Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 26
Filter
1.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 151(4): 926-930.e2, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292395

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Autoantibodies against type I IFNs occur in approximately 10% of adults with life-threatening coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The frequency of anti-IFN autoantibodies in children with severe sequelae of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We quantified anti-type I IFN autoantibodies in a multicenter cohort of children with severe COVID-19, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), and mild SARS-CoV-2 infections. METHODS: Circulating anti-IFN-α2 antibodies were measured by a radioligand binding assay. Whole-exome sequencing, RNA sequencing, and functional studies of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were used to study any patients with levels of anti-IFN-α2 autoantibodies exceeding the assay's positive control. RESULTS: Among 168 patients with severe COVID-19, 199 with MIS-C, and 45 with mild SARS-CoV-2 infections, only 1 had high levels of anti-IFN-α2 antibodies. Anti-IFN-α2 autoantibodies were not detected in patients treated with intravenous immunoglobulin before sample collection. Whole-exome sequencing identified a missense variant in the ankyrin domain of NFKB2, encoding the p100 subunit of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain enhancer of activated B cells, aka NF-κB, essential for noncanonical NF-κB signaling. The patient's peripheral blood mononuclear cells exhibited impaired cleavage of p100 characteristic of NFKB2 haploinsufficiency, an inborn error of immunity with a high prevalence of autoimmunity. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of anti-IFN-α2 autoantibodies in children and adolescents with MIS-C, severe COVID-19, and mild SARS-CoV-2 infections are rare but can occur in patients with inborn errors of immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Adult , Humans , Child , Adolescent , SARS-CoV-2 , Autoantibodies , NF-kappa B , Haploinsufficiency , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , NF-kappa B p52 Subunit
3.
World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg ; 11(4): 485-487, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268582
4.
J Immunol Methods ; 510: 113351, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2285439

ABSTRACT

This article aims to describe the clinical manifestations and management of COVID-19 in patients with primary and secondary B cell deficient states. We describe the epidemiologic and clinical features as well as unique management paradigm including isolation precautions with COVID-19. We then focus upon primary and secondary preventive approaches including vaccination and pre- as well as post-exposure prophylaxis. Further, we elaborate upon the important disease specific risk factors in these patients and the need to conduct prospective clinical trials to develop individualized management strategies in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
6.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 10(3): ofad122, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2272461

ABSTRACT

Background: Community-onset bacterial coinfection in adults hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is reportedly uncommon, though empiric antibiotic use has been high. However, data regarding empiric antibiotic use and bacterial coinfection in children with critical illness from COVID-19 are scarce. Methods: We evaluated children and adolescents aged <19 years admitted to a pediatric intensive care or high-acuity unit for COVID-19 between March and December 2020. Based on qualifying microbiology results from the first 3 days of admission, we adjudicated whether patients had community-onset bacterial coinfection. We compared demographic and clinical characteristics of those who did and did not (1) receive antibiotics and (2) have bacterial coinfection early in admission. Using Poisson regression models, we assessed factors associated with these outcomes. Results: Of the 532 patients, 63.3% received empiric antibiotics, but only 7.1% had bacterial coinfection, and only 3.0% had respiratory bacterial coinfection. In multivariable analyses, empiric antibiotics were more likely to be prescribed for immunocompromised patients (adjusted relative risk [aRR], 1.34 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.01-1.79]), those requiring any respiratory support except mechanical ventilation (aRR, 1.41 [95% CI, 1.05-1.90]), or those requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (aRR, 1.83 [95% CI, 1.36-2.47]) (compared with no respiratory support). The presence of a pulmonary comorbidity other than asthma (aRR, 2.31 [95% CI, 1.15-4.62]) was associated with bacterial coinfection. Conclusions: Community-onset bacterial coinfection in children with critical COVID-19 is infrequent, but empiric antibiotics are commonly prescribed. These findings inform antimicrobial use and support rapid de-escalation when evaluation shows coinfection is unlikely.

