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1.
J Addict Med ; 16(5): 505-513, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051577

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Among opioid use disorder (OUD)-treating providers, to characterize adaptations used to provide medications for OUD (MOUD) and factors associated with desire to continue virtual visits post-COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In a national electronic survey of OUD-treating prescribers (July-August 2020), analyses restricted to X-waivered buprenorphine prescribers providing outpatient, longitudinal care for adults with OUD, quantitative and qualitative analyses of survey items and free text responses were conducted. RESULTS: Among 797 respondents, 49% were men, 57% ≥50 years, 76% White, 68% physicians. Respondents widely used virtual visits to continue prescribing existing MOUD regimens (79%), provide behavioral healthcare (71%), and initiate new MOUD prescriptions (49%). Most prescribers preferred to continue/expand use of virtual visits after COVID-19. In multivariable models, factors associated with preference to continue/expand virtual visits to initiate MOUD postpandemic were treating a moderate number of patients prepandemic (aOR = 1.67; 95%[CI] = 1.06,2.62) and practicing in an urban setting (aOR = 2.17; 95%[CI] = 1.48,3.18). Prescribing buprenorphine prepandemic (aOR = 2.06; 95%[CI] = 1.11,3.82) and working in an academic medical center (aOR = 2.47; 95%[CI] = 1.30,4.68) were associated with preference to continue/expand use of virtual visits to continue MOUD postpandemic. Prescribing naltrexone extended-release injection prepandemic was associated with preference to continue/expand virtual visits to initiate and continue MOUD (aOR = 1.51; 95%[CI] = 1.10,2.07; aOR = 1.74; 95%[CI] = 1.19,2.54). Qualitative findings suggest that providers appreciated virtual visits due to convenience and patient accessibility, but were concerned about liability and technological barriers. CONCLUSIONS: Surveyed prescribers widely used virtual visits to provide MOUD with overall positive experiences. Future studies should evaluate the impact of virtual visits on MOUD access and retention and clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Buprenorphine , COVID-19 , Opioid-Related Disorders , Adult , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Buprenorphine/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Naltrexone/therapeutic use , Opiate Substitution Treatment , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics
2.
J Behav Health Serv Res ; 49(3): 262-281, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872666

ABSTRACT

This study aims to describe which substance use service (SUS) organizations and who within these organizations support the maintenance of policies targeted at improving substance use treatment services. An online survey assessing respondent, organizational and program demographics, and knowledge and support regarding policy changes was distributed to all certified SUS and harm reduction programs in NYS. Bivariate and latent class analyses were used to identify patterns and associations to policy choices. Across the 227 respondents, there was a support for maintaining expansion of insurance coverage, virtual behavioral health/counseling and medication initiation/maintenance visits, reductions in prior authorizations, and access to prevention/harm reduction services. Three classes of support for policies were derived: (1) high-supporters (n = 49; 21%), (2) low-supporters (n = 66; 29%), and (3) selective-supporters. Having knowledge of policy changes was associated with membership in the high-supporters class. Implications regarding the role of knowledge in behavioral health policies dissemination structures, decision-making, and long-term expansion of SUS are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Policy , Humans , Insurance Coverage , New York , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy
3.
Psychiatr Serv ; 73(5): 481, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861747
5.
Psychiatr Serv ; 73(4): 374-380, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348210

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically affected health care delivery, effects that are juxtaposed with health care professional (HCP) burnout and mental distress. The Opioid Use Disorder Provider COVID-19 Survey was conducted to better understand the impact of COVID-19 on clinical practice and HCP well-being. METHODS: The cross-sectional survey was e-mailed to listservs with approximately 157,000 subscribers of diverse professions between July 14 and August 15, 2020. Two dependent variables evaluated HCP functioning and work-life balance. Independent variables assessed organizational practices and HCP experiences. Covariates included participant demographic characteristics, addiction board certification, and practice setting. Multilevel multivariate logistic regression models were used. RESULTS: Among 812 survey respondents, most were men, White, and physicians, with 46% located in urban settings. Function-impairing anxiety was reported by 17%, and 28% reported more difficulty with work-life balance. Difficulty with functioning was positively associated with having staff who were sick with COVID-19 and feeling close to patients, and was negatively associated with being male and having no staff changes. Difficulty with work-life balance was positively associated with addiction board certification; working in multiple settings; having layoffs, furloughs, or reduced hours; staff illness with COVID-19; and group well-being check-ins. It was negatively associated with male gender, older age, and no staff changes. CONCLUSIONS: Demographic, provider, and organizational-practice variables were associated with reporting negative measures of well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic. These results should inform HCPs and their organizations on factors that may lead to burnout, with particular focus on gender and age-related concerns and the role of well-being check-ins.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Opioid-Related Disorders , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Opioid-Related Disorders/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 133: 108550, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284257

