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1.
Crit Care Med ; 2021 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1584015
2.
Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med ; 41(1): 101016, 2021 Dec 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588589
3.
Crit Care Med ; 2021 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574590

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia is an unexpected consequence of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic era. We reviewed the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of this rare side effect. DATA SOURCES: Online search of published medical literature through PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar using the terms "COVID-19," "vaccine," "thrombosis" was performed. STUDY SELECTION: Articles were chosen for inclusion based on their relevance to coronavirus disease 2019, vaccine, and thrombosis. DATA SYNTHESIS: Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia manifests most often as unusual thromboses (cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, splanchnic vein thrombosis) but sometimes also "usual" thromboses (arterial stroke, pulmonary embolism, deep-vein thrombosis), with oftentimes severe thrombocytopenia, that becomes clinically evident 5-30 days after adenovirus-vectored coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine administration. Most patients have disseminated intravascular coagulation. These features are the result of vaccine-triggered formation of anti-platelet factor 4 immunoglobulin G that activate platelets, clinically mimicking autoimmune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Early recognition based on thrombosis (sometimes, hemorrhage), thrombocytopenia, and D-dimer elevation within the day 5-30 postvaccine "window" is important given treatment with high-dose IV immunoglobulin plus nonheparin anticoagulation. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia is a serious complication of vaccination that is not feasible to anticipate or prevent. When the patient presents with sustained headache, neurologic symptoms/signs, abdominal pain, dyspnea, or limb pain/swelling beginning 5-30 days post vaccination, platelet count and D-dimer must be measured, and imaging for thrombosis performed. Confirmation of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia diagnosis should be ordered (platelet factor 4/polyanion enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; platelet factor 4-enhanced platelet activation testing) as treatment is initiated (nonheparin anticoagulation, IV immunoglobulin).

4.
J Clin Med ; 10(8)2021 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526841

ABSTRACT

Infection by SARS-CoV-2 is associated with a high risk of thrombosis. The laboratory documentation of hypercoagulability and impaired fibrinolysis remains a challenge. Our aim was to assess the potential usefulness of viscoelastometric testing (VET) to predict thrombotic events in COVID-19 patients according to the literature. We also (i) analyzed the impact of anticoagulation and the methods used to neutralize heparin, (ii) analyzed whether maximal clot mechanical strength brings more information than Clauss fibrinogen, and (iii) critically scrutinized the diagnosis of hypofibrinolysis. We performed a systematic search in PubMed and Scopus databases until 31st December 2020. VET methods and parameters, and patients' features and outcomes were extracted. VET was performed for 1063 patients (893 intensive care unit (ICU) and 170 non-ICU, 44 studies). There was extensive heterogeneity concerning study design, VET device used (ROTEM, TEG, Quantra and ClotPro) and reagents (with non-systematic use of heparin neutralization), timing of assay, and definition of hypercoagulable state. Notably, only 4 out of 25 studies using ROTEM reported data with heparinase (HEPTEM). The common findings were increased clot mechanical strength mainly due to excessive fibrinogen component and impaired to absent fibrinolysis, more conspicuous in the presence of an added plasminogen activator. Only 4 studies out of the 16 that addressed the point found an association of VETs with thrombotic events. So-called functional fibrinogen assessed by VETs showed a variable correlation with Clauss fibrinogen. Abnormal VET pattern, often evidenced despite standard prophylactic anticoagulation, tended to normalize after increased dosing. VET studies reported heterogeneity, and small sample sizes do not support an association between the poorly defined prothrombotic phenotype of COVID-19 and thrombotic events.

5.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 32(8): 544-549, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526211

ABSTRACT

Standard biomarkers have been widely used for COVID-19 diagnosis and prognosis. We hypothesize that thrombogenicity metrics measured by thromboelastography will provide better diagnostic and prognostic utility versus standard biomarkers in COVID-19 positive patients. In this observational prospective study, we included 119 hospitalized COVID-19 positive patients and 15 COVID-19 negative patients. On admission, we measured standard biomarkers and thrombogenicity using a novel thromboelastography assay (TEG-6s). In-hospital all-cause death and thrombotic occurrences (thromboembolism, myocardial infarction and stroke) were recorded. Most COVID-19 patients were African--Americans (68%). COVID-19 patients versus COVID-19 negative patients had higher platelet-fibrin clot strength (P-FCS), fibrin clot strength (FCS) and functional fibrinogen level (FLEV) (P ≤ 0.003 for all). The presence of high TEG-6 s metrics better discriminated COVID-19 positive from negative patients. COVID-19 positive patients with sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score at least 3 had higher P-FCS, FCS and FLEV than patients with scores less than 3 (P ≤ 0.001 for all comparisons). By multivariate analysis, the in-hospital composite endpoint occurrence of death and thrombotic events was independently associated with SOFA score more than 3 [odds ratio (OR) = 2.9, P = 0.03], diabetes (OR = 3.3, P = 0.02) and FCS > 40 mm (OR = 3.4, P = 0.02). This largest observational study suggested the early diagnostic and prognostic utility of thromboelastography to identify COVID-19 and should be considered hypothesis generating. Our results also support the recent FDA guidance regarding the importance of measurement of whole blood viscoelastic properties in COVID-19 patients. Our findings are consistent with the observation of higher hospitalization rates and poorer outcomes for African--Americans with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/diagnosis , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Early Diagnosis , Female , Fibrin/analysis , Fibrin Clot Lysis Time , Fibrinogen/analysis , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperlipidemias/epidemiology , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Thrombelastography , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Thrombophilia/etiology , Treatment Outcome , /statistics & numerical data
6.
Anesthésie & Réanimation ; 2021.
Article in French | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1469209