7.
Lancet Digit Health ; 5(4): e206-e216, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2271287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergency use authorisation of BNT162b2 (tozinameran; Comirnaty, Pfizer-BioNTech) for children aged 5-17 years has resulted in rapid vaccination in the paediatric population. However, there are few studies of adverse events associated with vaccination in children. The aim of this study was to systematically assess the adverse events of two-dose BNT162b2 vaccination in the paediatric population. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of patient electronic health records (EHRs) of children aged 5-17 years who received the primary two-dose series of the BNT162b2 vaccine between Jan 5, 2021, and Aug 5, 2022, at the Mayo Clinic Health System (MN, FL, AZ, IA, and WI), USA. Using natural language processing, we automatically curated adverse events reported by physicians in EHR clinical notes before and after vaccination. To determine significant adverse events after BNT162b2 vaccination, we calculated risk differences, which was defined as the percentage difference between the rate of children with an adverse event after a vaccine dose and the baseline rate of children with an adverse event before vaccination. 95% CIs and p values were calculated using the Miettinen and Nurminen score method. FINDINGS: 56 436 individuals aged 5-17 years (20 227 aged 5-11 years and 36 209 aged 12-17 years) with EHRs in the Mayo Clinic Health Systems were included in the study. Overall, the reporting of adverse events remained low in passive surveillance. Serious adverse events were rare after the first and second doses of BNT162b2, with rates of anaphylaxis (six [0·01%] of 56 436), myocarditis (five [0·01%]), and pericarditis (three [0·01%]) consistent with previous studies. Among the 20 227 5-11-year-olds, there were increased risks of fatigue (58 after second dose vs 41 before first dose; risk difference [RD]dose2 0·08% [95% CI -0·01 to 0·18], p=0·044) and fever (104 after second dose vs 77 before first dose; RDdose2 0·13% [0·00 to 0·27], p=0·022) after the second dose. Among the 36 209 12-17-year-olds, there were increased risks of arthralgia (69 after second dose vs 48 before first dose; RDdose2 0·06% [-0·00 to 0·12], p=0·026), chills (58 after second dose vs 40 before first dose; RDdose2 0·05% [-0·00 to 0·11], p=0·034), and myalgia (96 after second dose vs 73 before first dose; RDdose2 0·06% [-0·01 to 0·14], p=0·038) after the second dose. Although the overall incidence was low, there was an increased risk of myocarditis in males aged 12-17 years after the second dose (five after second dose vs zero before first dose; RDdose2 0·03% [0·01 to 0·07], p=0·013), with median age being 15 years (IQR 14 to 16). INTERPRETATION: Overall, this data suggests that vaccination with BNT162b2 in the paediatric population is generally safe and well-tolerated. Further research is warranted to investigate the basis for the increased risk of myocarditis in adolescent males. Additionally, further studies are needed to confirm whether the findings in our study population apply to the whole vaccinated paediatric population. FUNDING: nference.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Male , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , Electronic Health Records , Hospitals , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination , COVID-19/prevention & control
8.
Transfusion ; 63(5): 918-924, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264275

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Convalescent COVID-19 plasma (CCP) was developed and used worldwide as a treatment option by supplying passive immunity. Adult studies suggest administering high-titer CCP early in the disease course of patients who are expected to be antibody-negative; however, pediatric experience is limited. We created a multi-institutional registry to characterize pediatric patients (<18 years) who received CCP and to assess the safety of this intervention. METHODS: A REDCap survey was distributed. The registry collected de-identified data including demographic information (age, gender, and underlying conditions), COVID-19 disease features and concurrent treatments, CCP transfusion and safety events, and therapy response. RESULTS: Ninety-five children received CCP: 90 inpatients and 5 outpatients, with a median age of 10.2 years (range 0-17.9). They were predominantly Latino/Hispanic and White. The most frequent underlying medical conditions were chronic respiratory disease, immunosuppression, obesity, and genetic syndromes. CCP was primarily given as a treatment (95%) rather than prophylaxis (5%). Median total plasma dose administered and transfusion rates were 5.0 ml/kg and 2.6 ml/kg/h, respectively. The transfusions were well-tolerated, with 3 in 115 transfusions reporting mild reactions. No serious adverse events were reported. Severity scores decreased significantly 7 days after CCP transfusion or at discharge. Eighty-five patients (94.4%) survived to hospital discharge. All five outpatients survived to 60 days. CONCLUSIONS: CCP was found to be safe and well-tolerated in children. CCP was frequently given concurrently with other COVID-19-directed treatments with improvement in clinical severity scores ≥7 days after CCP, but efficacy could not be evaluated in this study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Child , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunization, Passive/adverse effects , COVID-19 Serotherapy , Blood Transfusion
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2237414

