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1.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-37, 2022 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751631

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a global health crisis and may have affected healthcare-associated infections (HAI) prevention strategies. This study aims to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on HAI incidence in Brazilian ICUs. METHODS: This ecological study compared adult patients admitted to the ICU from April through June 2020 (pandemic period) with the same period in 2019 (pre-pandemic period) in 21 Brazilian hospitals. The difference in microbiologically confirmed central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) incidence density (cases per 1,000 patient days), the proportion of organisms that caused HAI, and antibiotic consumption (DDD) between the pandemic and the pre pandemic periods were compared in a pairwise analysis using the Wilcoxon signed rank sum test. RESULTS: We observed a significant increase in median CLABSI incidence during the pandemic (1.60 [0.44-4.20] vs. 2.81 [1.35-6.89], p = 0.002). There was no difference in VAP incidence between the two periods. In addition, there was a significant increase in the proportion of CLABSI caused by Enterococcus faecalis and Candida species during the pandemic, although only the latter retained statistical significance after correction for multiple comparisons. There was no significant change in ceftriaxone, piperacillin/tazobactam, meropenem, or vancomycin consumption between the studied periods. CONCLUSIONS: There was an increase in CLABSI incidence in Brazilian ICUs during the first months of COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, we observed an increase in the proportion of CLABSI caused by E. faecalis and Candida species in this period. CLABSI prevention strategies must be reinforced in ICUs during the COVID-19 pandemic.

2.
Clinics ; 76: e3299, 2021. tab
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1478393

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in hemodialysis facilities and the occurrence of and risk factors for clustering of COVID-19 cases. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey between March and July 2020, in all dialysis facilities in São Paulo state, using Google Forms. The online questionnaire contained questions addressing specific components of infection prevention and control practices and the number of cases during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: A total of 1,093 (5%) COVID-19 cases were reported among 20,984 patients; approximately 56% of the facilities had ≥1 cluster. Most facilities implemented various measures (such as allocation of dedicated COVID-19 areas/shifts, symptom screening, environmental disinfection, and maintenance of adequate ventilation) to prevent the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Clustering of COVID-19 cases was suspected in only 7% of dialysis facilities. The only variable associated with this event was the performance of aerosol-generating procedures (odds ratio: 4.74; 95% confidence interval: 1.75-12.86). CONCLUSION: Attention should be paid to avoiding the performance of aerosol-generating procedures in dialysis facilities and monitoring the clustering of cases.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(5): e1214-e1218, 2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455274

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 and risk factors among 4987 oligo/asymptomatic healthcare workers; seroprevalence was 14% and factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection were lower educational level (aOR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.03-3.60), using public transport to work (aOR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.07-2.62), and working in cleaning or security (aOR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.04-4.03).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies
4.
Environ Pollut ; 290: 118003, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442360

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has led to concerns on the circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in the environment, its infectivity from the environment and, the relevance of transmission via environmental compartments. During 31 weeks, water samples were collected from a heavily contaminated stream going through an urban, underprivileged community without sewage collection. Our results showed a statistically significant correlation between cases of COVID-19 and SARS in the community, and SARS-CoV-2 concentrations in the water. Based on the model, if the concentrations of SARS-CoV-RNA (N1 and N2 target regions) increase 10 times, there is an expected increase of 104% [95%CI: (62-157%)] and 92% [95%CI: (51-143%)], respectively, in the number of cases of COVID-19 and SARS. We believe that differences in concentration of the virus in the environment reflect the epidemiological status in the community, which may be important information for surveillance and controlling dissemination in areas with vulnerable populations and poor sanitation. None of the samples were found infectious based cultures. Our results may be applicable globally as similar communities exist worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rivers/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Urban Population , Vulnerable Populations
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434380