ABSTRACT

<h4>Contexte</h4> La COVID-19 est associée à un risque thromboembolique veineux élevé, en particulier chez les patients sévères. Depuis les premières propositions GIHP/GFHT publiées en avril 2020, de nouvelles connaissances sont apparues. L’objet du présent travail était de réactualiser ces propositions. <h4>Méthodes</h4> Un groupe de travail a défini sept questions et effectué une revue critique de la littérature. Les propositions ont été formulées après consensus entre les membres du groupe de travail et les autres membres du GIHP/GFHT. <h4>Résultats</h4> Chez les patients hospitalisés non sévères et certains patients ambulatoires à risque, nous suggérons l’administration d’une thromboprophylaxie à dose standard. Chez les patients sévères, nous suggérons une thromboprophylaxie à dose intermédiaire ou thérapeutique selon le taux de D-dimères et son évolution. Sept à dix jours après l’admission, nous suggérons de revenir à une dose standard pour réduire le risque hémorragique. Chez les patients présentant un très haut risque thrombotique, ayant reçu une thromboprophylaxie à dose thérapeutique, nous suggérons un dépistage systématique de la thrombose avant la désescalade. Nous suggérons d’ajuster l’anticoagulation au poids des patients. Nous suggérons un monitorage régulier des paramètres d’hémostase, incluant les D-dimères, chez les patients sévères. Nous suggérons un monitorage de l’anticoagulation à dose intermédiaire et thérapeutique par l’activité anti-Xa. <h4>Conclusion</h4> Les propositions réactualisées suivent une approche standard de la thromboprophylaxie, visant à diminuer l’incidence des évènements thromboemboliques veineux symptomatiques. Chez les patients sévères, nous proposons une stratégie séquentielle tenant compte de la relation temporelle entre le risque thrombotique et le risque hémorragique.

7.
Anesthésie & Réanimation ; 2021.
Article in French | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1466043

ABSTRACT

Résumé Contexte La COVID-19 est associée à un risque thromboembolique veineux élevé, en particulier chez les patients sévères. Depuis les premières propositions GIHP/GFHT publiées en avril 2020, de nouvelles connaissances sont apparues. L’objet du présent travail était de réactualiser ces propositions. Méthodes Un groupe de travail a défini sept questions et effectué une revue critique de la littérature. Les propositions ont été formulées après consensus entre les membres du groupe de travail et les autres membres du GIHP/GFHT. Résultats Chez les patients hospitalisés non sévères et certains patients ambulatoires à risque, nous suggérons l’administration d’une thromboprophylaxie à dose standard. Chez les patients sévères, nous suggérons une thromboprophylaxie à dose intermédiaire ou thérapeutique selon le taux de D-dimères et son évolution. Sept à dix jours après l’admission, nous suggérons de revenir à une dose standard pour réduire le risque hémorragique. Chez les patients présentant un très haut risque thrombotique, ayant reçu une thromboprophylaxie à dose thérapeutique, nous suggérons un dépistage systématique de la thrombose avant la désescalade. Nous suggérons d’ajuster l’anticoagulation au poids des patients. Nous suggérons un monitorage régulier des paramètres d’hémostase, incluant les D-dimères, chez les patients sévères. Nous suggérons un monitorage de l’anticoagulation à dose intermédiaire et thérapeutique par l’activité anti-Xa. Conclusion Les propositions réactualisées suivent une approche standard de la thromboprophylaxie, visant à diminuer l’incidence des évènements thromboemboliques veineux symptomatiques. Chez les patients sévères, nous proposons une stratégie séquentielle tenant compte de la relation temporelle entre le risque thrombotique et le risque hémorragique.

9.
Trends Cardiovasc Med ; 2021 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373275

ABSTRACT

In coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), multiple thromboinflammatory events contribute to the pathophysiology, including coagulation system activation, suppressed fibrinolysis, vascular endothelial cell injury, and prothrombotic alterations in immune cells such as macrophages and neutrophils. Although thrombocytopenia is not an initial presentation as an infectious coagulopathy, recent studies have demonstrated the vital role of platelets in COVID-19-associated coagulopathy SARS-CoV-2 and its spike protein have been known to directly or indirectly promote release of prothrombotic and inflammatory mediators that lead to COVID-19-associated coagulopathy. Although clinical features of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia include uncommon locations of thrombosis, including cerebral venous sinus, we speculate coronavirus spike-protein-initiated prothrombotic pathways are involved in the pathogenesis of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia, as current evidence suggests that the spike protein is the promotor and other cofactors such as perturbed immune response and inflammatory reaction enhance the production of anti-platelet factor 4 antibody.

