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1.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1154496, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2282866

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Adjuvant plays an important role in directing the immune responses induced by vaccines. In previous studies, we have shown that a mucosal SARS-CoV-2 S1 subunit vaccine adjuvanted with a combination of CpG, Poly I:C and IL-15 (named CP15) induced effective mucosal and systemic immunity and conferred nearly sterile protection against SARS-CoV-2 viral replication in macaque models. Methods: In this study, we used a hamster model, which mimics the human scenario and reliably exhibits severe SARS-CoV-2 disease similar to hospitalized patients, to investigate the protection efficacy of the vaccines against COVID-19 disease. We compared the weight loss, viral loads (VLs), and clinical observation scores of three different vaccine regimens. All three regimens consisted of priming/boosting with S1 subunit vaccines, but adjuvanted with alum and/or CP15 administrated by either intramuscular (IM) or intranasal (IN) routes: Group 1 was adjuvanted with alum/alum administrated IM/IM; Group 2 was alum-IM/CP15-IN; and Group 3 was CP15-IM/CP15-IN. Results: After challenge with SARS-CoV-2 WA strain, we found that the alum/CP15 group showed best protection against weight loss, while the CP15 group demonstrated best reduction of oral SARS-CoV-2 VLs, suggesting that the protection profiles were different. Sex differences for VL and clinical scores were observed. Humoral immunity was induced but not correlated with protection. Moreover, S1-specific binding antibody titers against beta, omicron BA.1, and BA.2 variants showed 2.6-, 4.9- and 2.8- fold reduction, respectively, compared to the Wuhan strain. Discussion: Overall, the data suggested that adjuvants in subunit vaccines determine the protection profiles after SARS-CoV-2 infection and that nasal/oral mucosal immunization can protect against systemic COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Male , Cricetinae , Animals , Humans , Female , SARS-CoV-2 , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic , Vaccines, Subunit
2.
Cell Rep Med ; 4(4): 101018, 2023 04 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288041

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines demonstrate reduced protection against acquisition of BA.5 subvariant but are still effective against severe disease. However, immune correlates of protection against BA.5 remain unknown. We report the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of vaccine regimens consisting of the vector-based Ad26.COV2.S vaccine and the adjuvanted spike ferritin nanoparticle (SpFN) vaccine against a high-dose, mismatched Omicron BA.5 challenge in macaques. The SpFNx3 and Ad26 + SpFNx2 regimens elicit higher antibody responses than Ad26x3, whereas the Ad26 + SpFNx2 and Ad26x3 regimens induce higher CD8 T cell responses than SpFNx3. The Ad26 + SpFNx2 regimen elicits the highest CD4 T cell responses. All three regimens suppress peak and day 4 viral loads in the respiratory tract, which correlate with both humoral and cellular immune responses. This study demonstrates that both homologous and heterologous regimens involving Ad26.COV2.S and SpFN vaccines provide robust protection against a mismatched BA.5 challenge in macaques.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Vaccines , Humans , Animals , Macaca , Ad26COVS1 , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Ferritins
3.
NPJ Vaccines ; 8(1): 41, 2023 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287115

ABSTRACT

Emerging SARS-CoV-2 Omicron subvariants continue to disrupt COVID-19 vaccine efficacy through multiple immune mechanisms including neutralizing antibody evasion. We developed COH04S1, a synthetic modified vaccinia Ankara vector that co-expresses Wuhan-Hu-1-based spike and nucleocapsid antigens. COH04S1 demonstrated efficacy against ancestral virus and Beta and Delta variants in animal models and was safe and immunogenic in a Phase 1 clinical trial. Here, we report efficacy of COH04S1 and analogous Omicron BA.1- and Beta-specific vaccines to protect Syrian hamsters from Omicron subvariants. Despite eliciting strain-specific antibody responses, all three vaccines protect hamsters from weight loss, lower respiratory tract infection, and lung pathology following challenge with Omicron BA.1 or BA.2.12.1. While the BA.1-specifc vaccine affords consistently improved efficacy compared to COH04S1 to protect against homologous challenge with BA.1, all three vaccines confer similar protection against heterologous challenge with BA.2.12.1. These results demonstrate efficacy of COH04S1 and variant-specific derivatives to confer cross-protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron subvariants.