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The public health impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has motivated a rapid search for potential therapeutics, with some key successes. However, the potential impact of different treatments, and consequently research and procurement priorities, have not been clear. METHODS: Using a mathematical model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, COVID-19 disease and clinical care, we explore the public-health impact of different potential therapeutics, under a range of scenarios varying healthcare capacity, epidemic trajectories; and drug efficacy in the absence of supportive care. RESULTS: The impact of drugs like dexamethasone (delivered to the most critically-ill in hospital and whose therapeutic benefit is expected to depend on the availability of supportive care such as oxygen and mechanical ventilation) is likely to be limited in settings where healthcare capacity is lowest or where uncontrolled epidemics result in hospitals being overwhelmed. As such, it may avert 22% of deaths in high-income countries but only 8% in low-income countries (assuming R=1.35). Therapeutics for different patient populations (those not in hospital, early in the course of infection) and types of benefit (reducing disease severity or infectiousness, preventing hospitalisation) could have much greater benefits, particularly in resource-poor settings facing large epidemics. CONCLUSIONS: Advances in the treatment of COVID-19 to date have been focussed on hospitalised-patients and predicated on an assumption of adequate access to supportive care. Therapeutics delivered earlier in the course of infection that reduce the need for healthcare or reduce infectiousness could have significant impact, and research into their efficacy and means of delivery should be a priority.

7.
Environ Pollut ; 290: 118003, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364007

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has led to concerns on the circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in the environment, its infectivity from the environment and, the relevance of transmission via environmental compartments. During 31 weeks, water samples were collected from a heavily contaminated stream going through an urban, underprivileged community without sewage collection. Our results showed a statistically significant correlation between cases of COVID-19 and SARS in the community, and SARS-CoV-2 concentrations in the water. Based on the model, if the concentrations of SARS-CoV-RNA (N1 and N2 target regions) increase 10 times, there is an expected increase of 104% [95%CI: (62-157%)] and 92% [95%CI: (51-143%)], respectively, in the number of cases of COVID-19 and SARS. We believe that differences in concentration of the virus in the environment reflect the epidemiological status in the community, which may be important information for surveillance and controlling dissemination in areas with vulnerable populations and poor sanitation. None of the samples were found infectious based cultures. Our results may be applicable globally as similar communities exist worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rivers/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Urban Population , Vulnerable Populations
9.
Int J Infect Dis ; 105: 579-587, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1126872

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The progression and severity of COVID-19 vary significantly in the population. While the hallmarks of SARS-CoV-2 and severe COVID-19 within routine laboratory parameters are emerging, the impact of sex and age on these profiles is still unknown. METHODS: A multidimensional analysis was performed involving millions of records of laboratory parameters and diagnostic tests for 178 887 individuals from Brazil, of whom 33 266 tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Analyzed data included those relating to complete blood cell count, electrolytes, metabolites, arterial blood gases, enzymes, hormones, cancer biomarkers, and others. FINDINGS: COVID-19 induced similar alterations in laboratory parameters in males and females. CRP and ferritin were increased, especially in older men with COVID-19, whereas abnormal liver function tests were common across several age groups, except for young women. Low peripheral blood basophils and eosinophils were more common in the elderly with COVID-19. Both male and female COVID-19 patients admitted to intensive care units displayed alterations in the coagulation system, and higher values for neutrophils, CRP, and lactate dehydrogenase. CONCLUSIONS: Our study uncovered the laboratory profiles of a large cohort of COVID-19 patients, which formed the basis of discrepancies influenced by aging and biological sex. These profiles directly linked COVID-19 disease presentation to an intricate interplay between sex, age, and immune activation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Inflammation/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Sex Characteristics , Young Adult
10.
Front Physiol ; 12: 624169, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1094203

