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2.
United European Gastroenterology Journal ; 10(Supplement 8):208, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2114129
4.
Nanofiber Filter Technologies for Filtration of Submicron Aerosols and Nanoaerosols ; : 1-552, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2014705
7.
Supportive Care in Cancer ; 30:S136-S137, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1935785
9.
Information Technology & People ; : 31, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1868481
12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 797919, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608316

ABSTRACT

Persistence of protective immunity for SARS-CoV-2 is important against reinfection. Knowledge on SARS-CoV-2 immunity in pediatric patients is currently lacking. We opted to assess the SARS-CoV-2 adaptive immunity in recovered children and adolescents, addressing the pediatrics specific immunity towards COVID-19. Two independent assays were performed to investigate humoral and cellular immunological memory in pediatric convalescent COVID-19 patients. Specifically, RBD IgG, CD4+, and CD8+ T cell responses were identified and quantified in recovered children and adolescents. SARS-CoV-2-specific RBD IgG detected in recovered patients had a half-life of 121.6 days and estimated duration of 7.9 months compared with baseline levels in controls. The specific T cell response was shown to be independent of days after diagnosis. Both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells showed robust responses not only to spike (S) peptides (a main target of vaccine platforms) but were also similarly activated when stimulated by membrane (M) and nuclear (N) peptides. Importantly, we found the differences in the adaptive responses were correlated with the age of the recovered patients. The CD4+ T cell response to SARS-CoV-2 S peptide in children aged <12 years correlated with higher SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG levels, suggesting the importance of a T cell-dependent humoral response in younger children under 12 years. Both cellular and humoral immunity against SARS-CoV-2 infections can be induced in pediatric patients. Our important findings provide fundamental knowledge on the immune memory responses to SARS-CoV-2 in recovered pediatric patients.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Convalescence , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
14.
Hong Kong Med J ; 26(3): 176-183, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468777

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated the preparedness of family doctors during the early phase of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in Hong Kong. METHODS: All members of the Hong Kong College of Family Physicians were invited to participate in a cross-sectional online survey using a 20-item questionnaire to collect information on practice preparedness for the COVID-19 outbreak through an email followed by a reminder SMS message between 31 January 2020 and 3 February 2020. RESULTS: Of 1589 family doctors invited, 491 (31%) participated in the survey, including 242 (49%) from private sector. In all, 98% surveyed doctors continued to provide clinical services during the survey period, but reduced clinic service demands were observed in 45% private practices and 24% public clinics. Almost all wore masks during consultation and washed hands between or before patient contact. Significantly more private than public doctors (80% vs 26%, P<0.001) experienced difficulties in stocking personal protective equipment (PPE); more public doctors used guidelines to manage suspected patients. The main concern of the respondents was PPE shortage. Respondents appealed for effective public health interventions including border control, quarantine measures, designated clinic setup, and public education. CONCLUSION: Family doctors from public and private sectors demonstrated preparedness to serve the community from the early phase of the COVID-19 outbreak with heightened infection control measures and use of guidelines. However, there is a need for support from local health authorities to secure PPE supply and institute public health interventions.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Family Practice/organization & administration , Health Care Surveys/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Physicians, Family/statistics & numerical data
18.
Hong Kong Med J ; 27(2): 99-105, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168171

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Hospital Authority of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region established a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) temporary test centre at the AsiaWorld-Expo from March 2020 to April 2020, which allowed high-risk individuals to undergo early assessment of potential severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. This study reviewed the characteristics and outcomes of individuals who attended the centre for COVID-19 testing. METHODS: This retrospective cross-sectional study collected epidemiological and clinical data. The primary outcome was a positive or negative SARS-CoV-2 test result, according to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses of pooled nasopharyngeal and throat swabs collected at the centre. The relationships of clinical characteristics with SARS-CoV-2 positive test results were assessed by multivariable binary logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 1258 attendees included in the analysis, 86 individuals tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection (positivity rate=6.84%; 95% confidence interval [CI]=5.57%-8.37%). Of these 86 individuals, 40 (46.5%) were aged 15 to 24 years and 81 (94.2%) had a history of recent travel. Symptoms were reported by 86.0% and 96.3% of individuals with positive and negative test results, respectively. The clinical characteristics most strongly associated with a positive test result were anosmia (adjusted odds ratio [ORadj]=8.30; 95% CI=1.12-127.09) and fever ORadj=1.32; 95% CI=1.02-3.28). CONCLUSION: The temporary test centre successfully helped identify individuals with COVID-19 who exhibited mild disease symptoms. Healthcare providers should carefully consider the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 to arrange early testing to reduce community spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Quick Diagnosis Units , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Quick Diagnosis Units/methods , Quick Diagnosis Units/organization & administration , Quick Diagnosis Units/statistics & numerical data , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Travel-Related Illness
19.
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol ; 57(6): 974-978, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1162972

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral load and infection-to-delivery interval with maternal and cord serum concentrations of anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies and transplacental transfer ratio in pregnant women with active or recovered SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: This was a prospective case series of consecutive pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between 27 March 2020 and 24 January 2021. We collected information regarding deep throat saliva or nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results, serial cycle threshold (Ct) values at and after diagnosis, demographic, clinical and outcome data, and neonatal NPS RT-PCR results. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of IgG and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 was performed in maternal and cord blood serum samples obtained at delivery. Correlation of maternal Ct values, infection-to-delivery interval, infection duration and viral load area under the curve (AUC) with gestational age (GA) at diagnosis, maternal and cord serum IgG concentrations and transplacental transfer ratio of IgG were evaluated using Pearson's correlation. RESULTS: Twenty pregnant women who consented to participate and who had delivered their babies by 31 January 2021 were included in the study, comprising 14 who had recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and six with active infection at delivery. The median GA at clinical manifestation was 32.7 (range, 11.9-39.4) weeks. The median infection-to-delivery interval and infection duration were 41.5 (range, 2-187) days and 10.0 (range, 1-48) days, respectively. The median GA at delivery was 39.1 (range, 32.4-40.7) weeks and the median seroconversion interval was 14 (range, 1-19) days. Of 13 neonates born to seropositive mothers with recovered infection at delivery, 12 tested positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG. All neonatal NPS samples were negative for SARS-CoV-2 and all cord sera tested negative for IgM. The median transplacental transfer ratio of IgG was 1.3 (interquartile range, 0.9-1.6). There was a negative correlation between infection-to-delivery interval and anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG concentrations in maternal (r = -0.6693, P = 0.0087) and cord (r = -0.6554, P = 0.0068) serum and a positive correlation between IgG concentration in maternal serum and viral load AUC (r = 0.5109, P = 0.0310). A negative correlation was observed between transfer ratio and viral load AUC (r = -0.4757, P = 0.0409). CONCLUSIONS: In pregnant women who have recovered from COVID-19, anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG concentrations at delivery increased with increasing viral load during infection and decreased with increasing infection-to-delivery interval. The median transplacental transfer ratio of IgG was 1.3 and it decreased with increasing viral load during infection. © 2021 International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Maternally-Acquired/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Viral Load/immunology , Adult , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cohort Studies , Female , Fetal Blood/immunology , Gestational Age , Humans , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Time Factors
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