4.
NPJ Vaccines ; 8(1): 23, 2023 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264251

ABSTRACT

Despite the availability of several effective SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, additional vaccines will be required for optimal global vaccination. In this study, we investigate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the GBP510 protein subunit vaccine adjuvanted with AS03, which has recently been authorized for marketing in South Korea under the trade name SKYCovioneTM. The antigen in GBP510/AS03 is a two-part recombinant nanoparticle, which displays 60 receptor binding domain (RBD) proteins of SARS-CoV-2 Spike on its surface. In this study we show that GBP510/AS03 induced robust immune responses in rhesus macaques and protected against a high-dose SARS-CoV-2 Delta challenge. We vaccinated macaques with two or three doses of GBP510/AS03 matched to the ancestral Wuhan strain of SARS-CoV-2 or with two doses of GBP510/AS03 matched to the ancestral strain and one dose matched to the Beta strain. Following the challenge with Delta, the vaccinated macaques rapidly controlled the virus in bronchoalveolar lavage and nasal swabs. Binding and neutralizing antibody responses prior to challenge correlated with protection against viral replication postchallenge. These data are consistent with data with this vaccine from the phase 3 clinical trial.

5.
Sci Adv ; 8(47): eade4433, 2022 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137357

ABSTRACT

Emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants and waning immunity call for next-generation vaccine strategies. Here, we assessed the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of two SARS-CoV-2 vaccines targeting the WA1/2020 spike protein, Ad26.COV2.S (Ad26) and Spike ferritin Nanoparticle (SpFN), in nonhuman primates, delivered as either a homologous (SpFN/SpFN and Ad26/Ad26) or heterologous (Ad26/SpFN) prime-boost regimen. The Ad26/SpFN regimen elicited the highest CD4 T cell and memory B cell responses, the SpFN/SpFN regimen generated the highest binding and neutralizing antibody responses, and the Ad26/Ad26 regimen generated the most robust CD8 T cell responses. Despite these differences, protective efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 challenge was similar for all three regimens. After challenge, all vaccinated monkeys showed significantly reduced peak and day 4 viral loads in both bronchoalveolar lavage and nasal swabs as compared with sham animals. The efficacy conferred by these three immunologically distinct vaccine regimens suggests that both humoral and cellular immunity contribute to protection against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron challenge.

6.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6309, 2022 Oct 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087203

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus vaccines that are highly effective against current and anticipated SARS-CoV-2 variants are needed to control COVID-19. We previously reported a receptor-binding domain (RBD)-sortase A-conjugated ferritin nanoparticle (scNP) vaccine that induced neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and pre-emergent sarbecoviruses and protected non-human primates (NHPs) from SARS-CoV-2 WA-1 infection. Here, we find the RBD-scNP induced neutralizing antibodies in NHPs against pseudoviruses of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 variants including 614G, Beta, Delta, Omicron BA.1, BA.2, BA.2.12.1, and BA.4/BA.5, and a designed variant with escape mutations, PMS20. Adjuvant studies demonstrate variant neutralization titers are highest with 3M-052-aqueous formulation (AF). Immunization twice with RBD-scNPs protect NHPs from SARS-CoV-2 WA-1, Beta, and Delta variant challenge, and protect mice from challenges of SARS-CoV-2 Beta variant and two other heterologous sarbecoviruses. These results demonstrate the ability of RBD-scNPs to induce broad neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 variants and to protect animals from multiple different SARS-related viruses. Such a vaccine could provide broad immunity to SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus , Viral Vaccines , Mice , Animals , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Viral , Mice, Inbred BALB C , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Ferritins
7.
Sci Immunol ; 7(77): eabq7647, 2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1986327

