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3.
iScience ; : 104886, 2022 Aug 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1977403

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 (B.1.1.529) variant has raised questions regarding resistance to neutralizing antibodies elicited by natural infection or immunization. We examined the neutralization activity of sera collected from previously SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals and SARS-CoV-2 naïve individuals who received BBIBP-CorV or CoronaVac to BA.1 and the earlier variants Alpha, Beta, and Delta. Both sera from convalescent patients over three months after infection and two-dose BBIBP-CorV or CoronaVac vaccine recipients barely inhibited BA.1, less effectively neutralized Beta and Delta, and moderately neutralized Alpha. However, administering a single dose of BBIBP-CorV or CoronaVac in previously infected individuals or a third dose booster vaccination of BBIBP-CorV or CoronaVac in previously vaccinated individuals enhances neutralizing activity against BA.1 and other variants, albeit with a lower antibody titer for BA.1. Our data suggest that a booster vaccination is important to broaden neutralizing antibody responses against the variants.

4.
Frontiers in pediatrics ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1970406

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently widely spread across the world. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) plays an important role in the overall treatment process. As a special group of population, the treatment outcome of children with COVID-19 has attracted much attention. Our study summarizes the current situation of TCM treatment of children with COVID-19. The results showed that TCM displayed a positive role in the treatment process, and that no significant adverse reactions were found. Our findings provide analytical evidence for the efficacy and safety of TCM participation in the treatment of COVID-19 in children.

6.
Harm Reduct J ; 19(1): 84, 2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962846

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Per the CDC, it is estimated that 69,710 opioid overdose deaths occurred in the United States from September 2019 to September 2020. However, it is unclear whether naloxone prescribing also increased or otherwise fluctuated in this time. The objective of this study was to characterize the naloxone prescribing rate in patients with opioid use disorder (OUD) at the University of Alabama at Birmingham Hospital in 2019 and 2020. METHODS: A cross-sectional, retrospective medical record review was performed on patients with OUD from January 2019 through December 2020. Naloxone prescribing, defined as either a written prescription or a provided take-home kit, was assessed for all patients with OUD. RESULTS: In 2019, 11,959 visits were made by 2962 unique patients with OUD, compared to 11,661 visits from 2,641 unique patients in 2020; 609 naloxone prescriptions were provided in 2019 (5.1%) and 619 in 2020 (5.3%). In both years, most OUD-related visits and naloxone prescriptions were from and to male, white, individuals. Compared with 2019, more naloxone prescriptions were given to uninsured patients in 2020 (33.2% vs 44.3%, p < 0.05), and more OUD patients were admitted to inpatient settings (26.0% vs 31.2%, p < 0.05) and received more naloxone prescriptions in the inpatient setting (46.3% vs 62.0%, p < 0.05) in 2020. The proportion of frequent users (i.e., visits ≥ 4 times/year) increased in 2020 for the emergency department (21.5% vs 26.4%, p < 0.001) and inpatient setting (24.9% vs 28.6%, p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate the need for improving naloxone awareness in providers and prescribing for patients with OUD, particularly in emergency department and outpatient settings. Our results also demonstrated a disparity in naloxone prescribing; a disproportionate number of opioid-related emergency department visits and overdose deaths were noted in Black people and frequent users.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Overdose , Opioid-Related Disorders , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Overdose/drug therapy , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Naloxone/therapeutic use , Narcotic Antagonists/therapeutic use , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Pandemics , Prescriptions , Retrospective Studies , United States
7.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22278439

