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1.
Pediatrics ; 2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855067

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Limited post-authorization safety data for BNT-162b2 COVID-19 vaccination among children ages 5-11 years are available, particularly for the adverse event myocarditis, which has been detected in adolescents and young adults. We describe adverse events observed during the first 4 months of the US COVID-19 vaccination program in this age group. METHODS: We analyzed data from 3 US safety monitoring systems: v-safe, a voluntary smartphone-based system that monitors reactions and health effects; the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS), the national spontaneous reporting system co-managed by CDC and FDA; and the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD), an active surveillance system that monitors electronic health records for prespecified events, including myocarditis. RESULTS: Among 48,795 children ages 5-11 years enrolled in v-safe, most reported reactions were mild-to-moderate, most frequently reported the day after vaccination, and were more common after dose 2. VAERS received 7,578 adverse event reports; 97% were non-serious. On review of 194 serious VAERS reports, 15 myocarditis cases were verified; 8 occurred in males after dose 2 (reporting rate 2.2 per million doses). In VSD, no safety signals were detected in weekly sequential monitoring after administration of 726,820 doses. CONCLUSIONS: Safety findings for BNT-162b2 vaccine from 3 US monitoring systems in children ages 5-11 years show that most reported adverse events were mild and no safety signals were observed in active surveillance. VAERS reporting rates of myocarditis after dose 2 in this age group were substantially lower than those observed among adolescents ages 12-15 years.

2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(4): e228879, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1801993

ABSTRACT

Importance: Postauthorization monitoring of vaccines in a large population may detect rare adverse events not identified in clinical trials such as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), which has a background rate of 1 to 2 per 100 000 person-years. Objective: To describe cases and incidence of GBS following COVID-19 vaccination and assess the risk of GBS after vaccination for Ad.26.COV2.S (Janssen) and mRNA vaccines. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used surveillance data from the Vaccine Safety Datalink at 8 participating integrated health care systems in the United States. There were 10 158 003 participants aged at least 12 years. Data analysis was performed from November 2021 to February 2022. Exposures: Ad.26.COV2.S, BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech), or mRNA-1273 (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccine, including mRNA vaccine doses 1 and 2, December 13, 2020, to November 13, 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: GBS with symptom onset in the 1 to 84 days after vaccination, confirmed by medical record review and adjudication. Descriptive characteristics of confirmed cases, GBS incidence rates during postvaccination risk intervals after each type of vaccine compared with the background rate, rate ratios (RRs) comparing GBS incidence in the 1 to 21 vs 22 to 42 days postvaccination, and RRs directly comparing risk of GBS after Ad.26.COV2.S vs mRNA vaccination, using Poisson regression adjusted for age, sex, race and ethnicity, site, and calendar day. Results: From December 13, 2020, through November 13, 2021, 15 120 073 doses of COVID-19 vaccines were administered to 7 894 989 individuals (mean [SE] age, 46.5 [0.02] years; 8 138 318 doses received [53.8%] by female individuals; 3 671 199 doses received [24.3%] by Hispanic or Latino individuals, 2 215 064 doses received [14.7%] by Asian individuals, 6 266 424 doses received [41.4%] by White individuals), including 483 053 Ad.26.COV2.S doses, 8 806 595 BNT162b2 doses, and 5 830 425 mRNA-1273 doses. Eleven cases of GBS after Ad.26.COV2.S were confirmed. The unadjusted incidence rate of GBS per 100 000 person-years in the 1 to 21 days after Ad.26.COV2.S was 32.4 (95% CI, 14.8-61.5), significantly higher than the background rate, and the adjusted RR in the 1 to 21 vs 22 to 42 days following Ad.26.COV2.S was 6.03 (95% CI, 0.79-147.79). Thirty-six cases of GBS after mRNA vaccines were confirmed. The unadjusted incidence rate per 100 000 person-years in the 1 to 21 days after mRNA vaccines was 1.3 (95% CI, 0.7-2.4) and the adjusted RR in the 1 to 21 vs 22 to 42 days following mRNA vaccines was 0.56 (95% CI, 0.21-1.48). In a head-to-head comparison of Ad.26.COV2.S vs mRNA vaccines, the adjusted RR was 20.56 (95% CI, 6.94-64.66). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of COVID-19 vaccines, the incidence of GBS was elevated after receiving the Ad.26.COV2.S vaccine. Surveillance is ongoing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Humans , Incidence , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(13): 495-502, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771891

