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1.
Med (N Y) ; 2022 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796323

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 omicron variant of concern (VOC) has evolved multiple mutations within the spike protein, raising concerns of increased antibody evasion. In this study, we assessed the neutralization potential of COVID-19 convalescent sera and sera from vaccinated individuals against ancestral SARS-CoV-2 and VOCs. Methods: The neutralizing activity of sera from 65 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccine recipients and convalescent individuals against clinical isolates of ancestral SARS-CoV-2, beta, delta, and omicron VOCs was assessed using a microneutralization assay. Findings: Convalescent sera from unvaccinated individuals infected by the ancestral virus demonstrated reduced neutralization against beta and omicron VOCs. Sera from individuals that received three doses of the Pfizer or Moderna vaccines demonstrated reduced neutralization of the omicron variant relative to ancestral SARS-CoV-2. Sera from individuals that were naturally infected with ancestral SARS-CoV-2 and subsequently received two doses of the Pfizer vaccine induced significantly higher neutralizing antibody levels against ancestral virus and all VOCs. Infection alone, either with ancestral SARS-CoV-2 or the delta variant was not sufficient to induce high neutralizing antibody titers against omicron. Conclusions: In summary, we demonstrate that convalescent and vaccinated sera display varying levels of SARS-CoV-2 VOC neutralization. Data from this data will inform booster vaccination strategies against SARS-CoV-2 VOCs. Funding: This research was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR). VIDO receives operational funding from the Government of Saskatchewan through Innovation Saskatchewan and the Ministry of Agriculture and from the Canada Foundation for Innovation through the Major Science Initiatives for its CL3 facility.

2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(8)2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671749

ABSTRACT

Type I interferons (IFN-I) exert pleiotropic biological effects during viral infections, balancing virus control versus immune-mediated pathologies, and have been successfully employed for the treatment of viral diseases. Humans express 12 IFN-alpha (α) subtypes, which activate downstream signaling cascades and result in distinct patterns of immune responses and differential antiviral responses. Inborn errors in IFN-I immunity and the presence of anti-IFN autoantibodies account for very severe courses of COVID-19; therefore, early administration of IFN-I may be protective against life-threatening disease. Here we comprehensively analyzed the antiviral activity of all IFNα subtypes against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to identify the underlying immune signatures and explore their therapeutic potential. Prophylaxis of primary human airway epithelial cells (hAEC) with different IFNα subtypes during SARS-CoV-2 infection uncovered distinct functional classes with high, intermediate, and low antiviral IFNs. In particular, IFNα5 showed superior antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro and in SARS-CoV-2-infected mice in vivo. Dose dependency studies further displayed additive effects upon coadministration with the broad antiviral drug remdesivir in cell culture. Transcriptomic analysis of IFN-treated hAEC revealed different transcriptional signatures, uncovering distinct, intersecting, and prototypical genes of individual IFNα subtypes. Global proteomic analyses systematically assessed the abundance of specific antiviral key effector molecules which are involved in IFN-I signaling pathways, negative regulation of viral processes, and immune effector processes for the potent antiviral IFNα5. Taken together, our data provide a systemic, multimodular definition of antiviral host responses mediated by defined IFN-I. This knowledge will support the development of novel therapeutic approaches against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Interferon-alpha/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Transcriptome , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cloning, Molecular , Disease Models, Animal , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation , Genetic Vectors/chemistry , Genetic Vectors/metabolism , Humans , Interferon-alpha/genetics , Interferon-alpha/immunology , Mice , Protein Isoforms/classification , Protein Isoforms/genetics , Protein Isoforms/immunology , Protein Isoforms/pharmacology , Recombinant Proteins/classification , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Recombinant Proteins/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction , Vero Cells
3.
Pathogens ; 10(11)2021 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524103

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: There is a strong need for prevention and treatment strategies for COVID-19 that are not impacted by SARS-CoV-2 mutations emerging in variants of concern. After virus infection, host ER resident sigma receptors form direct interactions with non-structural SARS-CoV-2 proteins present in the replication complex. (2) Methods: In this work, highly specific sigma receptor ligands were investigated for their ability to inhibit both SARS-CoV-2 genome replication and virus induced cellular toxicity. This study found antiviral activity associated with agonism of the sigma-1 receptor (e.g., SA4503), ligation of the sigma-2 receptor (e.g., CM398), and a combination of the two pathways (e.g., AZ66). (3) Results: Intermolecular contacts between these ligands and sigma receptors were identified by structural modeling. (4) Conclusions: Sigma receptor ligands and drugs with off-target sigma receptor binding characteristics were effective at inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 infection in primate and human cells, representing a potential therapeutic avenue for COVID-19 prevention and treatment.