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), linked to antecedent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, is associated with considerable morbidity. Prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection or coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by vaccination might also decrease MIS-C likelihood. METHODS: In a multicenter case-control public health investigation of children ages 5-18 years hospitalized from July 1, 2021 to April 7, 2022, we compared the odds of being fully vaccinated (two doses of BNT162b2 vaccine ≥28 days before hospital admission) between MIS-C case-patients and hospital-based controls who tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. These associations were examined by age group, timing of vaccination, and periods of Delta and Omicron variant predominance using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: We compared 304 MIS-C case-patients (280 [92%] unvaccinated) with 502 controls (346 [69%] unvaccinated). MIS-C was associated with decreased likelihood of vaccination (aOR, 0.16 95% CI, 0.10-0.26), including among children ages 5-11 years (aOR, 0.22 95% CI, 0.10-0.52), ages 12-18 years (aOR, 0.10 95% CI, 0.05-0.19), and during the Delta (aOR, 0.06 95% CI, 0.02-0.15) and Omicron (aOR, 0.22 95% CI, 0.11-0.42) variant-predominant periods. This association persisted beyond 120 days after the second dose (aOR, 0.08, 95% CI, 0.03-0.22) in 12-18 year-olds. Among all MIS-C case-patients, 187 (62%) required intensive care unit admission and 280 (92%) vaccine-eligible patients were unvaccinated. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination with two doses of BNT162b2 is associated with reduced likelihood of MIS-C in children ages 5-18 years. Most vaccine eligible hospitalized patients with MIS-C were unvaccinated.

10.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 2022 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2235140

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine received emergency use authorization for persons ≥16 years in December 2020 and for adolescents 12-15 years in May 2021. Despite the clear benefits and favorable safety profile, vaccine uptake in adolescents has been suboptimal. We sought to assess factors associated with COVID-19 non-vaccination in adolescents 12-18 years of age. METHODS: Between June 1, 2021 and April 29, 2022, we assessed factors associated with COVID-19 non-vaccination in hospitalized adolescents ages 12-18 years enrolled in the Overcoming COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness network. Demographic characteristics and clinical information were captured through parent interview and/or electronic medical record abstraction; COVID-19 vaccination was assessed through documented sources. We assessed associations between receipt of COVID-19 vaccine and demographic and clinical factors using univariate and multivariable logistic regression and estimated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for each factor associated with non-vaccination. RESULTS: Among 1,665 hospitalized adolescents without COVID-19, 56% were unvaccinated. Unvaccinated adolescents were younger (median age 15.1 years vs. 15.4 years, p<0.01) and resided in areas with higher social vulnerability index (SVI) scores (median 0.6 vs 0.5, p<0.001) than vaccinated adolescents. Residence in the Midwest [aOR 2.60 (95% CI: 1.80, 3.79)] or South [aOR 2.49 (95% CI: 1.77, 3.54)] US census regions, rarely or never receiving influenza vaccine [aOR 5.31 (95% CI: 3.81, 7.47)], and rarely or never taking precautions against COVID-19 [aOR 3.17 (95% CI: 1.94, 5.31)] were associated with non-vaccination against COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts to increase COVID-19 vaccination of adolescents should focus on persons with geographic, socioeconomic, and medical risk factors associated with non-vaccination.

11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2230704

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical differences between critical illness from influenza infection versus coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have not been well characterized in pediatric patients. METHODS: We compared U.S. children (8 months to 17 years) admitted to the intensive care or high acuity unit with influenza (17 hospitals, 12/19/2019-3/9/2020) or COVID-19 (52 hospitals, 3/15/2020-12/31/2020). We compared demographics, underlying conditions, clinical presentation, severity, and outcomes. Using mixed-effects models, we assessed the odds of death or requiring life-support for influenza versus COVID-19 after adjustment for age, sex, race and Hispanic origin, and underlying conditions including obesity. RESULTS: Children with influenza (n = 179) were younger than those with COVID-19 (n = 381; median 5.2 vs. 13.8 years), less likely to be non-Hispanic black (14.5% vs. 27.6%) or Hispanic (24.0% vs. 36.2%), and less likely to have ≥1 underlying condition (66.4% vs. 78.5%) or be obese (21.4% vs. 42.2%). They were similarly likely to require invasive mechanical ventilation (both 30.2%), vasopressor support (19.6% and 19.9%), or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (2.2% and 2.9%). Four children with influenza (2.2%) and 11 children with COVID-19 (2.9%) died. The odds of death or requiring life-support in children with influenza vs. COVID-19 were similar (adjusted odds ratio, 1.30 [95% CI: 0.78-2.15; P = 0.32]). Median duration of hospital stay was shorter for influenza than COVID-19 (5 versus 7 days). CONCLUSIONS: Despite differences in demographics and clinical characteristics of children with influenza or COVID-19, the frequency of life-threatening complications was similar. Our findings highlight the importance of implementing prevention measures to reduce transmission and disease severity of influenza and COVID-19.