ABSTRACT

CDC recommends that all persons aged ≥18 years receive a single COVID-19 vaccine booster dose ≥2 months after receipt of an Ad.26.COV2.S (Janssen [Johnson & Johnson]) adenovirus vector-based primary series vaccine; a heterologous COVID-19 mRNA vaccine is preferred over a homologous (matching) Janssen vaccine for booster vaccination. This recommendation was made in light of the risks for rare but serious adverse events following receipt of a Janssen vaccine, including thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome and Guillain-Barré syndrome† (1), and clinical trial data indicating similar or higher neutralizing antibody response following heterologous boosting compared with homologous boosting (2). Data on real-world vaccine effectiveness (VE) of different booster strategies following a primary Janssen vaccine dose are limited, particularly during the period of Omicron variant predominance. The VISION Network§ determined real-world VE of 1 Janssen vaccine dose and 2 alternative booster dose strategies: 1) a homologous booster (i.e., 2 Janssen doses) and 2) a heterologous mRNA booster (i.e., 1 Janssen dose/1 mRNA dose). In addition, VE of these booster strategies was compared with VE of a homologous booster following mRNA primary series vaccination (i.e., 3 mRNA doses). The study examined 80,287 emergency department/urgent care (ED/UC) visits¶ and 25,244 hospitalizations across 10 states during December 16, 2021-March 7, 2022, when Omicron was the predominant circulating variant.** VE against laboratory-confirmed COVID-19-associated ED/UC encounters was 24% after 1 Janssen dose, 54% after 2 Janssen doses, 79% after 1 Janssen/1 mRNA dose, and 83% after 3 mRNA doses. VE for the same vaccination strategies against laboratory-confirmed COVID-19-associated hospitalizations were 31%, 67%, 78%, and 90%, respectively. All booster strategies provided higher protection than a single Janssen dose against ED/UC visits and hospitalizations during Omicron variant predominance. Vaccination with 1 Janssen/1 mRNA dose provided higher protection than did 2 Janssen doses against COVID-19-associated ED/UC visits and was comparable to protection provided by 3 mRNA doses during the first 120 days after a booster dose. However, 3 mRNA doses provided higher protection against COVID-19-associated hospitalizations than did other booster strategies during the same time interval since booster dose. All adults who have received mRNA vaccines for their COVID-19 primary series vaccination should receive an mRNA booster dose when eligible. Adults who received a primary Janssen vaccine dose should preferentially receive a heterologous mRNA vaccine booster dose ≥2 months later, or a homologous Janssen vaccine booster dose if mRNA vaccine is contraindicated or unavailable. Further investigation of the durability of protection afforded by different booster strategies is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , Ambulatory Care , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(9): 352-358, 2022 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1727017