10.
Thromb Haemost ; 2021 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334019

ABSTRACT

Several viral infectious diseases have emerged or re-emerged from wildlife vectors that have generated serious threats to global health. Increased international travel and commerce increase the risk of transmission of viral or other infectious diseases. In addition, recent climate changes accelerate the potential spread of domestic disease. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an important example of the worldwide spread, and the current epidemic will unlikely be the last. Viral hemorrhagic fevers, such as dengue and Lassa fevers, may also have the potential to spread worldwide with a significant impact on public health with unpredictable timing. Based on the important lessons learned from COVID-19, it would be prudent to prepare for future pandemics of life-threatening viral diseases. The key concept that connect COVID-19 and viral hemorrhagic fever is the coagulation disorder. This review focuses on the coagulopathy of acute viral infections since hypercoagulability has been a major challenge in COVID-19, but represents a different presentation compared with viral hemorrhagic fever. However, both thrombosis and hemorrhage are understood as the result of thromboinflammation due to viral infections, and the role of anticoagulation is important to consider.

11.
Arch Med Res ; 52(8): 788-797, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1329672

ABSTRACT

The diagnostic criteria of overt disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) were established by the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) in 2001. Since then, DIC has long been associated with adverse outcomes. However, recent advances in sepsis shed light on the role of coagulation disorders in the progression of sepsis. Currently, inflammation and coagulation are recognized as the two drivers that promote organ dysfunction in sepsis and septic shock. The ISTH has published new diagnostic criteria for improved management, namely sepsis-induced coagulopathy (SIC), in 2017. SIC is a pragmatic scoring system composed of platelet count, prothrombin time, and organ dysfunction score to detect the early-stage of sepsis-associated DIC. Since overt DIC represents an uncompensated coagulation disorder, a two-step approach using SIC and overt DIC criteria is a novel strategy to evaluate the severity and manage this challenging complication. Although there is no globally agreed on anticoagulant therapy for DIC, the Japanese Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines 2020 recommend using antithrombin and recombinant thrombomodulin for sepsis associated DIC. Since research in this area has been previously reported, an international collaborative study is necessary to develop future diagnostic tools and treatment strategies.

12.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 43 Suppl 1: 29-35, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319315

ABSTRACT

Vascular endothelial injury is a hallmark of acute infection at both the microvascular and macrovascular levels. The hallmark of SARS-CoV-2 infection is the current COVID-19 clinical sequelae of the pathophysiologic responses of hypercoagulability and thromboinflammation associated with acute infection. The acute lung injury that initially occurs in COVID-19 results from vascular and endothelial damage from viral injury and pathophysiologic responses that produce the COVID-19-associated coagulopathy. Clinicians should continue to focus on the vascular endothelial injury that occurs and evaluate potential therapeutic interventions that may benefit those with new infections during the current pandemic as they may also be of benefit for future pathogens that generate similar thromboinflammatory responses. The current Accelerating COVID-19 Therapeutic Interventions and Vaccines (ACTIV) studies are important projects that will further define our management strategies. At the time of writing this report, two mRNA vaccines are now being distributed and will hopefully have a major impact on slowing the global spread and subsequent thromboinflammatory injury we see clinically in critically ill patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/etiology , Vasculitis/etiology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Child , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Endothelium, Vascular/injuries , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Female , Fibrinolysis , Forecasting , Humans , Lung/blood supply , Lung/pathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Thromboembolism/etiology , Thromboembolism/prevention & control
13.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(7): 1559-1561, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317983
17.
Crit Care Med ; 48(10): e989-e990, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228542
20.
A A Pract ; 15(4): e01432, 2021 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158241

ABSTRACT

The role of concurrent illness in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is unknown. Patients with leukemia may display altered thromboinflammatory responses. We report a 53-year-old man presenting with acute leukemia and COVID-19 who developed thrombotic complications and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Multiple analyses, including rotational thromboelastometry and flow cytometry on blood and bronchoalveolar lavage, are reported to characterize coagulation and immune profiles. The patient developed chemotherapy-induced neutropenia that may have protected his lungs from granulocyte-driven hyperinflammatory acute lung injury. However, neutropenia also alters viral clearing, potentially enabling ongoing viral propagation. This case depicts a precarious equilibrium between leukemia and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/pathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/complications , Acute Lung Injury/diagnosis , Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , COVID-19/diagnosis , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/diagnosis , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutropenia/complications , Neutropenia/diagnosis , Neutropenia/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombelastography , Virulence Factors
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