ABSTRACT

Spike-specific neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) are generally considered key correlates of vaccine protection against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Recently, robust vaccine prevention of severe disease with SARS-CoV-2 variants that largely escape NAb responses has been reported, suggesting a role for other immune parameters for virologic control. However, direct data demonstrating a role of CD8+ T cells in vaccine protection have not yet been reported. In this study, we show that vaccine-elicited CD8+ T cells contribute substantially to virologic control after SARS-CoV-2 challenge in rhesus macaques. We vaccinated 30 macaques with a single immunization of the adenovirus vector-based vaccine Ad26.COV2.S or sham and then challenged them with 5 × 105 median tissue culture infectious dose SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) by the intranasal and intratracheal routes. All vaccinated animals were infected by this high-dose challenge but showed rapid virologic control in nasal swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage by day 4 after challenge. However, administration of an anti-CD8α- or anti-CD8ß-depleting monoclonal antibody in vaccinated animals before SARS-CoV-2 challenge resulted in higher levels of peak and day 4 virus in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts. These data demonstrate that CD8+ T cells contribute substantially to vaccine protection against SARS-CoV-2 replication in macaques.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Macaca mulatta , Ad26COVS1 , COVID-19/prevention & control
8.
PLoS Biol ; 20(5): e3001609, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962969

ABSTRACT

Despite the rapid creation of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines, the precise correlates of immunity against severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) are still unknown. Neutralizing antibodies represent a robust surrogate of protection in early Phase III studies, but vaccines provide protection prior to the evolution of neutralization, vaccines provide protection against variants that evade neutralization, and vaccines continue to provide protection against disease severity in the setting of waning neutralizing titers. Thus, in this study, using an Ad26.CoV2.S dose-down approach in nonhuman primates (NHPs), the role of neutralization, Fc effector function, and T-cell immunity were collectively probed against infection as well as against viral control. While dosing-down minimally impacted neutralizing and binding antibody titers, Fc receptor binding and functional antibody levels were induced in a highly dose-dependent manner. Neutralizing antibody and Fc receptor binding titers, but minimally T cells, were linked to the prevention of transmission. Conversely, Fc receptor binding/function and T cells were linked to antiviral control, with a minimal role for neutralization. These data point to dichotomous roles of neutralization and T-cell function in protection against transmission and disease severity and a continuous role for Fc effector function as a correlate of immunity key to halting and controlling SARS-CoV-2 and emerging variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ad26COVS1 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Primates , Receptors, Fc , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
9.
PNAS Nexus ; 1(3): pgac091, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961140

ABSTRACT

Emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants and waning of vaccine/infection-induced immunity pose threats to curbing the COVID-19 pandemic. Effective, safe, and convenient booster vaccines are in need. We hypothesized that a variant-modified mucosal booster vaccine might induce local immunity to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection at the port of entry. The beta-variant is one of the hardest to cross-neutralize. Herein, we assessed the protective efficacy of an intranasal booster composed of beta variant-spike protein S1 with IL-15 and TLR agonists in previously immunized macaques. The macaques were first vaccinated with Wuhan strain S1 with the same adjuvant. A total of 1 year later, negligibly detectable SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody remained. Nevertheless, the booster induced vigorous humoral immunity including serum- and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)-IgG, secretory nasal- and BAL-IgA, and neutralizing antibody against the original strain and/or beta variant. Beta-variant S1-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses were also elicited in PBMC and BAL. Following SARS-CoV-2 beta variant challenge, the vaccinated group demonstrated significant protection against viral replication in the upper and lower respiratory tracts, with almost full protection in the nasal cavity. The fact that one intranasal beta-variant booster administrated 1 year after the first vaccination provoked protective immunity against beta variant infections may inform future SARS-CoV-2 booster design and administration timing.

10.
Science (New York, N.Y.) ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1939926

ABSTRACT

To combat future SARS-CoV-2 variants and spillovers of SARS-like betacoronaviruses (sarbecoviruses) threatening global health, we designed mosaic nanoparticles presenting randomly-arranged sarbecovirus spike receptor-binding domains (RBDs) to elicit antibodies against epitopes that are conserved and relatively occluded, rather than variable, immunodominant, and exposed. We compared immune responses elicited by mosaic-8 (SARS-CoV-2 and seven animal sarbecoviruses) and homotypic (only SARS-CoV-2) RBD-nanoparticles in mice and macaques, observing stronger responses elicited by mosaic-8 to mismatched (not on nanoparticles) strains including SARS-CoV and animal sarbecoviruses. Mosaic-8 immunization showed equivalent neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 variants including Omicrons and protected from SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV challenges, whereas homotypic SARS-CoV-2 immunization protected only from SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Epitope mapping demonstrated increased targeting of conserved epitopes after mosaic-8 immunization. Together, these results suggest mosaic-8 RBD-nanoparticles could protect against SARS-CoV-2 variants and future sarbecovirus spillovers. Description