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine against laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 exceeded 90% in clinical trials that included children and adolescents aged 5-11, 12-15, and 16-17 years (1-3). Limited real-world data on 2-dose mRNA vaccine effectiveness (VE) in persons aged 12-17 years (referred to as adolescents in this report) have also indicated high levels of protection against SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) infection and COVID-19-associated hospitalization (4-6); however, data on VE against the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant and duration of protection are limited. Pfizer-BioNTech VE data are not available for children aged 5-11 years. In partnership with CDC, the VISION Network* examined 39,217 emergency department (ED) and urgent care (UC) encounters and 1,699 hospitalizations† among persons aged 5-17 years with COVID-19-like illness across 10 states during April 9, 2021-January 29, 2022,§ to estimate VE using a case-control test-negative design. Among children aged 5-11 years, VE against laboratory-confirmed COVID-19-associated ED and UC encounters 14-67 days after dose 2 (the longest interval after dose 2 in this age group) was 46%. Among adolescents aged 12-15 and 16-17 years, VE 14-149 days after dose 2 was 83% and 76%, respectively; VE ≥150 days after dose 2 was 38% and 46%, respectively. Among adolescents aged 16-17 years, VE increased to 86% ≥7 days after dose 3 (booster dose). VE against COVID-19-associated ED and UC encounters was substantially lower during the Omicron predominant period than the B.1.617.2 (Delta) predominant period among adolescents aged 12-17 years, with no significant protection ≥150 days after dose 2 during Omicron predominance. However, in adolescents aged 16-17 years, VE during the Omicron predominant period increased to 81% ≥7 days after a third booster dose. During the full study period, including pre-Delta, Delta, and Omicron predominant periods, VE against laboratory-confirmed COVID-19-associated hospitalization among children aged 5-11 years was 74% 14-67 days after dose 2, with wide CIs that included zero. Among adolescents aged 12-15 and 16-17 years, VE 14-149 days after dose 2 was 92% and 94%, respectively; VE ≥150 days after dose 2 was 73% and 88%, respectively. All eligible children and adolescents should remain up to date with recommended COVID-19 vaccinations, including a booster dose for those aged 12-17 years.


Subject(s)
/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , /statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , Child , Child, Preschool , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Male , United States
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(7): 255-263, 2022 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1689713

ABSTRACT

CDC recommends that all persons aged ≥12 years receive a booster dose of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine ≥5 months after completion of a primary mRNA vaccination series and that immunocompromised persons receive a third primary dose.* Waning of vaccine protection after 2 doses of mRNA vaccine has been observed during the period of the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant predominance† (1-5), but little is known about durability of protection after 3 doses during periods of Delta or SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant predominance. A test-negative case-control study design using data from eight VISION Network sites§ examined vaccine effectiveness (VE) against COVID-19 emergency department/urgent care (ED/UC) visits and hospitalizations among U.S. adults aged ≥18 years at various time points after receipt of a second or third vaccine dose during two periods: Delta variant predominance and Omicron variant predominance (i.e., periods when each variant accounted for ≥50% of sequenced isolates).¶ Persons categorized as having received 3 doses included those who received a third dose in a primary series or a booster dose after a 2 dose primary series (including the reduced-dosage Moderna booster). The VISION Network analyzed 241,204 ED/UC encounters** and 93,408 hospitalizations across 10 states during August 26, 2021-January 22, 2022. VE after receipt of both 2 and 3 doses was lower during the Omicron-predominant than during the Delta-predominant period at all time points evaluated. During both periods, VE after receipt of a third dose was higher than that after a second dose; however, VE waned with increasing time since vaccination. During the Omicron period, VE against ED/UC visits was 87% during the first 2 months after a third dose and decreased to 66% among those vaccinated 4-5 months earlier; VE against hospitalizations was 91% during the first 2 months following a third dose and decreased to 78% ≥4 months after a third dose. For both Delta- and Omicron-predominant periods, VE was generally higher for protection against hospitalizations than against ED/UC visits. All eligible persons should remain up to date with recommended COVID-19 vaccinations to best protect against COVID-19-associated hospitalizations and ED/UC visits.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , /administration & dosage , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Case-Control Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Time Factors , United States , Young Adult
6.
Vaccine ; 40(5): 752-756, 2022 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586268