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, regulations for substance use services changed to accommodate stay-at-home orders and physical distancing guidelines. METHODS: Using in-depth interviews (N = 14) and framework analysis, we describe how policymakers developed, adopted, and implemented regulations governing services for substance use disorders during COVID-19, and how policymakers' perceived the impacts of these regulations in New York State. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, policymakers shifted to more inclusive approaches of knowledge generation and co-production of recommendations. Barriers to adoption and implementation of new regulations included medication/services supply, lack of integration, stigma, and overcriminalization. CONCLUSION: Findings from this study highlight the potential feasibility and benefits of co-produced policies for substance use services and the need for consistent service supply, better integration with health care services, reduced stigma, improved funding structures, best practice guidelines, criminal justice reform, and harm reduction support. These considerations should inform future policy maintenance and modifications to substance use services related to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Pandemics , Policy , Policy Making , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Addict Med ; 14(6): e297-e302, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1020282

ABSTRACT

: As a result of the coronavirus 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic, clinical research for substance use disorders (SUDs) has been impeded due to widespread stay-at-home mandates limiting the operations of "non-essential" work. Although appropriate to proceed with an abundance of caution to prevent viral spread, there will be detrimental consequences for patients with SUDs if clinical trials research cannot adapt and continue uninterrupted. The field of digital health has strong evidence for its feasibility and effectiveness and offers tools that can facilitate the continuation of SUD clinical trials research remotely in accordance with Covid-19 precautions. Some digital tools have been used as components of SUD research in the past; however, no published clinical trial in SUDs to-date has been entirely virtual. This has important implications for disrupted clinical care, as providers seek guidelines for best digital practices. This paper provides a roadmap for integrating the fields of digital health and SUD clinical trials by proposing methods to complete recruitment, screening, informed consent, other study procedures, and internal lab operations digitally. The immediate future of SUD research depends on the ability to comply with social distancing. Investment in research of digital clinical trials for SUDs provides an opportunity to cultivate benefits for research and clinical care long-term as we can (1) define regulatory requirements for the implementation of digital systems, (2) develop consensus on system-wide standards and protocols in the appropriate use of technology, and (3) gain experience that can translate to the treatment of patients with SUDs through telehealth in the community.


Subject(s)
Clinical Trials as Topic/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , Telemedicine/methods , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Informed Consent , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Selection , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control
8.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 122: 108196, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922082

ABSTRACT

The temporary loosening of regulations governing methadone and buprenorphine treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD) in the U.S., instituted to prevent the spread of COVID-19, has created an opportunity to explore the effectiveness of new models of care for people with OUD. The opioid cascade describes the current status of the treatment system, where only a fraction of people with OUD initiate effective medication treatment for OUD (MOUD), and of those only a fraction is retained in treatment. Regulatory changes-such as availability of larger take-home supplies of methadone and buprenorphine initiated via telemedicine (e.g., no initial in person visit; telemedicine buprenorphine permitted across state lines)-could modify the cascade, by reducing the burden and increasing the attractiveness, availability, and feasibility of MOUD both for people with OUD and for providers. We review examples of more liberal MOUD regimens, including the implementation of buprenorphine in France in the 1990s, primary care-based methadone in Canada, and low-threshold buprenorphine models. Research is needed to document whether new models implemented in the U.S. in the wake of COVID-19 are successful, and whether safety concerns, such as diversion and misuse, emerge. We discuss barriers to implementation, including racial and ethnic health disparities, and lack of knowledge and reluctance among potential providers of MOUD. We suggest that the urgency and public spiritedness of the response to COVID-19 be harnessed to make gains on the opioid cascade, inspiring prescribers, health systems, and communities to embrace the delivery of MOUD to meet the needs of an increasingly vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Pandemics , African Americans , Buprenorphine/therapeutic use , Health Services Accessibility , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Legislation, Drug , Methadone/therapeutic use , Narcotic Antagonists/therapeutic use , Opiate Substitution Treatment , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Telemedicine , United States/epidemiology
9.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(S1): S111-S112, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-607254

ABSTRACT

The United States is facing both the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and an ongoing epidemic of opioid overdose. Opioid use disorder is associated with other mental health problems, trauma, and social and health disparities. While the United States has acted to improve access to treatment for mental health and opioid use, research will be needed to understand the effectiveness of new policies in the context of COVID-19. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Drug Overdose/psychology , Opioid Epidemic , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Opioid-Related Disorders/psychology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Social Isolation , Adult , COVID-19 , Humans , Opiate Substitution Treatment , United States , United States Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
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