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo define pregnancy episodes and estimate gestational aging within electronic health record (EHR) data from the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C). Materials and MethodsWe developed a comprehensive approach, named Hierarchy and rule-based pregnancy episode Inference integrated with Pregnancy Progression Signatures (HIPPS) and applied it to EHR data in the N3C from 1 January 2018 to 7 April 2022. HIPPS combines: 1) an extension of a previously published pregnancy episode algorithm, 2) a novel algorithm to detect gestational aging-specific signatures of a progressing pregnancy for further episode support, and 3) pregnancy start date inference. Clinicians performed validation of HIPPS on a subset of episodes. We then generated three types of pregnancy cohorts based on the level of precision for gestational aging and pregnancy outcomes for comparison of COVID-19 and other characteristics. ResultsWe identified 628,165 pregnant persons with 816,471 pregnancy episodes, of which 52.3% were live births, 24.4% were other outcomes (stillbirth, ectopic pregnancy, spontaneous abortions), and 23.3% had unknown outcomes. We were able to estimate start dates within one week of precision for 431,173 (52.8%) episodes. 66,019 (8.1%) episodes had incident COVID-19 during pregnancy. Across varying COVID-19 cohorts, patient characteristics were generally similar though pregnancy outcomes differed. DiscussionHIPPS provides support for pregnancy-related variables based on EHR data for researchers to define pregnancy cohorts. Our approach performed well based on clinician validation. ConclusionWe have developed a novel and robust approach for inferring pregnancy episodes and gestational aging that addresses data inconsistency and missingness in EHR data.

8.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270345, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951544

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The situation of the COVID-19 outbreak in the border areas of China and Vietnam is complex, and its progress may affect the willingness of urban and rural residents to receive the vaccine. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to understand the influence of the COVID-19 epidemic situation on the willingness of urban and rural residents in China-Vietnam border areas to get vaccinated and the factors that affect the vaccinations. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Hani-Yi Autonomous Prefecture of Honghe, a border area between China and Vietnam, using online and paper questionnaires from April 1 to June 4, 2021. A total of 8849 valid questionnaires were surveyed to compare the differences in the willingness of urban and rural residents to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. Single factor analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to explore the influence of the epidemic situation on the willingness to be vaccinated. RESULTS: In the border areas between China and Vietnam in Yunnan Province, both urban and rural residents had a high willingness (> 90%) to receive the COVID-19 vaccination, with a higher level of willingness in urban than in rural areas and a higher willingness among residents aged ≥ 56 years. Rural residents mainly concerned about the vaccination were different from urban residents (p< 0.05). About 54.8% of urban respondents and 59.2% of rural respondents indicated that their willingness to get COVID-19 vaccine would be affected by new COVID-19 cases. Respondents who were divorced, had an occupation other than farming, had contraindications to vaccination, were concerned about the safety of vaccines and worried about virus mutation, thought that the epidemic situation would not affect their willingness to get vaccinated (p< 0.05). CONCLUSION: The prevention and control of epidemics in border areas is of considerable importance. It is necessary to conduct targeted health education and vaccine knowledge popularization among urban and rural residents to increase the vaccination rate and consolidate the epidemic prevention and control at the border.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Vaccination , Vietnam/epidemiology
9.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 849222, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952369

ABSTRACT

Apha-1-adrenergic receptor antagonists (α1-blockers) can suppress pro-inflammatory cytokines, thereby potentially improving outcomes among patients with COVID-19. Accordingly, we evaluated the association between α1-blocker exposure (before or during hospitalization) and COVID-19 in-hospital mortality. We identified 2,627 men aged 45 or older who were admitted to Mount Sinai hospitals with COVID-19 between February 24 and May 31, 2020, in New York. Men exposed to α1-blockers (N = 436) were older (median age 73 vs. 64 years, P < 0.001) and more likely to have comorbidities than unexposed men (N = 2,191). Overall, 777 (29.6%) patients died in hospital, and 1,850 (70.4%) were discharged. Notably, we found that α1-blocker exposure was independently associated with improved in-hospital mortality in a multivariable logistic analysis (OR 0.699; 95% CI, 0.498-0.982; P = 0.039) after adjusting for patient demographics, comorbidities, and baseline vitals and labs. The protective effect of α1-blockers was stronger among patients with documented inpatient exposure to α1-blockers (OR 0.624; 95% CI 0.431-0.903; P = 0.012). Finally, age-stratified analyses suggested variable benefit from inpatient α1-blocker across age groups: Age 45-65 OR 0.483, 95% CI 0.216-1.081 (P = 0.077); Age 55-75 OR 0.535, 95% CI 0.323-0.885 (P = 0.015); Age 65-89 OR 0.727, 95% CI 0.484-1.092 (P = 0.124). Taken together, clinical trials to assess the therapeutic value of α1-blockers for COVID-19 complications are warranted.