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) uses vaccination data from electronic health records (EHR) at eight integrated health systems to monitor vaccine safety. Accurate capture of data from vaccines administered outside of the health system is critical for vaccine safety research, especially for COVID-19 vaccines, where many are administered in non-traditional settings. However, timely access and inclusion of data from Immunization Information Systems (IIS) into VSD safety assessments is not well understood. METHODS: We surveyed the eight data-contributing VSD sites to assess: 1) status of sending data to IIS; 2) status of receiving data from IIS; and 3) integration of IIS data into the site EHR. Sites reported separately for COVID-19 vaccination to capture any differences in capacity to receive and integrate data on COVID-19 vaccines versus other vaccines. RESULTS: All VSD sites send data to and receive data from their state IIS. All eight sites (100%) routinely integrate IIS data for COVID-19 vaccines into VSD research studies. Six sites (75%) also routinely integrate all other vaccination data; two sites integrate data from IIS following a reconciliation process, which can result in delays to integration into VSD datasets. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccines are being administered in a variety of non-traditional settings, where IIS are commonly used as centralized reporting systems. All eight VSD sites receive and integrate COVID-19 vaccine data from IIS, which positions the VSD well for conducting quality assessments of vaccine safety. Efforts to improve the timely receipt of all vaccination data will improve capacity to conduct vaccine safety assessments within the VSD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunization , Information Systems , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines/adverse effects
8.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S135-S135, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1563839

ABSTRACT

Background We conducted a large real-world study of the long-term vaccine effectiveness (VE) of the live attenuated zoster vaccine (Zostavax;ZVL). Using an innovative approach with automated observational data we measured VE for incident herpes zoster (HZ) and severe HZ outcomes including post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN), herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO), and hospitalized HZ. This approach could be useful in long-term effectiveness studies of other vaccines. Methods We assessed VE against HZ, PHN, HZO and hospitalized HZ for up to 10+ years after vaccination at Kaiser Permanente Northern California. We identified incident cases using diagnoses, laboratory tests and prescriptions, and validated a sample by chart review. For each outcome, we used a Cox regression model with a calendar timeline to estimate VE in relation to year since vaccination. The model for HZ included 11 time-varying vaccination status indicators to denote -- at each timepoint during follow-up -- either the number of years since ZVL vaccination (30 days to < 1 year, 1 to < 2 years, . . ., and 10+ years) or that the individual is unvaccinated (reference group). Analyses were adjusted for demographics and time-varying measures of immune compromise status, healthcare use and comorbidities. Results From 2007-2018, 1.5 million people contributed to analyses;507,000 (34%) were vaccinated. During 9 million person-years of follow-up, we observed 75,135 HZ cases, including 4,982 (7%) with PHN, 4,418 (6%) with HZO, and 555 (< 1%) who were hospitalized. VE for HZ was 67% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 65-69%) in the first year after vaccination, waned to 50% (CI: 47-52%) in the second year after vaccination, and then waned more gradually to 15% (CI: 5-24%) by 10+ years after vaccination. Initial VE was higher against PHN (83%;CI: 78-87%) and hospitalized HZ (89%;CI: 67-97%) with less waning observed over time (42% by Year 8 for PHN and 53% in Years 5 to < 8 for hospitalized HZ). VE against HZO was 71% in Year 1 and waned to 29% in Years 5 to < 8. Conclusion Our large population, long follow-up and innovative methods let us estimate VE against HZ, PHN, HZO and hospitalized HZ for 10+ years after vaccination. Our approach could help assess waning and need for boosters for vaccines against other agents including COVID-19. Disclosures Morgan Marks, PhD, ScM, Merck & Co Inc. (Employee) Patricia Saddier, MD, PhD, Merck & Co Inc (Employee) Nicola P. Klein, MD, PhD, GlaxoSmithKline (Grant/Research Support)MedImmune (Grant/Research Support)Merck & Co Inc (Grant/Research Support)Pfizer (Grant/Research Support)Protein Sciences (now Sanofi Pasteur) (Grant/Research Support)Sanofi Pasteur (Grant/Research Support)