12.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(20): e025915, 2022 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2138319

ABSTRACT

Background Cardiac complications related to COVID-19 in children and adolescents include ventricular dysfunction, myocarditis, coronary artery aneurysm, and bradyarrhythmias, but tachyarrhythmias are less understood. The goal of this study was to evaluate the frequency, characteristics, and outcomes of children and adolescents experiencing tachyarrhythmias while hospitalized for acute severe COVID-19 or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Methods and Results This study involved a case series of 63 patients with tachyarrhythmias reported in a public health surveillance registry of patients aged <21 years hospitalized from March 15, 2020, to December 31, 2021, at 63 US hospitals. Patients with tachyarrhythmias were compared with patients with severe COVID-19-related complications without tachyarrhythmias. Tachyarrhythmias were reported in 22 of 1257 patients (1.8%) with acute COVID-19 and 41 of 2343 (1.7%) patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. They included supraventricular tachycardia in 28 (44%), accelerated junctional rhythm in 9 (14%), and ventricular tachycardia in 38 (60%); >1 type was reported in 12 (19%). Registry patients with versus without tachyarrhythmia were older (median age, 15.4 [range, 10.4-17.4] versus 10.0 [range, 5.4-14.8] years) and had higher illness severity on hospital admission. Intervention for treatment of tachyarrhythmia was required in 37 (59%) patients and included antiarrhythmic medication (n=31, 49%), electrical cardioversion (n=11, 17%), cardiopulmonary resuscitation (n=8, 13%), and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (n=9, 14%). Patients with tachyarrhythmias had longer hospital length of stay than those who did not, and 9 (14%) versus 77 (2%) died. Conclusions Tachyarrhythmias were a rare complication of acute severe COVID-19 and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and adolescents and were associated with worse clinical outcomes, highlighting the importance of close monitoring, aggressive treatment, and postdischarge care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tachycardia, Supraventricular , Child , Humans , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Aftercare , Patient Discharge , Hospitalization , Tachycardia, Supraventricular/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy
13.
Pediatrics ; 150(3)2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910743

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate risk factors for postdischarge sequelae in children and adolescents hospitalized for acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). METHODS: Multicenter prospective cohort study conducted in 25 United States pediatric hospitals. Patients <21-years-old, hospitalized May 2020 to May 2021 for acute COVID-19 or MIS-C with follow-up 2 to 4 months after admission. We assessed readmissions, persistent symptoms or activity impairment, and new morbidities. Multivariable regression was used to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Of 358 eligible patients, 2 to 4 month survey data were available for 119 of 155 (76.8%) with acute COVID-19 and 160 of 203 (78.8%) with MIS-C. Thirteen (11%) patients with acute COVID-19 and 12 (8%) with MIS-C had a readmission. Thirty-two (26.9%) patients with acute COVID-19 had persistent symptoms (22.7%) or activity impairment (14.3%) and 48 (30.0%) with MIS-C had persistent symptoms (20.0%) or activity impairment (21.3%). For patients with acute COVID-19, persistent symptoms (aRR, 1.29 [95% CI, 1.04-1.59]) and activity impairment (aRR, 1.37 [95% CI, 1.06-1.78]) were associated with more organ systems involved. Patients with MIS-C and pre-existing respiratory conditions more frequently had persistent symptoms (aRR, 3.09 [95% CI, 1.55-6.14]) and those with obesity more frequently had activity impairment (aRR, 2.52 [95% CI, 1.35-4.69]). New morbidities were infrequent (9% COVID-19, 1% MIS-C). CONCLUSIONS: Over 1 in 4 children hospitalized with acute COVID-19 or MIS-C experienced persistent symptoms or activity impairment for at least 2 months. Patients with MIS-C and respiratory conditions or obesity are at higher risk of prolonged recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Aftercare , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Hospitalization , Humans , Obesity , Patient Discharge , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
14.
N Engl J Med ; 387(2): 109-119, 2022 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900734