10.
Med Biol Eng Comput ; 60(9): 2721-2736, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1935853

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has been spreading continuously since its outbreak, and the detection of its manifestations in the lung via chest computed tomography (CT) imaging is essential to investigate the diagnosis and prognosis of COVID-19 as an indispensable step. Automatic and accurate segmentation of infected lesions is highly required for fast and accurate diagnosis and further assessment of COVID-19 pneumonia. However, the two-dimensional methods generally neglect the intraslice context, while the three-dimensional methods usually have high GPU memory consumption and calculation cost. To address these limitations, we propose a two-stage hybrid UNet to automatically segment infected regions, which is evaluated on the multicenter data obtained from seven hospitals. Moreover, we train a 3D-ResNet for COVID-19 pneumonia screening. In segmentation tasks, the Dice coefficient reaches 97.23% for lung segmentation and 84.58% for lesion segmentation. In classification tasks, our model can identify COVID-19 pneumonia with an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve value of 0.92, an accuracy of 92.44%, a sensitivity of 93.94%, and a specificity of 92.45%. In comparison with other state-of-the-art methods, the proposed approach could be implemented as an efficient assisting tool for radiologists in COVID-19 diagnosis from CT images.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
11.
SAGE Open ; 12(3):21582440221109590, 2022.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1916887

ABSTRACT

Providing long-term career coaching or counseling has become an increasingly important part of university life as the coronavirus pandemic rapidly sweeps across the world. Career coaching has become one of the most important drivers of revenue and enrollment growth in nongovernmental schools. However, little research has been carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of these long-term career coaching or counseling services. Accordingly, this study aims to use a mixed method approach to track and measure students? satisfaction from private higher vocational colleges to identify opportunities for improving employment services. Students were asked how satisfied they were with employment services provided by this private vocational school. The results obtained lead us to suggest that private higher vocational colleges could strengthen the employability of graduates by providing a wide variety of enrichment activities and establishing a regular monitoring mechanism to evaluate perceptions of their engagement and educational experiences in the current coronavirus crisis.

12.
Nonlinear Dyn ; 101(3): 1981-1993, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906361

ABSTRACT

Due to the strong infectivity of COVID-19, it spread all over the world in about three months and thus has been studied from different aspects including its source of infection, pathological characteristics, diagnostic technology and treatment. Yet, the influences of control strategies on the transmission dynamics of COVID-19 are far from being well understood. In order to reveal the mechanisms of disease spread, we present dynamical models to show the propagation of COVID-19 in Wuhan. Based on mathematical analysis and data analysis, we systematically explore the effects of lockdown and medical resources on the COVID-19 transmission in Wuhan. It is found that the later lockdown is adopted by Wuhan, the fewer people will be infected in Wuhan, and nevertheless it will have an impact on other cities in China and even the world. Moreover, the richer the medical resources, the higher the peak of new infection, but the smaller the final scale. These findings well indicate that the control measures taken by the Chinese government are correct and timely.