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294893

ABSTRACT

Importance: Post-authorization monitoring of vaccines in a large population can detect rare adverse events not identified in clinical trials including Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). GBS has a background rate of 1-2 per 100,000 person-years. Objective: To 1) describe cases and incidence of GBS following COVID-19 vaccination, and 2) assess the risk of GBS after vaccination for Ad.26.COV2.S (Janssen) and mRNA vaccines. Design: Interim analysis of surveillance data from the Vaccine Safety Datalink. Setting: Eight participating integrated healthcare systems in the United States. Participants: 10,158,003 individuals aged ≥12 years. Exposures: Receipt of Ad.26.COV2.S, BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech), or mRNA-1273 (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccine. Main Outcomes and Measures: GBS with symptom onset in the 1-84 days after vaccination as confirmed by medical record review and adjudication. Descriptive characteristics of confirmed cases, GBS incidence rates during postvaccination risk intervals after each type of vaccine compared to the background rate, rate ratios (RRs) comparing GBS incidence in the 1-21 vs. 22-42 days postvaccination, and RRs directly comparing risk of GBS after Ad.26.COV2.S vs. mRNA vaccination, using Poisson regression adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, site, and calendar day. Results: From December 13, 2020 through November 13, 2021, 14,723,318 doses of COVID-19 vaccines were administered, including 467,126 Ad.26.COV2.S, 8,573,823 BNT162b2, and 5,682,369 mRNA-1273 doses. Eleven cases of GBS after Ad.26.COV2.S were confirmed. The unadjusted incidence rate of confirmed cases of GBS per 100,000 person-years in the 1-21 days after Ad.26.COV2.S was 34.6 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15.8-65.7), significantly higher than the background rate, and the adjusted RR in the 1-21 vs. 22-42 days following Ad.26.COV2.S was 6.03 (95% CI: 0.79-147.79). Thirty-four cases of GBS after mRNA vaccines were confirmed. The unadjusted incidence rate of confirmed cases per 100,000 person-years in the 1-21 days after mRNA vaccines was 1.4 (95% CI: 0.7-2.5) and the adjusted RR in the 1-21 vs. 22-42 days following mRNA vaccines was 0.56 (95% CI: 0.21-1.48). In a head-to-head comparison of Ad.26.COV2.S vs. mRNA vaccines, the adjusted RR was 20.56 (95% CI: 6.94-64.66). Conclusions and Relevance: In this interim analysis of surveillance data of COVID-19 vaccines, the incidence of GBS was elevated after Ad.26.COV2.S. Surveillance is ongoing.

10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293534

ABSTRACT

Importance: Post-authorization monitoring of vaccines in a large population can detect rare adverse events not identified in clinical trials including Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). GBS has a background rate of 1-2 per 100,000 person-years. Objective: To 1) describe cases and incidence of GBS following COVID-19 vaccination, and 2) assess the risk of GBS after vaccination for Ad.26.COV2.S (Janssen) and mRNA vaccines. Design: Interim analysis of surveillance data from the Vaccine Safety Datalink. Setting: Eight participating integrated healthcare systems in the United States. Participants: 10,158,003 individuals aged ≥12 years. Exposures: Receipt of Ad.26.COV2.S, BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech), or mRNA-1273 (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccine. Main Outcomes and Measures: GBS with symptom onset in the 1-84 days after vaccination as confirmed by medical record review and adjudication. Descriptive characteristics of confirmed cases, GBS incidence rates during postvaccination risk intervals after each type of vaccine compared to the background rate, rate ratios (RRs) comparing GBS incidence in the 1-21 vs. 22-42 days postvaccination, and RRs directly comparing risk of GBS after Ad.26.COV2.S vs. mRNA vaccination, using Poisson regression adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, site, and calendar day. Results: From December 13, 2020 through November 13, 2021, 14,723,318 doses of COVID-19 vaccines were administered, including 467,126 Ad.26.COV2.S, 8,573,823 BNT162b2, and 5,682,369 mRNA-1273 doses. Eleven cases of GBS after Ad.26.COV2.S were confirmed. The unadjusted incidence rate of confirmed cases of GBS per 100,000 person-years in the 1-21 days after Ad.26.COV2.S was 34.6 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15.8-65.7), significantly higher than the background rate, and the adjusted RR in the 1-21 vs. 22-42 days following Ad.26.COV2.S was 6.03 (95% CI: 0.79-147.79). Thirty-four cases of GBS after mRNA vaccines were confirmed. The unadjusted incidence rate of confirmed cases per 100,000 person-years in the 1-21 days after mRNA vaccines was 1.4 (95% CI: 0.7-2.5) and the adjusted RR in the 1-21 vs. 22-42 days following mRNA vaccines was 0.56 (95% CI: 0.21-1.48). In a head-to-head comparison of Ad.26.COV2.S vs. mRNA vaccines, the adjusted RR was 20.56 (95% CI: 6.94-64.66). Conclusions and Relevance: In this interim analysis of surveillance data of COVID-19 vaccines, the incidence of GBS was elevated after Ad.26.COV2.S. Surveillance is ongoing.