11.
iScience ; 25(6): 104457, 2022 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867292

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccine efficacy is threatened by emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) with the capacity to evade protective neutralizing antibody responses. We recently developed clinical vaccine candidate COH04S1, a synthetic modified vaccinia Ankara vector (sMVA) co-expressing spike and nucleocapsid antigens based on the Wuhan-Hu-1 reference strain that showed potent efficacy to protect against ancestral SARS-CoV-2 in Syrian hamsters and non-human primates and was safe and immunogenic in healthy volunteers. Here, we demonstrate that intramuscular immunization of Syrian hamsters with COH04S1 and an analogous Beta variant-adapted vaccine candidate (COH04S351) elicits potent cross-reactive antibody responses and protects against weight loss, lower respiratory tract infection, and lung pathology following challenge with major SARS-CoV-2 VOC, including Beta and the highly contagious Delta variant. These results demonstrate efficacy of COH04S1 and a variant-adapted vaccine analog to confer cross-protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and its emerging VOC, supporting clinical investigation of these sMVA-based COVID-19 vaccine candidates.

12.
Med (N Y) ; 3(4): 262-268.e4, 2022 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1829236

ABSTRACT

Background: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant has proven to be highly transmissible and has outcompeted the Delta variant in many regions of the world. Early reports have also suggested that Omicron may result in less severe clinical disease in humans. Here, we show that Omicron is less pathogenic than prior SARS-CoV-2 variants in Syrian golden hamsters. Methods: Hamsters were inoculated with either SARS-CoV-2 Omicron or other SARS-CoV-2 variants. Animals were followed for weight loss, and upper and lower respiratory tract tissues were assessed for viral loads and histopathology. Findings: Infection of hamsters with the SARS-CoV-2 WA1/2020, Alpha, Beta, or Delta strains led to 4%-10% weight loss by day 4 and 10%-17% weight loss by day 6. In contrast, infection of hamsters with two different Omicron challenge stocks did not result in any detectable weight loss, even at high challenge doses. Omicron infection led to substantial viral replication in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts but demonstrated lower viral loads in lung parenchyma and reduced pulmonary pathology compared with WA1/2020 infection. Conclusions: These data suggest that the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant may result in robust upper respiratory tract infection, but less severe lower respiratory tract clinical disease, compared with prior SARS-CoV-2 variants. Funding: Funding for this study was provided by NIH grant CA260476, the Massachusetts Consortium for Pathogen Readiness, the Ragon Institute, and the Musk Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Cricetinae , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virulence , Weight Loss
13.
Cell ; 185(9): 1549-1555.e11, 2022 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748149

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant, including in highly vaccinated populations, has raised important questions about the efficacy of current vaccines. In this study, we show that the mRNA-based BNT162b2 vaccine and the adenovirus-vector-based Ad26.COV2.S vaccine provide robust protection against high-dose challenge with the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant in cynomolgus macaques. We vaccinated 30 macaques with homologous and heterologous prime-boost regimens with BNT162b2 and Ad26.COV2.S. Following Omicron challenge, vaccinated macaques demonstrated rapid control of virus in bronchoalveolar lavage, and most vaccinated animals also controlled virus in nasal swabs. However, 4 vaccinated animals that had moderate Omicron-neutralizing antibody titers and undetectable Omicron CD8+ T cell responses failed to control virus in the upper respiratory tract. Moreover, virologic control correlated with both antibody and T cell responses. These data suggest that both humoral and cellular immune responses contribute to vaccine protection against a highly mutated SARS-CoV-2 variant.


Subject(s)
Ad26COVS1/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19 , Macaca , SARS-CoV-2 , Ad26COVS1/administration & dosage , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
14.
Sci Adv ; 8(11): eabl6015, 2022 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745843

ABSTRACT

Authorized vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 remain less available in low- and middle-income countries due to insufficient supply, high costs, and storage requirements. Global immunity could still benefit from new vaccines using widely available, safe adjuvants, such as alum and protein subunits, suited to low-cost production in existing manufacturing facilities. Here, a clinical-stage vaccine candidate comprising a SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain-hepatitis B surface antigen virus-like particle elicited protective immunity in cynomolgus macaques. Titers of neutralizing antibodies (>104) induced by this candidate were above the range of protection for other licensed vaccines in nonhuman primates. Including CpG 1018 did not significantly improve the immunological responses. Vaccinated animals challenged with SARS-CoV-2 showed reduced median viral loads in bronchoalveolar lavage (~3.4 log10) and nasal mucosa (~2.9 log10) versus sham controls. These data support the potential benefit of this design for a low-cost modular vaccine platform for SARS-CoV-2 and other variants of concern or betacoronaviruses.