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infants younger than 6 months of age are at high risk for complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) and are not eligible for vaccination. Transplacental transfer of antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) after maternal Covid-19 vaccination may confer protection against Covid-19 in infants. METHODS: We used a case-control test-negative design to assess the effectiveness of maternal vaccination during pregnancy against hospitalization for Covid-19 among infants younger than 6 months of age. Between July 1, 2021, and March 8, 2022, we enrolled infants hospitalized for Covid-19 (case infants) and infants hospitalized without Covid-19 (control infants) at 30 hospitals in 22 states. We estimated vaccine effectiveness by comparing the odds of full maternal vaccination (two doses of mRNA vaccine) among case infants and control infants during circulation of the B.1.617.2 (delta) variant (July 1, 2021, to December 18, 2021) and the B.1.1.259 (omicron) variant (December 19, 2021, to March 8, 2022). RESULTS: A total of 537 case infants (181 of whom had been admitted to a hospital during the delta period and 356 during the omicron period; median age, 2 months) and 512 control infants were enrolled and included in the analyses; 16% of the case infants and 29% of the control infants had been born to mothers who had been fully vaccinated against Covid-19 during pregnancy. Among the case infants, 113 (21%) received intensive care (64 [12%] received mechanical ventilation or vasoactive infusions). Two case infants died from Covid-19; neither infant's mother had been vaccinated during pregnancy. The effectiveness of maternal vaccination against hospitalization for Covid-19 among infants was 52% (95% confidence interval [CI], 33 to 65) overall, 80% (95% CI, 60 to 90) during the delta period, and 38% (95% CI, 8 to 58) during the omicron period. Effectiveness was 69% (95% CI, 50 to 80) when maternal vaccination occurred after 20 weeks of pregnancy and 38% (95% CI, 3 to 60) during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal vaccination with two doses of mRNA vaccine was associated with a reduced risk of hospitalization for Covid-19, including for critical illness, among infants younger than 6 months of age. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , mRNA Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Mothers , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines/adverse effects , mRNA Vaccines/therapeutic use
15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e749-e754, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852978

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Myocarditis following coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mRNA vaccines (Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna) has been increasingly reported. Incidence rates in the general population are lacking, with pericarditis rather than myocarditis diagnostic codes being used to estimate background rates. This comparison is critical for balancing the risk of vaccination with the risk of no vaccination. METHODS: A retrospective case series was performed using the Mayo Clinic COVID-19 Vaccine Registry. We measured the incidence rate ratio (IRR) for myocarditis temporally related to COVID-19 mRNA vaccination compared with myocarditis in a comparable population from 2016 through 2020. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of the affected patients were collected. A total of 21 individuals were identified, but ultimately 7 patients met the inclusion criteria for vaccine-associated myocarditis. RESULTS: The overall IRR of COVID-19-related myocarditis was 4.18 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.63-8.98), which was entirely attributable to an increased IRR among adult males (IRR, 6.69; 95% CI, 2.35-15.52) compared with females (IRR 1.41; 95% CI, .03-8.45). All cases occurred within 2 weeks of a dose of the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine, with the majority occurring within 3 days (range, 1-13) following the second dose (6 of 7 patients, 86%). Overall, cases were mild, and all patients survived. CONCLUSIONS: Myocarditis is a rare adverse event associated with COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. It occurs in adult males with significantly higher incidence than in the background population. Recurrence of myocarditis after a subsequent mRNA vaccine dose is not known at this time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/etiology , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
16.
N Engl J Med ; 386(20): 1899-1909, 2022 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768968