11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(44): 1553-1559, 2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502903

ABSTRACT

Immunocompromised persons, defined as those with suppressed humoral or cellular immunity resulting from health conditions or medications, account for approximately 3% of the U.S. adult population (1). Immunocompromised adults are at increased risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes (2) and might not acquire the same level of protection from COVID-19 mRNA vaccines as do immunocompetent adults (3,4). To evaluate vaccine effectiveness (VE) among immunocompromised adults, data from the VISION Network* on hospitalizations among persons aged ≥18 years with COVID-19-like illness from 187 hospitals in nine states during January 17-September 5, 2021 were analyzed. Using selected discharge diagnoses,† VE against COVID-19-associated hospitalization conferred by completing a 2-dose series of an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine ≥14 days before the index hospitalization date§ (i.e., being fully vaccinated) was evaluated using a test-negative design comparing 20,101 immunocompromised adults (10,564 [53%] of whom were fully vaccinated) and 69,116 immunocompetent adults (29,456 [43%] of whom were fully vaccinated). VE of 2 doses of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine against COVID-19-associated hospitalization was lower among immunocompromised patients (77%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 74%-80%) than among immunocompetent patients (90%; 95% CI = 89%-91%). This difference persisted irrespective of mRNA vaccine product, age group, and timing of hospitalization relative to SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant predominance in the state of hospitalization. VE varied across immunocompromising condition subgroups, ranging from 59% (organ or stem cell transplant recipients) to 81% (persons with a rheumatologic or inflammatory disorder). Immunocompromised persons benefit from mRNA COVID-19 vaccination but are less protected from severe COVID-19 outcomes than are immunocompetent persons, and VE varies among immunocompromised subgroups. Immunocompromised persons receiving mRNA COVID-19 vaccines should receive 3 doses and a booster, consistent with CDC recommendations (5), practice nonpharmaceutical interventions, and, if infected, be monitored closely and considered early for proven therapies that can prevent severe outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Laboratories , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United States/epidemiology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Young Adult
12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(44): 1539-1544, 2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502901

ABSTRACT

Previous infection with SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) or COVID-19 vaccination can provide immunity and protection from subsequent SARS-CoV-2 infection and illness. CDC used data from the VISION Network* to examine hospitalizations in adults with COVID-19-like illness and compared the odds of receiving a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result, and thus having laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, between unvaccinated patients with a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection occurring 90-179 days before COVID-19-like illness hospitalization, and patients who were fully vaccinated with an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine 90-179 days before hospitalization with no previous documented SARS-CoV-2 infection. Hospitalized adults aged ≥18 years with COVID-19-like illness were included if they had received testing at least twice: once associated with a COVID-19-like illness hospitalization during January-September 2021 and at least once earlier (since February 1, 2020, and ≥14 days before that hospitalization). Among COVID-19-like illness hospitalizations in persons whose previous infection or vaccination occurred 90-179 days earlier, the odds of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 (adjusted for sociodemographic and health characteristics) among unvaccinated, previously infected adults were higher than the odds among fully vaccinated recipients of an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine with no previous documented infection (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 5.49; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.75-10.99). These findings suggest that among hospitalized adults with COVID-19-like illness whose previous infection or vaccination occurred 90-179 days earlier, vaccine-induced immunity was more protective than infection-induced immunity against laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. All eligible persons should be vaccinated against COVID-19 as soon as possible, including unvaccinated persons previously infected with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Laboratories , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Young Adult
13.
JAMA ; 326(14): 1390-1399, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1490611