13.
Sustainability ; 14(11):6688, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1892975

ABSTRACT

This paper focuses on the path of China’s participation in global value chain reconstruction and concludes three ways to reconstruct the global value chain: embedding in the global value chain, reconstructing the national value chain, and leading the regional value chain. Based on the value-added accounting system and the latest statistics of the TiVA database, we construct an index system for the path selection of global value chain reconstruction and put forward a more suitable path for different manufacturing industries in China. According to the VRCA index and ranking of each type of manufacturing industry, our study concludes that: transportation equipment manufacturing tends to embed in global value chains;textiles, clothing, leather, and related manufacturing;wood products, paper products, and printing;chemical and non-metallic mineral products;base metals and metal products;computer, electronic, and electrical equipment manufacturing;machinery and equipment manufacturing;and other manufacturing industries tend to dominate the regional value chains;and food and beverage manufacturing and tobacco industries tend to restructure national value chains. Finally, our paper gives suggestions and prospects for path upgrading;promoting the integrated development of e-commerce and the manufacturing industry can enhance the competitive advantages of China’s manufacturing industry and achieve path upgrading and optimization. Furthermore, the two-way nesting of the “Belt and Road” regional value chain and global value chain can help China’s manufacturing industry eliminate the dilemma of low-end lock-in and upgrade from the original low-end dependent embedding mode to the middle high-end hub embedding mode.

14.
J Med Virol ; 94(8): 3801-3810, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1888745

ABSTRACT

Influenza-like illness (ILI) varies in intensity year by year, generally keeping a stable pattern except for great changes of its epidemic pattern. Of the most impacting factors, urbanization has been suggested as shaping the intensity of influenza epidemics. Besides, growing evidence indicates the nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 offer great advantages in controlling infectious diseases. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of urbanization and NPIs on the dynamic of ILI in Tongzhou, Beijing, during January 2013 to March 2021. ILI epidemiological surveillance data in Tongzhou district were obtained from Beijing Influenza Surveillance Network and separated into three periods of urbanization and four intervals of coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Standardized average incidence rates of ILI in each separate stages were calculated and compared by using Wilson method and time series model of seasonal ARIMA. Influenza seasonal outbreaks showed similar epidemic size and intensity before urbanization during 2013-2016. Increased ILI activity was found during the process of Tongzhou's urbanization during 2017-2019, with the rate difference of 2.48 (95% confidence interva [CI]: 2.44, 2.52) and the rate ratio of 1.75 (95% CI: 1.74, 1.76) of ILI incidence between preurbanization and urbanization periods. ILI activity abruptly decreased from the beginning of 2020 and kept at the bottom level almost in every epidemic interval. The top decrease in ILI activity by NPIs was shown in 5-14 years group in 2020-2021 influenza season, as 92.2% (95% CI: 78.3%, 95.2%). The results indicated that both urbanization and NPIs interrupted the epidemic pattern of ILI. We should pay more attention to public health when facing increasing population density, human contact, population mobility, and migration in the process of urbanization. NPIs and influenza vaccination should be implemented as necessary measures to protect people from common infectious diseases like ILI.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Virus Diseases , Beijing/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics , Seasons , Urbanization , Virus Diseases/epidemiology
15.
JAMA Neurology ; 79(5):509-517, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1887968