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) B.1.1.529 (omicron) variant, which led to increased U.S. hospitalizations for coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), generated concern about immune evasion and the duration of protection from vaccines in children and adolescents. METHODS: Using a case-control, test-negative design, we assessed vaccine effectiveness against laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 leading to hospitalization and against critical Covid-19 (i.e., leading to receipt of life support or to death). From July 1, 2021, to February 17, 2022, we enrolled case patients with Covid-19 and controls without Covid-19 at 31 hospitals in 23 states. We estimated vaccine effectiveness by comparing the odds of antecedent full vaccination (two doses of BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccine) at least 14 days before illness among case patients and controls, according to time since vaccination for patients 12 to 18 years of age and in periods coinciding with circulation of B.1.617.2 (delta) (July 1, 2021, to December 18, 2021) and omicron (December 19, 2021, to February 17, 2022) among patients 5 to 11 and 12 to 18 years of age. RESULTS: We enrolled 1185 case patients (1043 [88%] of whom were unvaccinated, 291 [25%] of whom received life support, and 14 of whom died) and 1627 controls. During the delta-predominant period, vaccine effectiveness against hospitalization for Covid-19 among adolescents 12 to 18 years of age was 93% (95% confidence interval [CI], 89 to 95) 2 to 22 weeks after vaccination and was 92% (95% CI, 80 to 97) at 23 to 44 weeks. Among adolescents 12 to 18 years of age (median interval since vaccination, 162 days) during the omicron-predominant period, vaccine effectiveness was 40% (95% CI, 9 to 60) against hospitalization for Covid-19, 79% (95% CI, 51 to 91) against critical Covid-19, and 20% (95% CI, -25 to 49) against noncritical Covid-19. During the omicron period, vaccine effectiveness against hospitalization among children 5 to 11 years of age was 68% (95% CI, 42 to 82; median interval since vaccination, 34 days). CONCLUSIONS: BNT162b2 vaccination reduced the risk of omicron-associated hospitalization by two thirds among children 5 to 11 years of age. Although two doses provided lower protection against omicron-associated hospitalization than against delta-associated hospitalization among adolescents 12 to 18 years of age, vaccination prevented critical illness caused by either variant. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , BNT162 Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Critical Illness/therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Vaccine Efficacy , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , mRNA Vaccines/therapeutic use
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(42): 1483-1488, 2021 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1727005

ABSTRACT

Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine is authorized for use in children and adolescents aged 12-15 years and is licensed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for persons aged ≥16 (1). A randomized placebo-controlled trial demonstrated an efficacy of 100% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 75.3%-100%) in preventing outpatient COVID-19 in persons aged 12-15 years (2); however, data among adolescents on vaccine effectiveness (VE) against COVID-19 in real-world settings are limited, especially among hospitalized patients. In early September 2021, U.S. pediatric COVID-19 hospitalizations reached the highest level during the pandemic (3,4). In a test-negative, case-control study at 19 pediatric hospitals in 16 states during June 1-September 30, 2021, the effectiveness of 2 doses of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine against COVID-19 hospitalization was assessed among children and adolescents aged 12-18 years. Among 464 hospitalized persons aged 12-18 years (179 case-patients and 285 controls), the median age was 15 years, 72% had at least one underlying condition, including obesity, and 68% attended in-person school. Effectiveness of 2 doses of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine against COVID-19 hospitalization was 93% (95% CI = 83%-97%), during the period when B.1.617.2 (Delta) was the predominant variant. This evaluation demonstrated that 2 doses of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine are highly effective at preventing COVID-19 hospitalization among persons aged 12-18 years and reinforces the importance of vaccination to protect U.S. youths against severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Male , United States/epidemiology , Vaccines, Synthetic
18.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(7): 264-270, 2022 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1689712

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccination is recommended for persons who are pregnant, breastfeeding, trying to get pregnant now, or who might become pregnant in the future, to protect them from COVID-19.§ Infants are at risk for life-threatening complications from COVID-19, including acute respiratory failure (1). Evidence from other vaccine-preventable diseases suggests that maternal immunization can provide protection to infants, especially during the high-risk first 6 months of life, through passive transplacental antibody transfer (2). Recent studies of COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy suggest the possibility of transplacental transfer of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies that might provide protection to infants (3-5); however, no epidemiologic evidence currently exists for the protective benefits of maternal immunization during pregnancy against COVID-19 in infants. The Overcoming COVID-19 network conducted a test-negative, case-control study at 20 pediatric hospitals in 17 states during July 1, 2021-January 17, 2022, to assess effectiveness of maternal completion of a 2-dose primary mRNA COVID-19 vaccination series during pregnancy against COVID-19 hospitalization in infants. Among 379 hospitalized infants aged <6 months (176 with COVID-19 [case-infants] and 203 without COVID-19 [control-infants]), the median age was 2 months, 21% had at least one underlying medical condition, and 22% of case- and control-infants were born premature (<37 weeks gestation). Effectiveness of maternal vaccination during pregnancy against COVID-19 hospitalization in infants aged <6 months was 61% (95% CI = 31%-78%). Completion of a 2-dose mRNA COVID-19 vaccination series during pregnancy might help prevent COVID-19 hospitalization among infants aged <6 months.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Immunity, Maternally-Acquired , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , mRNA Vaccines/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , United States/epidemiology
19.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 11(5): 191-198, 2022 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621636