ABSTRACT

Importance: Safety surveillance of vaccines against COVID-19 is critical to ensure safety, maintain trust, and inform policy. Objectives: To monitor 23 serious outcomes weekly, using comprehensive health records on a diverse population. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study represents an interim analysis of safety surveillance data from Vaccine Safety Datalink. The 10 162 227 vaccine-eligible members of 8 participating US health plans were monitored with administrative data updated weekly and supplemented with medical record review for selected outcomes from December 14, 2020, through June 26, 2021. Exposures: Receipt of BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccination, with a risk interval of 21 days for individuals after vaccine dose 1 or 2 compared with an interval of 22 to 42 days for similar individuals after vaccine dose 1 or 2. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incidence of serious outcomes, including acute myocardial infarction, Bell palsy, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, myocarditis/pericarditis, pulmonary embolism, stroke, and thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome. Incidence of events that occurred among vaccine recipients 1 to 21 days after either dose 1 or 2 of a messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine was compared with that of vaccinated concurrent comparators who, on the same calendar day, had received their most recent dose 22 to 42 days earlier. Rate ratios (RRs) were estimated by Poisson regression, adjusted for age, sex, race and ethnicity, health plan, and calendar day. For a signal, a 1-sided P < .0048 was required to keep type I error below .05 during 2 years of weekly analyses. For 4 additional outcomes, including anaphylaxis, only descriptive analyses were conducted. Results: A total of 11 845 128 doses of mRNA vaccines (57% BNT162b2; 6 175 813 first doses and 5 669 315 second doses) were administered to 6.2 million individuals (mean age, 49 years; 54% female individuals). The incidence of events per 1 000 000 person-years during the risk vs comparison intervals for ischemic stroke was 1612 vs 1781 (RR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.87-1.08); for appendicitis, 1179 vs 1345 (RR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.73-0.93); and for acute myocardial infarction, 935 vs 1030 (RR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.89-1.18). No vaccine-outcome association met the prespecified requirement for a signal. Incidence of confirmed anaphylaxis was 4.8 (95% CI, 3.2-6.9) per million doses of BNT162b2 and 5.1 (95% CI, 3.3-7.6) per million doses of mRNA-1273. Conclusions and Relevance: In interim analyses of surveillance of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines, incidence of selected serious outcomes was not significantly higher 1 to 21 days postvaccination compared with 22 to 42 days postvaccination. While CIs were wide for many outcomes, surveillance is ongoing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anaphylaxis/epidemiology , Anaphylaxis/etiology , Child , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/etiology , Public Health Surveillance , Time Factors , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Young Adult
14.
N Engl J Med ; 385(15): 1355-1371, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397961

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the effectiveness of the vaccines against symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) currently authorized in the United States with respect to hospitalization, admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), or ambulatory care in an emergency department or urgent care clinic. METHODS: We conducted a study involving adults (≥50 years of age) with Covid-19-like illness who underwent molecular testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We assessed 41,552 admissions to 187 hospitals and 21,522 visits to 221 emergency departments or urgent care clinics during the period from January 1 through June 22, 2021, in multiple states. The patients' vaccination status was documented in electronic health records and immunization registries. We used a test-negative design to estimate vaccine effectiveness by comparing the odds of a positive test for SARS-CoV-2 infection among vaccinated patients with those among unvaccinated patients. Vaccine effectiveness was adjusted with weights based on propensity-for-vaccination scores and according to age, geographic region, calendar time (days from January 1, 2021, to the index date for each medical visit), and local virus circulation. RESULTS: The effectiveness of full messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccination (≥14 days after the second dose) was 89% (95% confidence interval [CI], 87 to 91) against laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection leading to hospitalization, 90% (95% CI, 86 to 93) against infection leading to an ICU admission, and 91% (95% CI, 89 to 93) against infection leading to an emergency department or urgent care clinic visit. The effectiveness of full vaccination with respect to a Covid-19-associated hospitalization or emergency department or urgent care clinic visit was similar with the BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 vaccines and ranged from 81% to 95% among adults 85 years of age or older, persons with chronic medical conditions, and Black or Hispanic adults. The effectiveness of the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine was 68% (95% CI, 50 to 79) against laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection leading to hospitalization and 73% (95% CI, 59 to 82) against infection leading to an emergency department or urgent care clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Covid-19 vaccines in the United States were highly effective against SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring hospitalization, ICU admission, or an emergency department or urgent care clinic visit. This vaccine effectiveness extended to populations that are disproportionately affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Readmission/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
15.
JAMA ; 326(14): 1390-1399, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1391514