15.
Med (N Y) ; 3(3): 188-203.e4, 2022 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740045

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatments are promising for COVID-19 prevention or therapy. The pre-exposure prophylactic efficacy of neutralizing antibodies that are engineered with mutations to extend their persistence in human serum and the neutralizing antibody titer in serum required for protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection remain poorly characterized. METHODS: The Fc region of two neutralizing mAbs (COV2-2130 and COV2-2381) targeting non-overlapping epitopes on the receptor binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was engineered to extend their persistence in humans and reduce interactions with Fc gamma receptors. We assessed protection by individual antibodies or a combination of the two antibodies (designated ADM03820) given prophylactically by an intravenous or intramuscular route in a non-human primate (NHP) model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. FINDINGS: Passive transfer of individual mAbs or ADM03820 conferred virological protection in the NHP respiratory tract in a dose-dependent manner, and ADM03820 potently neutralized SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern in vitro. We defined a protective serum-neutralizing antibody titer and concentration in NHPs for passively transferred human antibodies that acted by direct viral neutralization. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, we demonstrate that neutralizing antibodies with extended half-life and lacking Fc-mediated effector functions are efficient for pre-exposure prophylaxis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in NHPs. These results support clinical development of ADM03820 for COVID-19 prevention. FUNDING: This research was supported by a contract from the JPEO-CBRND (W911QY-20-9-003, 20-05); the Joint Sciences and Technology Office and Joint Program Executive Office (MCDC-16-01-002 JSTO, JPEO); a DARPA grant (HR0011-18-2-0001); an NIH grant (R01 AI157155); and the 2019 Future Insight Prize from Merck KGaA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Macaca , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
16.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(638): eabm4996, 2022 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705843

ABSTRACT

Ad26.COV2.S has demonstrated durability and clinical efficacy against symptomatic COVID-19 in humans. In this study, we report the correlates of durability of humoral and cellular immune responses in 20 rhesus macaques immunized with single-shot Ad26.COV2.S and the immunogenicity of a booster shot at 8 to 10 months after the initial immunization. Ad26.COV2.S elicited durable binding and neutralizing antibodies as well as memory B cells and long-lived bone marrow plasma cells. Innate immune responses and bone marrow plasma cell responses correlated with durable antibody responses. After Ad26.COV2.S boost immunization, binding and neutralizing antibody responses against multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants increased 31- to 69-fold and 23- to 43-fold, respectively, compared with preboost concentrations. Antigen-specific B cell and T cell responses also increased substantially after the boost immunization. Boosting with a modified Ad26.COV2.S.351 vaccine expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein from the beta variant led to largely comparable responses with slightly higher beta- and omicron-specific humoral immune responses. These data demonstrate that a late boost with Ad26.COV2.S or Ad26.COV2.S.351 resulted in a marked increase in humoral and cellular immune responses that were highly cross-reactive across multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants in rhesus macaques.


Subject(s)
Ad26COVS1 , COVID-19 , Immunity, Humoral , Immunization, Secondary , SARS-CoV-2 , Ad26COVS1/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Macaca mulatta , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
17.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(9): e1009701, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701737