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is unclear how acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-directed therapies are used in children with life-threatening COVID-19 in US hospitals. We described characteristics of children hospitalized in the intensive care unit or step-down unit (ICU/SDU) who received COVID-19-directed therapies and the specific therapies administered. METHODS: Between March 15, 2020 and December 27, 2020, children <18 years of age in the ICU/SDU with acute COVID-19 at 48 pediatric hospitals in the United States were identified. Demographics, laboratory values, and clinical course were compared in children who did and did not receive COVID-19-directed therapies. Trends in COVID-19-directed therapies over time were evaluated. RESULTS: Of 424 children in the ICU/SDU, 235 (55%) received COVID-19-directed therapies. Children who received COVID-19-directed therapies were older than those who did not receive COVID-19-directed therapies (13.3 [5.6-16.2] vs 9.8 [0.65-15.9] years), more had underlying medical conditions (188 [80%] vs 104 [55%]; difference = 25% [95% CI: 16% to 34%]), more received respiratory support (206 [88%] vs 71 [38%]; difference = 50% [95% CI: 34% to 56%]), and more died (8 [3.4%] vs 0). Of the 235 children receiving COVID-19-directed therapies, 172 (73%) received systemic steroids and 150 (64%) received remdesivir, with rising remdesivir use over the study period (14% in March/April to 57% November/December). CONCLUSION: Despite the lack of pediatric data evaluating treatments for COVID-19 in critically ill children, more than half of children requiring intensive or high acuity care received COVID-19-directed therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Child , Critical Illness , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Intensive Care Units , United States
20.
N Engl J Med ; 386(8): 713-723, 2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621316

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of pediatric hospitalizations associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) caused by the B.1.617.2 (delta) variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the United States has offered an opportunity to assess the real-world effectiveness of the BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccine in adolescents between 12 and 18 years of age. METHODS: We used a case-control, test-negative design to assess vaccine effectiveness against Covid-19 resulting in hospitalization, admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), the use of life-supporting interventions (mechanical ventilation, vasopressors, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation), or death. Between July 1 and October 25, 2021, we screened admission logs for eligible case patients with laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 at 31 hospitals in 23 states. We estimated vaccine effectiveness by comparing the odds of antecedent full vaccination (two doses of BNT162b2) in case patients as compared with two hospital-based control groups: patients who had Covid-19-like symptoms but negative results on testing for SARS-CoV-2 (test-negative) and patients who did not have Covid-19-like symptoms (syndrome-negative). RESULTS: A total of 445 case patients and 777 controls were enrolled. Overall, 17 case patients (4%) and 282 controls (36%) had been fully vaccinated. Of the case patients, 180 (40%) were admitted to the ICU, and 127 (29%) required life support; only 2 patients in the ICU had been fully vaccinated. The overall effectiveness of the BNT162b2 vaccine against hospitalization for Covid-19 was 94% (95% confidence interval [CI], 90 to 96); the effectiveness was 95% (95% CI, 91 to 97) among test-negative controls and 94% (95% CI, 89 to 96) among syndrome-negative controls. The effectiveness was 98% against ICU admission and 98% against Covid-19 resulting in the receipt of life support. All 7 deaths occurred in patients who were unvaccinated. CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitalized adolescent patients, two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine were highly effective against Covid-19-related hospitalization and ICU admission or the receipt of life support. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccine Efficacy , Adolescent , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Case-Control Studies , Child , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Intensive Care Units , Life Support Care , Male , Patient Acuity , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL