginalized populations. In this article, how disaster management agencies create disaster risk for vulnerable and marginalized groups is examined, seeking to show the ways existing policies affect communities, and provide recommendations on policy and future research. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The authors undertook a systematic review of the US disaster management agency, Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), examining its programs through a lens of equity to understand how they shape disaster risk. FINDINGS: Despite a growing commitment to equity within FEMA, procedural, distributive, and contextual inequities result in interventions that perpetuate and amplify disaster risk for vulnerable and marginalized populations. Some of these inequities could be remediated by shifting toward a more bottom-up approach to disaster management, such as community-based disaster risk reduction approaches. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Disaster management agencies and other organizations can use the results of this study to better understand how to devise interventions in ways that limit risk creation for vulnerable populations, including through community-based approaches. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: This study is the first to examine disaster risk creation from an organizational perspective, and the first to focus explicitly on how disaster management agencies can shape risk creation. This helps understand the linkages between disaster risk creation, equity and organizations.

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