ABSTRACT

The speed of development, versatility and efficacy of mRNA-based vaccines have been amply demonstrated in the case of SARS-CoV-2. DNA vaccines represent an important alternative since they induce both humoral and cellular immune responses in animal models and in human trials. We tested the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of DNA-based vaccine regimens expressing different prefusion-stabilized Wuhan-Hu-1 SARS-CoV-2 Spike antigens upon intramuscular injection followed by electroporation in rhesus macaques. Different Spike DNA vaccine regimens induced antibodies that potently neutralized SARS-CoV-2 in vitro and elicited robust T cell responses. The antibodies recognized and potently neutralized a panel of different Spike variants including Alpha, Delta, Epsilon, Eta and A.23.1, but to a lesser extent Beta and Gamma. The DNA-only vaccine regimens were compared to a regimen that included co-immunization of Spike DNA and protein in the same anatomical site, the latter of which showed significant higher antibody responses. All vaccine regimens led to control of SARS-CoV-2 intranasal/intratracheal challenge and absence of virus dissemination to the lower respiratory tract. Vaccine-induced binding and neutralizing antibody titers and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis inversely correlated with transient virus levels in the nasal mucosa. Importantly, the Spike DNA+Protein co-immunization regimen induced the highest binding and neutralizing antibodies and showed the strongest control against SARS-CoV-2 challenge in rhesus macaques.


Subject(s)
Macaca mulatta , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, DNA , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , DNA, Viral/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Immunization, Passive , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Mice , RNA, Messenger/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/administration & dosage , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , COVID-19 Serotherapy
18.
NPJ Vaccines ; 7(1): 7, 2022 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641964

ABSTRACT

Second-generation COVID-19 vaccines could contribute to establish protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and its emerging variants. We developed COH04S1, a synthetic multiantigen modified vaccinia Ankara-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine that co-expresses spike and nucleocapsid antigens. Here, we report COH04S1 vaccine efficacy in animal models. We demonstrate that intramuscular or intranasal vaccination of Syrian hamsters with COH04S1 induces robust Th1-biased antigen-specific humoral immunity and cross-neutralizing antibodies (NAb) and protects against weight loss, lower respiratory tract infection, and lung injury following intranasal SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Moreover, we demonstrate that single-dose or two-dose vaccination of non-human primates with COH04S1 induces robust antigen-specific binding antibodies, NAb, and Th1-biased T cells, protects against both upper and lower respiratory tract infection following intranasal/intratracheal SARS-CoV-2 challenge, and triggers potent post-challenge anamnestic antiviral responses. These results demonstrate COH04S1-mediated vaccine protection in animal models through different vaccination routes and dose regimens, complementing ongoing investigation of this multiantigen SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in clinical trials.

19.
NPJ Vaccines ; 7(1): 2, 2022 Jan 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616986

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 Spike-specific binding and neutralizing antibodies, elicited either by natural infection or vaccination, have emerged as potential correlates of protection. An important question, however, is whether vaccine-elicited antibodies in humans provide direct, functional protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease. In this study, we explored directly the protective efficacy of human antibodies elicited by Ad26.COV2.S vaccination by adoptive transfer studies. IgG from plasma of Ad26.COV2.S vaccinated individuals was purified and transferred into naïve golden Syrian hamster recipients, followed by intra-nasal challenge of the hamsters with SARS-CoV-2. IgG purified from Ad26.COV2.S-vaccinated individuals provided dose-dependent protection in the recipient hamsters from weight loss following challenge. In contrast, IgG purified from placebo recipients provided no protection in this adoptive transfer model. Attenuation of weight loss correlated with binding and neutralizing antibody titers of the passively transferred IgG. This study suggests that Ad26.COV2.S-elicited antibodies in humans are mechanistically involved in protection against SARS-CoV-2.

20.
Frontiers in immunology ; 12, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1610187

ABSTRACT

Infection with the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, results in pneumonia and other respiratory symptoms as well as pathologies at diverse anatomical sites. An outstanding question is whether these diverse pathologies are due to replication of the virus in these anatomical compartments and how and when the virus reaches those sites. To answer these outstanding questions and study the spatiotemporal dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 infection a method for tracking viral spread in vivo is needed. We developed a novel, fluorescently labeled, antibody-based in vivo probe system using the anti-spike monoclonal antibody CR3022 and demonstrated that it could successfully identify sites of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a rhesus macaque model of COVID-19. Our results showed that the fluorescent signal from our antibody-based probe could differentiate whole lungs of macaques infected for 9 days from those infected for 2 or 3 days. Additionally, the probe signal corroborated the frequency and density of infected cells in individual tissue blocks from infected macaques. These results provide proof of concept for the use of in vivo antibody-based probes to study SARS-CoV-2 infection dynamics in rhesus macaques.

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