ABSTRACT

Importance: Determining the long-term impact of COVID-19 on cognition is important to inform immediate steps in COVID-19 research and health policy. Objective: To investigate the 1-year trajectory of cognitive changes in older COVID-19 survivors. Design, setting, and participants: This cohort study recruited 3233 COVID-19 survivors 60 years and older who were discharged from 3 COVID-19-designated hospitals in Wuhan, China, from February 10 to April 10, 2020. Their uninfected spouses (N = 466) were recruited as a control population. Participants with preinfection cognitive impairment, a concomitant neurological disorder, or a family history of dementia were excluded, as well as those with severe cardiac, hepatic, or kidney disease or any kind of tumor. Follow-up monitoring cognitive functioning and decline took place at 6 and 12 months. A total of 1438 COVID-19 survivors and 438 control individuals were included in the final follow-up. COVID-19 was categorized as severe or nonsevere following the American Thoracic Society guidelines. Main outcomes and measures: The main outcome was change in cognition 1 year after patient discharge. Cognitive changes during the first and second 6-month follow-up periods were assessed using the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly and the Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status-40, respectively. Based on the cognitive changes observed during the 2 periods, cognitive trajectories were classified into 4 categories: stable cognition, early-onset cognitive decline, late-onset cognitive decline, and progressive cognitive decline. Multinomial and conditional logistical regression models were used to identify factors associated with risk of cognitive decline. Results: Among the 3233 COVID-19 survivors and 1317 uninfected spouses screened, 1438 participants who were treated for COVID-19 (691 male [48.05%] and 747 female [51.95%];median [IQR] age, 69 [66-74] years) and 438 uninfected control individuals (222 male [50.68%] and 216 female [49.32%];median [IQR] age, 67 [66-74] years) completed the 12-month follow-up. The incidence of cognitive impairment in survivors 12 months after discharge was 12.45%. Individuals with severe cases had lower Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status-40 scores than those with nonsevere cases and control individuals at 12 months (median [IQR]: severe, 22.50 [16.00-28.00];nonsevere, 30.00 [26.00-33.00];control, 31.00 [26.00-33.00]). Severe COVID-19 was associated with a higher risk of early-onset cognitive decline (odds ratio [OR], 4.87;95% CI, 3.30-7.20), late-onset cognitive decline (OR, 7.58;95% CI, 3.58-16.03), and progressive cognitive decline (OR, 19.00;95% CI, 9.14-39.51), while nonsevere COVID-19 was associated with a higher risk of early-onset cognitive decline (OR, 1.71;95% CI, 1.30-2.27) when adjusting for age, sex, education level, body mass index, and comorbidities. Conclusions and relevance: In this cohort study, COVID-19 survival was associated with an increase in risk of longitudinal cognitive decline, highlighting the importance of immediate measures to deal with this challenge. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

17.
Archives of Virology ; 165(3):703-707, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1877434

ABSTRACT

Using viral metagenomics, the complete genome sequence of an infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strain (named ahysx-1) from a fecal sample from a healthy chicken in Anhui province, China, was determined. The genome sequence of ahysx-1 was found to be very similar to that of IBV strain ck/CH/LLN/131040 (KX252787), except for the spike gene region, which is similar to that of a turkey coronavirus strain (EU022526), suggesting that ahysx-1 is a recombinant. Recombination analysis and phylogenetic analysis based on the genomic sequences of ahysx-1 and other related strains confirmed that ahysx-1 appears to be a recombinant resulting from a recombination event that occurred between a chicken coronavirus and a turkey coronavirus. Further studies need to be performed to determine whether this recombinant IBV strain is pathogenic and whether it is transmitted between chickens and turkeys.

19.
Chemosphere ; 303(Pt 2): 135013, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864545

ABSTRACT

A single particle aerosol mass spectrometer was deployed in a heavily polluted area of China during a coronavirus lockdown to explore the impact of reduced anthropogenic emissions on the chemical composition, size distributions, mixing state, and secondary formation of urban aerosols. Ten particle groups were identified using an adaptive resonance network algorithm. Increased atmospheric oxidation during the lockdown period (LP) resulted in a 42.2%-54% increase in the major NaK-SN particle fraction relative to the normal period (NP). In contrast, EC-aged particles decreased from 31.5% (NP) to 23.7% (LP), possibly due to lower emissions from motor vehicles and coal combustion. The peak particle size diameter increased from 440 nm during the NP to 500 nm during LP due to secondary particle formation. High proportions of mixed 62NO3- indicate extensive particle aging. Correlations between secondary organic (43C2H3O+, oxalate) and secondary inorganic species (62NO3-, 97HSO4- and 18NH4+) versus oxidants (Ox = O3 + NO2) and relative humidity (RH) indicate that increased atmospheric oxidation promoted the generation of secondary species, while the effects of RH were more complex. Differences between the NP and LP show that reductions in primary emissions had a remarkable impact on the aerosol particles. This study provides new insights into the effects of pollution emissions on atmospheric reactions and the specific aerosol types in urban regions.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Particulate Matter , Aerosols/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , China , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Particle Size , Particulate Matter/analysis
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