4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14536, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315609

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) hospitalizations and deaths disportionally affect males and older ages. Here we investigated the impact of male sex and age comparing sex-matched or age-matched ferrets infected with SARS-CoV-2. Differences in temperature regulation was identified for male ferrets which was accompanied by prolonged viral replication in the upper respiratory tract after infection. Gene expression analysis of the nasal turbinates indicated that 1-year-old female ferrets had significant increases in interferon response genes post infection which were delayed in males. These results provide insight into COVID-19 and suggests that older males may play a role in viral transmission due to decreased antiviral responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Ferrets/virology , Interferons/metabolism , Age Factors , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Ferrets/metabolism , Host Microbial Interactions , Interferons/genetics , Male , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sex Factors , Viral Load , Virus Replication
6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7257, 2020 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-154662

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) are speculated to have originated in bats. The mechanisms by which these viruses are maintained in individuals or populations of reservoir bats remain an enigma. Mathematical models have predicted long-term persistent infection with low levels of periodic shedding as a likely route for virus maintenance and spillover from bats. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that bat cells and MERS coronavirus (CoV) can co-exist in vitro. To test our hypothesis, we established a long-term coronavirus infection model of bat cells that are persistently infected with MERS-CoV. We infected cells from Eptesicus fuscus with MERS-CoV and maintained them in culture for at least 126 days. We characterized the persistently infected cells by detecting virus particles, protein and transcripts. Basal levels of type I interferon in the long-term infected bat cells were higher, relative to uninfected cells, and disrupting the interferon response in persistently infected bat cells increased virus replication. By sequencing the whole genome of MERS-CoV from persistently infected bat cells, we identified that bat cells repeatedly selected for viral variants that contained mutations in the viral open reading frame 5 (ORF5) protein. Furthermore, bat cells that were persistently infected with ΔORF5 MERS-CoV were resistant to superinfection by wildtype virus, likely due to reduced levels of the virus receptor, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) and higher basal levels of interferon in these cells. In summary, our study provides evidence for a model of coronavirus persistence in bats, along with the establishment of a unique persistently infected cell culture model to study MERS-CoV-bat interactions.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Fibroblasts/virology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Open Reading Frames/genetics , Point Mutation , Animals , Chiroptera/anatomy & histology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/metabolism , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Kidney/cytology , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/genetics , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Transfection , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/genetics , Whole Genome Sequencing
7.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(1): 3-17, 2020 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512

ABSTRACT

On 31 December 2019 the Wuhan Health Commission reported a cluster of atypical pneumonia cases that was linked to a wet market in the city of Wuhan, China. The first patients began experiencing symptoms of illness in mid-December 2019. Clinical isolates were found to contain a novel coronavirus with similarity to bat coronaviruses. As of 28 January 2020, there are in excess of 4,500 laboratory-confirmed cases, with > 100 known deaths. As with the SARS-CoV, infections in children appear to be rare. Travel-related cases have been confirmed in multiple countries and regions outside mainland China including Germany, France, Thailand, Japan, South Korea, Vietnam, Canada, and the United States, as well as Hong Kong and Taiwan. Domestically in China, the virus has also been noted in several cities and provinces with cases in all but one provinence. While zoonotic transmission appears to be the original source of infections, the most alarming development is that human-to-human transmission is now prevelant. Of particular concern is that many healthcare workers have been infected in the current epidemic. There are several critical clinical questions that need to be resolved, including how efficient is human-to-human transmission? What is the animal reservoir? Is there an intermediate animal reservoir? Do the vaccines generated to the SARS-CoV or MERS-CoV or their proteins offer protection against 2019-nCoV? We offer a research perspective on the next steps for the generation of vaccines. We also present data on the use of in silico docking in gaining insight into 2019-nCoV Spike-receptor binding to aid in therapeutic development. Diagnostic PCR protocols can be found at https://www.who.int/health-topics/coronavirus/laboratory-diagnostics-for-novel-coronavirus.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Analysis, Protein , Travel , Vaccination , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Vaccines , Zoonoses
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