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1.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 10(1): 143-149.e9, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474685

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases (EGIDs) is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to characterize patients with EoE and EGIDs who had COVID-19, assess severity of COVID-19 in the EoE/EGID population, and evaluate for COVID-19-induced EoE/EGID flares. METHODS: We established an online global registry collecting physician entered, deidentified data related to patient demographics, EoE/EGID disease features, comorbidities, and treatments, COVID-19 source of exposure, symptoms, illness severity, hospitalizations, and deaths. RESULTS: Ninety-four cases were reported between March 2020 and April 2021 (median age, 21 years; range, 1.5-53 years; 73% male). Most had atopy (73%), and 80% had isolated EoE. Before COVID-19, the EoE/EGID activity was reported as clinical remission in 51 (54%) and moderate in 20 (21%). EoE/EGID treatments at the time of COVID-19 included proton pump inhibitors 49 (52%), swallowed/topical steroids 48 (51%), and dietary elimination 34 (36%). COVID-19 symptoms included cough (56%), fever (49%), anosmia (21%), and ageusia (22%). Most patients with COVID-19 had a mild course (70%), with 15% asymptomatic, 12% moderate, and 2% severe. Three patients were hospitalized, and no intensive care unit admissions or deaths were reported. Mean time from first symptoms to resolution in symptomatic patients was 10 days (range, 1-90 days). A single EGID flare was reported during COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: In a global EoE/EGID registry, relatively few COVID-19 cases have been reported. COVID-19 severity was comparable to the general population. Based on this registry, it does not appear that patients with EoE are at increased risk for severe COVID-19 infection or that COVID-19 leads to EGID flares.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Enteritis , Eosinophilic Esophagitis , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 650331, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156125

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection represents a global health crisis. Immune cell activation via pattern recognition receptors has been implicated as a driver of the hyperinflammatory response seen in COVID-19. However, our understanding of the specific immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 remains limited. Mast cells (MCs) and eosinophils are innate immune cells that play pathogenic roles in many inflammatory responses. Here we report MC-derived proteases and eosinophil-associated mediators are elevated in COVID-19 patient sera and lung tissues. Stimulation of viral-sensing toll-like receptors in vitro and administration of synthetic viral RNA in vivo induced features of hyperinflammation, including cytokine elevation, immune cell airway infiltration, and MC-protease production-effects suppressed by an anti-Siglec-8 monoclonal antibody which selectively inhibits MCs and depletes eosinophils. Similarly, anti-Siglec-8 treatment reduced disease severity and airway inflammation in a respiratory viral infection model. These results suggest that MC and eosinophil activation are associated with COVID-19 inflammation and anti-Siglec-8 antibodies are a potential therapeutic approach for attenuating excessive inflammation during viral infections.


Subject(s)
Antigens, CD/immunology , Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Eosinophils/immunology , Lectins/immunology , Mast Cells/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Toll-Like Receptors/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antigens, CD/genetics , Antigens, CD/metabolism , Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte/genetics , Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Eosinophils/drug effects , Eosinophils/metabolism , Eosinophils/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Lectins/antagonists & inhibitors , Lectins/genetics , Lectins/metabolism , Mast Cells/drug effects , Mast Cells/metabolism , Mast Cells/virology , Mice, Transgenic , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/metabolism , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism
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