ABSTRACT

Background: Increased exercise and physical activity levels are recommended throughout cancer therapy and survivorship. Nonetheless, the COVID-19 pandemic and consequent social distancing are likely to cause a decline in physical activity. Objective: to evaluate the level of unsupervised physical activity of breast cancer survivors during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the factors associated with difficulties in engaging and maintaining recommended physical activity levels. Methods: This is a cross-sectional epidemiological study with a sample of 37 breast cancer survivors. They participated in a canoeing training program (project Remama) at the University of São Paulo before the COVID-19 pandemic. Socioeconomic aspects, engagement in physical activity, motivation, and potential exposure to COVID-19 were investigated through an online survey, administered in September of 2020. Results: During the pandemic, participants increased their body weight (5 ± 3.4 kg); 90% reported decreasing physical activity levels associated with increased sedentary time. Twenty-one (58%) participants exhibited some COVID-19-related symptoms, most used public transportation (59%), or returned to work during the period of a high incidence of COVID-19. The only factor associated with perceived difficulty in engaging in physical activities was having had more than three cancer treatments (RR: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.07-4.27). Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic led to a group of previously active breast cancer survivors to decrease their physical activity, gain weight, and have sedentary behavior. Specific tailored-care interventions are needed to prevent these occurrences, as overweight and physical inactivity may impose an additional risk for breast cancer recurrence and a severe course of COVID-19 in cancer patients.

11.
Int J Infect Dis ; 104: 320-328, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065182

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic increased global demand for personal protective equipment (PPE) and resulted in shortages. The study evaluated the re-use of surgical masks and respirators by analysing their performance and safety before and after reprocessing using the following methods: oven, thermal drying, autoclave, and hydrogen peroxide plasma vapour. METHODS: In total, 45 surgical masks and 69 respirators were decontaminated. Visual integrity, air permeability, burst resistance, pressure differential and particulate filtration efficiency of new and decontaminated surgical masks and respirators were evaluated. In addition, 14 used respirators were analysed after work shifts before and after decontamination using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and viral culturing. Finally, reprocessed respirators were evaluated by users in terms of functionality and comfort. RESULTS: Oven decontamination (75 °C for 45 min) was found to be the simplest decontamination method. Physical and filtration assays indicated that all reprocessing methods were safe after one cycle. Oven decontamination maintained the characteristics of surgical masks and respirators for at least five reprocessing cycles. Viral RNA was detected by RT-PCR in two of the 14 used respirators. Four respirators submitted to viral culture were PCR-negative and culture-negative. Reprocessed respirators used in work shifts were evaluated positively by users, even after three decontamination cycles. CONCLUSION: Oven decontamination is a safe method for reprocessing surgical masks and respirators for at least five cycles, and is feasible in the hospital setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Decontamination/methods , Masks/virology , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Ventilators, Mechanical/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Equipment Reuse , Hospitals , Hot Temperature , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
12.
J Clin Virol ; 131: 104592, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-726609

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated a rapid chromatographic immunoassay (IgG/IgM antibodies) and an ELISA assay to diagnose COVID-19 in patient sat two Brazilian hospitals. METHODS: A total of 122 subjects with COVID-19 were included: 106 SARS-COV-2 RT-PCR-positive patients and 16 RT-PCR-negative patients with symptoms and chest computed tomography (CT) consistent with COVID-19. Ninety-six historical blood donation samples were used as controls. Demographic and clinical characteristics were retrieved from electronic records. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated, as were their 95% binomial confidence intervals using the Clopper-Pearson method. All analyses were performed in R version 3.6.3. RESULTS: The sensitivity of the chromatographic immunoassay in all RT-PCR-positive patients, irrespective of the timing of symptom onset, was 85.8% (95% binomial CI 77.7% to 91.9%). This increased with time after symptom onset, and at >14 days was 94.9% (85.9% to 98.9%). The specificity was 100% (96.4% to 100%). 15/16 (94%) RT- PCR-negative cases tested positive. The most frequent comorbidities were hypertension and diabetes mellitus and the most frequent symptoms were fever, cough, and dyspnea. All RT-PCR-negative patients had pneumonia. The most frequent thoracic CT findings were ground glass changes (n = 11, 68%), which were bilateral in 9 (56%) patients, and diffuse reticulonodular infiltrates (n = 5, 31%). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 rapid chromatographic immunoassay evaluated in this study had a high sensitivity and specificity using plasma, particularly after 14 days from symptom onset. ELISA and qualitative rapid chromatographic immunoassays can be used for the diagnosis of RT-PCR-negative patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Chromatography , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Immunoassay , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , Brazil , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
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