ABSTRACT

Importance: Safety surveillance of vaccines against COVID-19 is critical to ensure safety, maintain trust, and inform policy. Objectives: To monitor 23 serious outcomes weekly, using comprehensive health records on a diverse population. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study represents an interim analysis of safety surveillance data from Vaccine Safety Datalink. The 10 162 227 vaccine-eligible members of 8 participating US health plans were monitored with administrative data updated weekly and supplemented with medical record review for selected outcomes from December 14, 2020, through June 26, 2021. Exposures: Receipt of BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccination, with a risk interval of 21 days for individuals after vaccine dose 1 or 2 compared with an interval of 22 to 42 days for similar individuals after vaccine dose 1 or 2. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incidence of serious outcomes, including acute myocardial infarction, Bell palsy, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, myocarditis/pericarditis, pulmonary embolism, stroke, and thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome. Incidence of events that occurred among vaccine recipients 1 to 21 days after either dose 1 or 2 of a messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine was compared with that of vaccinated concurrent comparators who, on the same calendar day, had received their most recent dose 22 to 42 days earlier. Rate ratios (RRs) were estimated by Poisson regression, adjusted for age, sex, race and ethnicity, health plan, and calendar day. For a signal, a 1-sided P < .0048 was required to keep type I error below .05 during 2 years of weekly analyses. For 4 additional outcomes, including anaphylaxis, only descriptive analyses were conducted. Results: A total of 11 845 128 doses of mRNA vaccines (57% BNT162b2; 6 175 813 first doses and 5 669 315 second doses) were administered to 6.2 million individuals (mean age, 49 years; 54% female individuals). The incidence of events per 1 000 000 person-years during the risk vs comparison intervals for ischemic stroke was 1612 vs 1781 (RR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.87-1.08); for appendicitis, 1179 vs 1345 (RR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.73-0.93); and for acute myocardial infarction, 935 vs 1030 (RR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.89-1.18). No vaccine-outcome association met the prespecified requirement for a signal. Incidence of confirmed anaphylaxis was 4.8 (95% CI, 3.2-6.9) per million doses of BNT162b2 and 5.1 (95% CI, 3.3-7.6) per million doses of mRNA-1273. Conclusions and Relevance: In interim analyses of surveillance of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines, incidence of selected serious outcomes was not significantly higher 1 to 21 days postvaccination compared with 22 to 42 days postvaccination. While CIs were wide for many outcomes, surveillance is ongoing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anaphylaxis/epidemiology , Anaphylaxis/etiology , Child , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/etiology , Public Health Surveillance , Time Factors , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Young Adult
16.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 16(1): 159-165, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371828

ABSTRACT

Among approximately 4.6 million members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California, we examined associations of severe COVID-19 with demographic factors and comorbidities. As of July 23, 2021, 16 182 had been hospitalized, 2416 admitted to an ICU, and 1525 died due to COVID-19. Age was strongly associated with hospitalization, ICU admission, and death. Black persons and Hispanic ethnicity had higher risk of death compared with Whites. Among the comorbidities examined, Alzheimer's disease was associated with the highest risk for hospitalization (aHR 3.19, CI: 2.88-3.52) and death (aHR 4.04, CI: 3.32-4.91). Parkinson's disease had the second highest risk of death (aHR = 2.07, CI: 1.50-2.87).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Hospitalization , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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